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Encyclopedia > Turfan
position in China
position in China
Street of Turfan
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Street of Turfan
View of the "Flaming mountains"
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View of the "Flaming mountains"
Emin minaret, Turfan
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Emin minaret, Turfan

Turfan (Uyghur: تۇرپان; Uyghur latin: Turpan; Modern Chinese 吐魯番, Pinyin: Tǔlǔfán; 42°59′N 89°11′E) is an oasis city in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China. Its population was 254,900 at the end of 2003. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (938x737, 35 KB) Description: position of Turpan in China Source: own work Date: December 2005 Author: --Immanuel Giel 09:39, 19 December 2005 (UTC) Other versions: none File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (938x737, 35 KB) Description: position of Turpan in China Source: own work Date: December 2005 Author: --Immanuel Giel 09:39, 19 December 2005 (UTC) Other versions: none File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 262 KB) Turpan 02/10/2005 es: Turfán (Uyghur: تۇرپان; Uyghur latin: Turpan; Modern Chinese 吐魯番, Pinyin: TÇ”lÇ”fán) es una ciudad-oasis en la Región Autónoma Uigur de Xinjiang en la República Popular China. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 262 KB) Turpan 02/10/2005 es: Turfán (Uyghur: تۇرپان; Uyghur latin: Turpan; Modern Chinese 吐魯番, Pinyin: TÇ”lÇ”fán) es una ciudad-oasis en la Región Autónoma Uigur de Xinjiang en la República Popular China. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 203 KB) Turpan 02/10/2005 es: Montañas en llamas o Montañas flamígeras. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 203 KB) Turpan 02/10/2005 es: Montañas en llamas o Montañas flamígeras. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 603 KB) Turpan 02/10/2005 es: El minarete Emin: fue construido en el año 1777. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 603 KB) Turpan 02/10/2005 es: El minarete Emin: fue construido en el año 1777. ... Uyghur (ئۇيغۇرچه UyurqÉ™, or ئۇيغۇر تىلى Uyur tili; Simplified Chinese: 维吾尔语; Traditional Chinese: 維吾爾語; Pinyin: WéiwúěryÇ”) is a Turkic language spoken by the Uyghur people in Xinjiang (also called East Turkestan or Uyghuristan), China. ... Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音; Traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音; Pinyin: HànyÇ” PÄ«nyÄ«n), also known as scheme of the Chinese phonetic alphabet (Simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音方案; Traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音方案; Pinyin: HànyÇ” PÄ«nyÄ«n fāngàn), while pin means spell(ing) and yin means sound(s)), is a system of romanization (phonemic notation... Oasis in the Libyan part of the Sahara In geography, an oasis is an isolated area of vegetation in a desert, typically surrounding a spring or similar water source. ... Xinjiang (Uyghur: (Shinjang); Chinese: æ–°ç–†; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsin1-chiang1; Postal Pinyin: Sinkiang), full name Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (Uyghur: شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى (Shinjang Uyghur Aptonom Rayoni); Simplified Chinese: 新疆维吾尔自治区; Traditional Chinese: 新疆維吾爾自治區; Pinyin: XÄ«njiāng Wéiwúěr ZìzhìqÅ«), is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China. ...

Contents


Administration

Turfan is a county-level city in Turfan Prefecture, in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China. A county-level city (县级市 Pinyin: xiànjí shì) is a county-level administrative division of mainland China. ... Turfan Prefecture (simplified Chinese: 吐鲁番地区; pinyin: Tulufán DìqÅ«; Uyghur: تۇرپان ۋىلايىتى) is located in eastern Xinjiang, China. ... Xinjiang (Uyghur: (Shinjang); Chinese: æ–°ç–†; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsin1-chiang1; Postal Pinyin: Sinkiang), full name Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (Uyghur: شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى (Shinjang Uyghur Aptonom Rayoni); Simplified Chinese: 新疆维吾尔自治区; Traditional Chinese: 新疆維吾爾自治區; Pinyin: XÄ«njiāng Wéiwúěr ZìzhìqÅ«), is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... An autonomous region, used in the context of China, translates for zizhiqu (自治区 z qū), which are province-level divisions with a designated ethnic minority, and are guaranteed more rights under the constitution than provinces. ...


Geography

Turfan is located about 150 km southeast of Ürümqi, Xinjiang's capital, in a mountain basin, on the northern side of the Turfan Depression. Ãœrümqi Ãœrümqi (Uyghur: ئۈرۈمچی; Uyghur Latin script: Ãœrümqi; Simplified Chinese: 乌鲁木齐; Traditional Chinese: 烏魯木齊; pinyin: ), with a population about 1. ... The Turfan Depression or Turpan Depression (Chinese: 吐魯番盆地; pinyin: ; Uighur: تۇرپان ئويمانلىغى, Turpan OymanliÄŸi) is a fault trough located in the Xinjiang Autonomous Region in far western China, about 150 kilometers southeast of the provincial capital Urumqi. ...


History

Turfan has long been the centre of a fertile oasis (with water provided by karez) and an important trade centre. It was historically located along the Silk Road's northern route, at which time it was adjacent to the kingdoms of Korla and Karashahr to the southwest. Turfan is the source of numerous fragments written in the Middle Iranian languages (Middle Persian, Parthian, Sogdian, Sakan and Bactrian) related to the Iranian religion of Manichaeism. Oasis in the Libyan part of the Sahara In geography, an oasis is an isolated area of vegetation in a desert, typically surrounding a spring or similar water source. ... Some 3,000 years ago the Persians learned how to dig underground aqueducts that would bring mountain ground water to the plains. ... The Silk Road in the 1st century CE. For other uses, see Silk Road (disambiguation). ... Location of Korla Korla (simplified Chinese: 库尔勒; traditional Chinese: 庫爾勒;pinyin: Kùěrlè) is a city south of Karashahr (Yanqi), and is the capital of the Bayinguoleng Mongolian Prefecture, the largest prefecture in China. ... Karasahr (Also Karashahr, meaning black city. Sanskrit Agnideśa. ... Pahlavi is a term that refers: (1) to a script used in Iran derived from the Aramaic script, and (2) more broadly, to Middle Persian, the Middle Iranian language written in this script. ... Reproduction of a Parthian warrior as depicted on Trajans Column The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Origins Bust of Parthian soldier, Esgh-abad Museum, Turkmenia. ... The Sogdians were an ancient people of Central Asia, who inhabited the region known to the West as Sogdiana. ... Many important ancient and modern religions and religious movements originated from Iran (Persia), such as: Zoroastrism (the first monotheistic religion of the world). ... Manichean priests, writing at their desk, with panel inscription in Sogdian. ...


Demography

According to the 2000 census, the city of Turfan had a population of 251,652 (population density 15.99 inh./km²). The breakdown by nationality was as follows: Ethnolinguistic map of China The Peoples Republic of China (PRC) is a multi-ethnic unitary state and, as such, officially recognizes 56 nationalities or mínzú (民族), within China: the Han being the majority (>92%), and the remaining 55 nationalities being the national minorities. ...

Nationality Inhabitants Percentage
Uyghur 177.106 70,38%
Han 55.238 21,95%
Hui 18.482 7,34%
Tujia 182 0,07%
Manchu 132 0,05%
Tu 98 0,04%
Mongol 77 0,03%
Tibetan 70 0,03%
Kazakh 56 0,02%
Miao 45 0,02%
Russian 33 0,01%
Zhuang 31 0,01%
Dongxiang 30 0,01%
Others 72 0,03%

The Uyghur (Uyghur: ئۇيغۇر; Uighur Simplified Chinese: 维吾尔; Traditional Chinese: 維吾爾; Pinyin: Wéiwúěr; Turkish: Uygur) are a Turkic people, forming one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. ... Han Chinese (Simplified Chinese: 汉族; Traditional Chinese: 漢族; Pinyin: hànzú) is a term which refers to the majority ethnic group within China and the largest single human ethnic group in the world. ... The Hui people (Chinese: 回族; Pinyin: ) are a Chinese ethnic group, typically distinguished by their practice of the Islamic religion. ... The Tujia (土家族) are an ethnic group numbering about 8 million, living in the Wuling Mountains of Chinas Hunan and Hubei provinces. ... The Manchu (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: 满族; Traditional Chinese: 滿族; Hanyu pinyin: ) are a Tungusic people who originated in Northeastern Asia, collectively known in English as Manchuria. ... The Tu (土) people are an ethnic group. ... The Mongols are an ethnic group that originated in what is now Mongolia, Russia, and China. ... Ethnolinguistic Groups of Tibet, 1967 ( See entire map, which includes a key) Ethnic Tibetan autonomous entities set up by the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazak or Qazaq), (in Kazakh: Қазақ []; in Russian: Казах; English term is the transliteration from Russian) are a Turkic people of the northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also found in parts of Russia and China). ... The Hmong, also known as Miao (considered derogatory by some: see below) (Chinese: è‹—; Pinyin: Miáo; Vietnamese: Mèo or HMông; Thai: แม้ว (Maew) or ม้ง (Mong); Burmese: mun lu-myo), Hmong: Hmoob, are an Asian ethnic group speaking the Hmong language, whose homeland is in the mountainous regions of... The Zhuang (Simplified Chinese: 壮族; Traditional Chinese: 壯族; Hanyu Pinyin: ; own name: BouчcueÅ‹ÑŒ/Bouxcuengh) are an ethnic group of people who mostly live in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in southern China. ... The Dongxiang people (own name: Sarta or Santa; Simplified Chinese: 东乡族 Traditional Chinese︰東鄉族; Pinyin: Dōngxiāngzú) are an ethnic group closely related to the Mongolians, who practice Islam. ...

See also

70 caves from the 5th until 9th century between the cities Turpan and Shanshan (Loulan) at the north-east of the Taklamakan desert in China. ... Turfan (Modern Chinese 吐魯番; pinyin: Tulufan, ancient Chinese Gaochang, also: Kao-chang, Turpan) is an oasis city in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... A Tarim Basin mummy photographed by Aurel Stein circa 1910. ...

References

  • Hill, John E. 2003. "Annotated Translation of the Chapter on the Western Regions according to the Hou Hanshu." 2nd Draft Edition. [1]
  • Hill, John E. 2004. The Peoples of the West from the Weilue 魏略 by Yu Huan 魚豢: A Third Century Chinese Account Composed between 239 and 265 CE. Draft annotated English translation. [2]
  • Hulsewé, A. F. P. and Loewe, M. A. N. 1979. China in Central Asia: The Early Stage 125 BC – AD 23: an annotated translation of chapters 61 and 96 of the History of the Former Han Dynasty. E. J. Brill, Leiden.
  • Puri, B. N. Buddhism in Central Asia, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited, Delhi, 1987. (2000 reprint).
  • Stein, Aurel M. 1912. Ruins of Desert Cathay: Personal narrative of explorations in Central Asia and westernmost China, 2 vols. Reprint: Delhi. Low Price Publications. 1990.
  • Stein, Aurel M. 1921. Serindia: Detailed report of explorations in Central Asia and westernmost China, 5 vols. London & Oxford. Clarendon Press. Reprint: Delhi. Motilal Banarsidass. 1980.[3]
  • Stein Aurel M. 1928. Innermost Asia: Detailed report of explorations in Central Asia, Kan-su and Eastern Iran, 5 vols. Clarendon Press. Reprint: New Delhi. Cosmo Publications. 1981.
  • Yu, Taishan. 2004. A History of the Relationships between the Western and Eastern Han, Wei, Jin, Northern and Southern Dynasties and the Western Regions. Sino-Platonic Papers No. 131 March, 2004. Dept. of East Asian Languages and Civilizations, University of Pennsylvania.

Sir Aurel Stein Sir Marc Aurel Stein, Stein Márk Aurél in Hungarian (26 November 1862 – 26 October 1943), born in Budapest, was a Hungarian Jewish archaeologist who became a British citizen. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... The University of Pennsylvania (Penn is the moniker used by the university itself [2]) is a private, nonsectarian research university located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Turfan
  • Silk Road Seattle (The Silk Road Seattle website contains many useful resources including a number of full-text historical works, maps, photos, etc.)


Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...

Prefecture-level divisions of Xinjiang
Prefecture-level cities: Karamay | Ürümqi
Prefectures: Aksu | Hami | Hotan | Kashgar | Turpan | Altay1 | Qoqek1
Autonomous prefectures: Bayin'gholin | Börtala | Changji | Ili | Kizilsu
Sub-prefecture-level cities: Alar | Shihezi | Tumushuke | Wujiaqu
1 Part of Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture
List of Xinjiang County-level divisions

  Results from FactBites:
 
Chinain 1997 (15 Turfan) (1084 words)
A large garrison was maintained by the Han in the fortified town of Gaochang (known as Kiu-che by the Han and as Kara Khoja by the Tang) 45 kms east of Turfan.
In 840, the Turkic Uighur tribes centered on the Orkhon river (south of Baikal), who had adopted Manicheism and had become somewhat civilized as consequence of their century old alliance with the Tang, were overcome by the more primitive Kyrgyz tribes from the upper Ienissei.
Climbing out of the Turfan depression we reach the cooler Bogda Shan Plateau where the Chinese settled in their city Urumqi which was the end of the road until the railway was extended in 1990 to join with the Almaty-Novosibirsk Turksib line at Aktogai in Kazakstan.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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