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Encyclopedia > Turin King List

The Turin King List also known as the Turin Royal Canon, is a unique papyrus, written in hieratic, currently in the Museo Egizio (Egyptian Museum) at Turin, to which it owes its modern name. The text dates to Ramesses II and mentions the names of all Egyptian rulers preceded by the register of gods that, as it was believed, ruled over Egypt before the Pharaonic era. Ţ For other uses, see Papyrus (disambiguation). ... Development of hieratic script from hieroglyphs; after Champollion. ... The Museo Egizio in Turin is home to what is regarded as the second largest collection of Egyptian antiquities in the world (the first being the Cairo Museum). ... Turin (Italian: ; Piedmontese: Türín) is a major industrial city in north-western Italy, capital of the Piedmont region, located mainly on the west bank of the Po River. ... nomen or birth name Ramesses II, Abu Simbel Ramesses II (also known as Ramesses the Great and alternatively transcribed as Ramses and Rameses) was an Egyptian pharaoh of the nineteenth dynasty. ...


It is broken into over 160, often very small, fragments, many of which have been lost. When it was discovered in Thebes by the Italian traveller Bernardino Drovetti in 1822, it seems to have been largely intact, but by the time the King of Sardinia donated it to the collection of the Museo Egizio, its condition had severely deteriorated. Thebes [Θηβαι Thēbai] is the Greek designation of ancient Egyptian niwt (The) City and niwt-rst (The) Southern City. It is located about 800 km south of the Mediterranean, on the east bank of the Nile (25. ... Bernardino Drovetti (1776-1852) was an Italian diplomat, explorer and antiquarian, best known as French consul to Egypt at a time when the country and its antiquities were being opened rapidly to European knowledge and acquisition. ...


The importance of this papyrus was first recognised by the French Egyptologist Jean-François Champollion, who, later followed by Gustavus Seyffarth, took up its reconstruction and restoration. Although they succeeded in placing most of the fragments in the correct order, the diligent intervention of these two men came too late and many pieces to this important papyrus still remain missing. Jean-François Champollion For the Champollion comet rendezvous spacecraft, see Champollion (spacecraft). ...


The papyrus, now 1.7m long and 0.41m high, comprises on the rear an unknown number of pages that hold a list of names of persons and institutions, along with what appears to be the tax-assessment of each.


It is, however, the front of the papyrus that has attracted the most attention, as it contains a list of gods, demi-gods, spirits, mythical and human kings who ruled Egypt from the beginning of time presumably until the composition of this valuable document.


The beginning and ending of the list are now lost, which means that we are missing both the introduction of the list -- if ever there was such an introduction -- and the enumeration of the kings following the 17th Dynasty. We therefore do not know for certain when, after the composition of the tax-list on the recto, an unknown scribe used the verso to write down this list of kings. This may have occurred during the reign of Ramesses II, but a date as late as the 20th Dynasty can not be excluded. The fact that the list was scribbled on the back of an older papyrus may indicate that it was of no great importance to the writer. Categories: Articles to be expanded ... nomen or birth name Ramesses II, Abu Simbel Ramesses II (also known as Ramesses the Great and alternatively transcribed as Ramses and Rameses) was an Egyptian pharaoh of the nineteenth dynasty. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Twentieth Dynasty. ...


We are also left in the dark as to what source or sources our scribe used to write down the list. Did he simply copy an already existing papyrus, or did the scribe, probably having access to the archives of the temples, compile the list himself, using ancient tax-notes, decrees and documents? The latter possibility seems the less likely and would imply that the Turin King List is indeed a unique document.


The papyrus gives the names of rulers, in some cases grouping them together and giving lengths of regency for some of these groups, which generally correspond to the dynasties of Manetho’s outline. Moreover, it shows in years, months and days the duration of ruling for individual kings. It also includes the names of ephemeral rulers or those ruling over small territories and, as such, are barely known nowadays, being usually unmentioned in other sources. The list includes the Hyksos rulers (often left out of other King Lists), although they were not given cartouches, and a hieroglyphic sign was added to indicate that they were foreigners. Manetho, also known as Manethon of Sebennytos, was an Egyptian historian and priest from Sebennytos who lived during the Ptolematic era, circa 3rd century BC. Manetho recorded Aegyptiaca (History of Egypt). ... The Hyksos (Egyptian heka khasewet meaning foreign rulers, Greek ) were an ethnically mixed group of Southwest Asiatic or Semitic people who appeared in the eastern Nile Delta during the Second Intermediate Period. ... A cartouche, in Egyptian hieroglyphs, is an oblong enclosure with a vertical line at one end, indicating that the text enclosed is a royal name, coming into use during the beginning of the Fourth Dynasty with pharao Sneferu. ...


Bibliography

  • Alan Gardiner, editor. Royal Canon of Turin. Griffith Institute, 1988. ISBN 0900416483
  • K.S.B Ryholt, The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period (Carsten Niebuhr Institute Publications, vol.20. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 1997) ISBN 87-7289-421-0

Sir Alan Henderson Gardiner (March 29, 1879 Eltham - December 19, 1963 Oxford) was one of the premier British Egyptologists of the early and mid-Twentieth century. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Ancient Egypt Site - Turin Kinglist (1648 words)
Often the current king, or one of his contemporaries, is seen in adoration before the cartouches or representations of the king’s "ancestors".
Such lists had a more cultic and political reason for being, for indeed they confirmed that the current king was the rightful heir of the kings that had ruled Egypt for many centuries.
For the kings of the first three dynasties, a name is written in a cartouche as well, despite the fact that cartouche-names were not used prior to the rule of the last king of the 3rd Dynasty, Huni.
Al-Ahram Weekly | Heritage | Turin's king list (829 words)
There are several other lists in existence that enumerate the predecessors of a king, such as the lists in the temples of Seti I and Ramses II at Abydos.
Although these lists are very valuable for the study of ancient Egyptian chronology, they are nothing more than an enumeration of some of the "ancestors" of the current king, represented as the good heir who pays respect to his long line of ancestors.
For the kings of the first three dynasties a name is also written in a cartouche, despite the fact that cartouche-names were not used prior to the rule of the last king of the Third Dynasty, Huni.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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