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Encyclopedia > Turbo Pascal
Turbo Pascal 3.0 manual front cover
Turbo Pascal 3.0 manual front cover

Turbo Pascal is a complete development system that includes a compiler and an Integrated Development Environment (IDE) for the Pascal programming language running mainly on MS-DOS, developed by Borland under Philippe Kahn's leadership. The name Borland Pascal was generally reserved for the high end packages (with more libraries and standard library source code) while the original cheap and widely known version was sold as Turbo Pascal. The name Borland Pascal is also used more generically for Borland's dialect of Pascal. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 384 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (520 × 812 pixel, file size: 83 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This image is of a book cover, and the copyright for it is most likely owned either by the artist who created the cover or the... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 384 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (520 × 812 pixel, file size: 83 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This image is of a book cover, and the copyright for it is most likely owned either by the artist who created the cover or the... A diagram of the operation of a typical multi-language, multi-target compiler. ... An integrated development environment (IDE), also known as integrated design environment and integrated debugging environment, is a programming environment that has been packaged as an application program,that assists computer programmers in developing software. ... Pascal is an imperative computer programming language, developed in 1970 by Niklaus Wirth as a language particularly suitable for structured programming. ... Microsofts disk operating system, MS-DOS, was Microsofts implementation of DOS, which was the first popular operating system for the IBM PC, and until recently, was widely used on the PC compatible platform. ... Borland Software Corporation is a software company headquartered in Austin, Texas. ... Philippe Kahn Philippe Kahn Working on the first camera-phones Philippe Kahn (born March 16, 1952)[1] is an American technology innovator and entrepreneur, French-born, known as the founder of Borland, a producer of software development tools for as well as Starfish Software, the creator of the first wireless...


Borland has released three versions of Turbo Pascal for free: versions 1.0, 3.02 and 5.5.

Contents

Motivation for Turbo Pascal

Philippe Kahn first saw an opportunity for Borland, his newly formed software company, in the field of programming tools. Historically, the vast majority of programmers saw their work flow in terms of the edit/compile/link cycle, with separate tools dedicated to each task. Programmers wrote code in a text editor, a compiler created object code from source (often requiring multiple passes), and a linker combined object code with runtime libraries to produce an executable program. This cycle was the result of limited computer power and small amounts of memory. Philippe Kahn Philippe Kahn Working on the first camera-phones Philippe Kahn (born March 16, 1952)[1] is an American technology innovator and entrepreneur, French-born, known as the founder of Borland, a producer of software development tools for as well as Starfish Software, the creator of the first wireless... Borland Software Corporation is a software company headquartered in Austin, Texas. ...


In the IBM PC market of the early 1980s, the major programmer tool vendors included IBM, Microsoft, and Lattice. They all made C compilers (and some made Pascal compilers), which all worked in a similar fashion. For example, the Microsoft Pascal system consisted of two compiler passes and a final linking pass (which could take minutes on systems with only floppy disks for secondary storage). This process was the cumbersome product of the extremely limited resources of the early IBM PC models. Vendors of software development tools aimed their products at professional developers, and the price for these basic tools plus ancillary tools like profilers ran into the hundreds of dollars. For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Microsoft Pascal was an implementation of the Pascal programming language that was developed by the Microsoft Corporation for compiling programs for running on its MS-DOS operating system and, in later versions, on OS/2 (like many other Microsoft programming tools) (albeit they were only capable of generating 16-bit... In computer programming, a profiler is a computer program that can track the performance of another program by checking information collected while the code is executed . ...


Kahn's idea was to integrate these separate functions in a programming toolkit, have it run with much better performance, and charge one low price for it all. Instead of selling the kit through established sales channels (retailers or resellers), his new tool would be sold inexpensively via mail-order. Turbo Pascal is generally considered to be the first popular Integrated Development Environment (IDE) of any type. An integrated development environment (IDE), also known as integrated design environment and integrated debugging environment, is a programming environment that has been packaged as an application program,that assists computer programmers in developing software. ...


As an additional selling point against the bigger vendors, Turbo Pascal disks came with no copy protection of any sort. Turbo Pascal came with the famous "Book License": "You must treat this software just like a book ... may be used by any number of people ... may be freely moved from one computer location to another". Since the first versions didn't have online help, copy protection was effectively enforced by possession of the Turbo Pascal reference manual (pictured above). Copy prevention, also known as copy protection, is any technical measure designed to prevent duplication of information. ...


Version history

The Turbo Pascal compiler is based on the Blue Label Pascal compiler originally produced for the NasSys cassette-based operating system of the Nascom microcomputer in 1981 by Anders Hejlsberg. This was first rewritten as the Compas Pascal compiler for the CP/M operating system and then as the Turbo Pascal compiler for DOS and CP/M. A version of Turbo Pascal was available for the Apple Macintosh from about 1986 but was eventually discontinued around 1992. Another version was available for the DEC Rainbow through several releases. The Lucas Nascom 1 and 2 were single-board computer kits issued in 1977 and 1979, respectively, based on the Zilog Z80 and including a keyboard and video interface, as well as a serial port that could be used for storing data on a tape cassette using the Kansas City... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Anders Hejlsberg (born December 1960[1]) is a prominent Danish software engineer who co-designed several popular and commercially successful programming languages and development tools. ... CP/M is an operating system originally created for Intel 8080/85 based microcomputers by Gary Kildall of Digital Research, Inc. ... The first Macintosh computer, introduced in 1984, upgraded to a 512K Fat Mac. The Macintosh or Mac, is a line of personal computers designed, developed, manufactured, and marketed by Apple Computer. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... The Rainbow 100 was a microcomputer introduced by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) in 1982 and manufactured at the Digital Westfield Massachusetts facility to compete in the IBM PC market. ...


Version 1.0

Debugging a program using the Turbo Pascal 6.0 IDE

See also Antique Software: Turbo Pascal v1.0. Borland licensed the PolyPascal compiler core, written by Anders Hejlsberg (Poly Data was the name of his company in Denmark), and added the user interface and editor. Anders joined the company as an employee and was the architect for all versions of the Turbo Pascal compiler and the first three versions of Borland Delphi. Image File history File links This is a screenshot of a copyrighted website, video game graphic, computer program graphic, television broadcast, or film. ... Image File history File links This is a screenshot of a copyrighted website, video game graphic, computer program graphic, television broadcast, or film. ... Anders Hejlsberg (born December 1960[1]) is a prominent Danish software engineer who co-designed several popular and commercially successful programming languages and development tools. ... Delphi has been released in many versions, including older versions which have been released in magazines for non-profit application use For the language Borland Delphi is programmed in, see Object Pascal. ...


Turbo Pascal 1.0 was very fast compared to other microcomputer Pascal compilers. Turbo Pascal 1.0 was not only fast but also compact - the compiler was a single COM file, about 38 kilobytes long. This file included the editor, compiler, linker, and all of the library routines. The edit/compile/run cycle was so fast, compared to other Pascal implementations, because everything related to building the program was stored in RAM. Writing a built program to disk was an additional menu option. (The compactness of Turbo Pascal also came from the fact that it supported only COM files, not EXE files. Version 4.0 in 1987 was the first to generate the native EXE files of the IBM PC.)


When the first version of Turbo Pascal appeared on November 20, 1983, the type of IDE it used was relatively new. On its debut in the American market, Turbo Pascal retailed for USD$49.99. The integrated Pascal compiler also was of very good quality compared to other Pascal products of the time and was affordable above all. The "Turbo" name alluded to its compilation speed as well as the speed of the executables it produced. The speed of these "com" executable files was a revelation for developers whose only previous experience programming the PC was with Microsoft's BASIC. is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... USD redirects here. ... Air foil bearing-supported turbocharger cutaway made by Mohawk Innovative Technology Inc. ... In MS-DOS and compatible DOSes, and in 8-bit CP/M, a COM file is a simple type of executable file. ...


The IDE was incredible for its day, a day of extremely limited resources for the typical IBM PC. It was simple and intuitive, and it had a menu system that was well organized. Early versions used the WordStar control key layout, which was the de facto standard because of WordStar's wide use. Later versions of the IDE, designed for later PCs with more disk space and memory, had the ability to instantly look up the definitions of the keywords of the language just by putting the cursor over a keyword and hitting the help button. The definitions also frequently included example code that used the keyword. This enabled the inexperienced programmer to learn Pascal simply by using the IDE, without actually requiring help from a book. WordStar was a word processor application, published by MicroPro, originally written for the CP/M operating system but later ported to DOS, that enjoyed a dominant market share during the early to mid-1980s. ...


Later versions

Turbo Pascal 4.0 (1987) startup screen.
Turbo Pascal 4.0 (1987) startup screen.

Beginning with version 4.0, released in 1987, the compiler could generate executables in native EXE format under MS-DOS. (Previous versions could generate only COM files.) This version also introduced the first full-screen user interface with pull-down menus. Prior to 4.0, the product had a text-based menu screen and a separate full-screen editor. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 417 pixelsFull resolution (960 × 500 pixel, file size: 163 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Turbo Pascal 4. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 417 pixelsFull resolution (960 × 500 pixel, file size: 163 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Turbo Pascal 4. ...


Version 5.x introduced the familiar Borland blue screen, which would be the trademark of the company's MS-DOS compiler tools until the end of this line in the middle 1990s.


Later versions had the ability to easily integrate assembly language within Pascal. The addition of in-line assembly was desirable because assembly provides the lowest human-readable interface to the machine, and allowed a talented assembly programmer to replace the built-in Pascal functions with code that was smaller or faster (or both). The user could single step through a program quite easily, and when they got to an assembler block, they could single step through that too. The user could add watches on variables and registers in an IDE window. Programs using IBM PC graphics mode could flip between graphics and text mode automatically or manually. See the terminology section, below, regarding inconsistent use of the terms assembly and assembler. ... A watch is a real-time preview of a variable or an expressions value. ... IBM PC compatible computers are those generally similar to the original IBM PC, XT, and AT. Such computers used to be referred to as PC clones, or IBM clones since they almost exactly duplicated all the significant features of the PC, XT, or AT internal design, facilitated by various manufacturers...


On top of all of the previous features, the IDE included a code profiler that could report on which parts of the program were using the most time. The books included with Borland Pascal had detailed descriptions of the Intel assembler language, going so far as to provide the clock cycles required of each instruction. Overall this system, as a whole, made for a relatively pleasant experience when trying to optimize code; the user never had to leave the IDE. This all worked 'out of the box' and was put together so simply that a high school student could use it. Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... For other uses, see High school (disambiguation). ...


Units

Over the years, Borland enhanced not only the IDE, but also the programming language. Borland's dialect of Pascal became a de facto industry standard (and is still implemented by modern variants like Free Pascal), since ISO standard Pascal proved inadequate for real-world application development. The FreePascal IDE for Linux. ... Pascal is an imperative computer programming language, developed in 1970 by Niklaus Wirth as a language particularly suitable for structured programming. ...


From version 4.0, the language introduced the concept of Units. Units were used as external function libraries, like the object files used in other languages such as C, but a little more high level (the programmer was able to define what will be visible outside the unit and what not).


Units in Borland's Pascal were similar to Modula-2's separate compilation system. In 1987 when Turbo Pascal 4.0 came out, Modula-2 was making inroads as an educational language which could replace Pascal. Borland, in fact, had a Turbo Modula-2 compiler, but this product ran only on CP/M and was never ported to MS-DOS (its user interface was almost identical to that of Turbo Pascal 3.x and earlier). Instead of porting their Modula-2 compiler to MS-DOS, Borland elected to implement separate compilation in their popular Pascal product. Separate compilation was not part of the standard Pascal language, but was already available in UCSD Pascal, which was very popular on 8-bit machines. Turbo Pascal syntax for units appears to have been borrowed from UCSD Pascal[1]. With earlier versions of Turbo Pascal, which ran on primitive PCs, the complexity of software written with the package did not demand it; but with the new ability to generate EXE files, programs of significant complexity were now possible which needed separate compilation. Modula-2 is a computer programming language invented by Niklaus Wirth at ETH around 1978, as a successor to Modula, an intermediate language by him. ... UCSD Pascal was a specific implementation of the programming language Pascal which used the p-Code machine architecture. ...


Object oriented programming

From version 5.5 onwards some object oriented programming features were introduced - classes (confusingly called "objects"), inheritance, and constructors and destructors. The IDE was already augmented with an object browser interface showing relations between objects and methods and allowing the programmer to navigate the modules easily. Some people call these extensions Object Pascal although that is more commonly used as a name for the language underlying Delphi (which has two totally separate OOP systems). Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a computer programming paradigm in which a software system is modeled as a set of objects that interact with each other. ... Object Pascal is an object oriented derivative of Pascal mostly known as the primary programming language of Borland Delphi. ... Delphi is the primary programming language of Borland Delphi. ...


Turbo Pascal 7 and Borland Pascal 7

The last version released was version 7. Borland Pascal 7 contained an IDE and compilers for creating DOS, extended DOS and Windows 3.x programs. Turbo Pascal 7 on the other hand could only create standard DOS programs. It also had a graphical API (the Graph unit) which supported multiple external drivers (BGI files - standing for Borland's Graphics Interface) and provided a mechanism to link these drivers with the EXE, but as it was quite slow and caused unpleasant flickering, interchangeable visual pages were used, which caused overfilling the video memory. Some third party drivers, such as SVGA drivers, were made by fans, but they never gained big popularity, since next-generation tools like Borland C++ and Delphi were on their way at that time. DOS extender is the name invented in the 1980s for a technology to allow programs started from MS-DOS, which ran in Real mode, to actually run in protected mode. ... The Windows 3. ... This article is about the family of closely related operating systems for the IBM PC compatible platform. ... API and Api redirect here. ... The Borland Graphics Interface, also known as BGI, is a graphics library bundled with several Borland compilers for the DOS operating systems. ... VRAM an acronym for Video RAM. Generally a term used in computers to describe RAM dedicated to the purpose of displaying bitmap graphics in raster graphics hardware. ... Super Video Graphics Array, almost always abbreviated to Super VGA or just SVGA is a broad term that covers a wide range of computer display standards. ... Borland C++ is an C and C++ programming environment (used to be called an Integrated Development Environment) for DOS, Windows, and Windows NT. Although it can be used to program DOS applications, it does not include a stand alone DOS IDE. DOS applications must be edited, browsed, and compiled from... Delphi has been released in many versions, including older versions which have been released in magazines for non-profit application use For the language Borland Delphi is programmed in, see Object Pascal. ...


Windows versions

Two versions of Turbo Pascal for Windows 3.x were released: Turbo Pascal for Windows 1.0 (based on Turbo Pascal 6 but released about 2 years later), and 1.5 (released after Turbo Pascal 7). The Windows compiler included in Borland Pascal 7 was entitled Borland Pascal for Windows' but presumably was from the same code base as TPW 1.5. The Windows 3. ...


All versions built Windows-compatible programs, and featured a Windows-based IDE, as opposed to the traditional DOS-based IDE in Turbo Pascal. The IDE and editor commands conformed with Microsoft Windows user interface guidelines, instead of the classic TP user interface. The support for Windows programs required the use of the ObjectWindows library, similar but different from (the first release of) the Borland C++ sister, radically different from the DOS Turbo Vision environment, and was launched quite late (1992), so it never achieved wide popularity, and was later eclipsed by Delphi. This article is about the family of closely related operating systems for the IBM PC compatible platform. ... The Object Windows Library (OWL) is a Borland C++ object-oriented framework originally designed for WinAPI. It was used in Turbo Pascal for Windows, Borland Pascal and their Borland C++ package. ... Borland C++ is an C and C++ programming environment (used to be called an Integrated Development Environment) for DOS, Windows, and Windows NT. Although it can be used to program DOS applications, it does not include a stand alone DOS IDE. DOS applications must be edited, browsed, and compiled from... The Turbo Vision user interface used in the Turbo Pascal 6. ... Delphi has been released in many versions, including older versions which have been released in magazines for non-profit application use For the language Borland Delphi is programmed in, see Object Pascal. ...


Mac version

Borland released Turbo Pascal for Macintosh in 1985. Much like the PC version, it was written in very tight assembly language and had a very powerful IDE, but not a good debugger. Borland did not support this product very well. They did issue a version 1.1, patched to run on the 32-bit clean Macintosh II. The product was dropped not long after.


Successors

By 1995, Borland had dropped Turbo Pascal and replaced it with the RAD environment Delphi, which included the language Object Pascal. Native 32-bit Delphi versions still support the more portable Pascal enhancements (i.e. those that are not 16-bit centric) of the earlier products including the earlier static object model. Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... Rapid application development (RAD), is a software development process developed initially by James Martin in the 1980s. ... Delphi has been released in many versions, including older versions which have been released in magazines for non-profit application use For the language Borland Delphi is programmed in, see Object Pascal. ...


Several Turbo Pascal compatibles also exist. The best-known ones are Free Pascal and Virtual Pascal. The FreePascal IDE for Linux. ... Virtual Pascal is a free 32-bit Pascal compiler, IDE and debugger for OS/2 and Microsoft Windows, with some limited Linux support. ...


Legacy

Borland Pascal is still taught at secondary, sixth form level and University level in the island of Malta and at other colleges in Germany and the USA, and was the state-approved educational programming language for all South African secondary schools until 2002. Today it continues to be taught in some universities around the world as an introduction to computer programming, usually continuing on with C and/or Java. Some lecturers prefer to use Borland Pascal 7 or Turbo Pascal 5.5 as it is very simple (in comparison to more modern IDEs like Microsoft Visual Studio or Borland JBuilder), introduces students less familiar with computing to using the keyboard and keyboard shortcuts (TP 5.5 has no mouse support), familiarises students with DOS commands (which are largely the same as Windows NT's Command Prompt) and it is now available for free download so students willing to program on their own PCs can do so freely without possible legal complications. C is a general-purpose, block structured, procedural, imperative computer programming language developed in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie at the Bell Telephone Laboratories for use with the Unix operating system. ... “Java language” redirects here. ... Microsoft Visual Studio is Microsofts flagship software development product for computer programmers. ... A keyboard shortcut (also known as an accelerator key, shortcut key, or hotkey) is a set of keyboard keys that when pressed simultaneously, perform a predefined task. ... This article is about the family of closely related operating systems for the IBM PC compatible platform. ... Windows NT (New Technology) is a family of operating systems produced by Microsoft, the first version of which was released in July 1993. ...


Some argue that it is not worth the time to teach a very deprecated language that may be easier to initially learn than others, as it is inevitable that more contemporary languages will have to be taught afterwards. Others comment that since it is just as inevitable that evolving language standards and changing language fashions will require every programmer to absorb large amounts of new material on a regular basis, it is just as well to start with a well-structured, easily comprehended language that provides a solid foundation for future learning. After all the language is still developing and evolving - eg in new compilers, new versions for .NET such as Chrome, etc.


The CRT issue

The CRT unit of Turbo Pascal 7.0 (used by many fullscreen text mode applications) contains code in its initialisation section to determine the CPU speed for calibration of delay loops. Unfortuately this code fails to work properly on processors with a speed greater than about 200 MHz and quits with a Runtime error 200 because it uses 16-bit DIV, the result of which doesn't fit into a 16-bit integer. The issue can be fixed either by patching the executable file or using a Terminate and Stay Resident program loaded before the problem executable (see link below). MegaHertz (MHz) is the name given to one million (106) Hertz, a measure of frequency. ... Terminate and Stay Resident (TSR) is a system call in DOS operating systems that returned control to the system as if the program had quit, but kept the program in memory. ...


Graphic

Turbo Pascal uses Borland Graphics Interface. The Borland Graphics Interface, also known as BGI, is a graphics library bundled with several Borland compilers for the DOS operating systems. ...


Sample Code

Notes:

  • Historically, Pascal comments are indicated { like this }, or (* like this *), but later versions of Borland Pascal also supported C++-style comments // like this.
  • The line uses crt; is a Borland specific extension to Pascal.
  • Borland's Pascal is not case sensitive.

Samples:

  • This simple program prints the words "Hello World" on the screen.
 BEGIN WriteLn('Hello World'); END. 
  • This asks for a person's name and prints it on the screen.
 program WriteName; VAR Name:string; { This declares the variable Name as a string } BEGIN Write('Please give your name: '); Readln(Name); { Readln reads the string printed on the screen } WriteLn('Hello ', Name) END. 

See also

The FreePascal IDE for Linux. ... Virtual Pascal is a free 32-bit Pascal compiler, IDE and debugger for OS/2 and Microsoft Windows, with some limited Linux support. ... Pascal is an imperative computer programming language, developed in 1970 by Niklaus Wirth as a language particularly suitable for structured programming. ... Delphi is the primary programming language of Borland Delphi. ... The Borland Graphics Interface, also known as BGI, is a graphics library bundled with several Borland compilers for the DOS operating systems. ...

External links

Newsgroups

  • comp.lang.pascal.borland

  Results from FactBites:
 
Turbo Pascal - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1258 words)
Turbo Pascal was based on the Blue Label Pascal compiler originally produced for the NasSys cassette-based operating system of the Nascom microcomputer in 1981 by Anders Hejlsberg.
This was first rewritten as the Compass Pascal compiler for the CP/M operating system and then as the Turbo Pascal compiler for DOS and CP/M. A version of Turbo Pascal was available for the Apple Macintosh from about 1986 but was eventually discontinued around 1992.
When the first version of Turbo Pascal appeared on November 20, 1983, the type of IDE it used was relatively new.
Pascal programming language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2757 words)
Pascal is based on the ALGOL programming language and named in honor of mathematician and philosopher Blaise Pascal.
Turbo Pascal was the dominant Pascal compiler for PCs during the 80s and early 90s, popular both because of its powerful extensions and extremely low compilation times.
Pascal and C: A comparison of Pascal and C. IP Pascal: A fully extended Pascal with built in graphical porting platform.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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