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Encyclopedia > Turbo
Air foil bearing-supported turbocharger cutaway made by Mohawk Innovative Technology Inc.
Air foil bearing-supported turbocharger cutaway made by Mohawk Innovative Technology Inc.

A turbocharger is an exhaust gas-driven compressor used to increase the power output of an internal-combustion engine by compressing air that is entering the engine thus increasing the amount of available oxygen. A key advantage of turbochargers is that they offer a considerable increase in engine power with only a slight increase in weight. Download high resolution version (1024x785, 77 KB)Turbocharger cutaway. ... Download high resolution version (1024x785, 77 KB)Turbocharger cutaway. ... Foil Bearing Foil bearings are a type of hydrodynamic bearing. ... A gas compressor is a mechanical device that increases the pressure of a gas by reducing its volume. ... An internal combustion engine is an engine that is powered by the expansion of hot combustion products of fuel directly acting within an engine. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series Nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Atomic mass 15. ...

Contents

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Principle of operation

A turbocharger is a dynamic compressor, in which air or gas is compressed by the mechanical action of impellers, vaned rotors which are spun using the kinetic movement of air, imparting velocity and pressure to the flowing medium. A gas compressor is a mechanical device that increases the pressure of a gas by reducing its volume. ... An impeller is a rotor inside a tube or conduit to increase the pressure and flow of a fluid. ... R0t0r is from efnet ... The velocity of an object is simply its speed in a particular direction. ... The use of water pressure - the Captain Cook Memorial Jet in Lake Burley Griffin, Canberra. ...


The mechanical concept turbocharger revolves around three main parts. A turbine is driven by the exhaust gas from a pump, most often an internal combustion engine, to spin an impeller whose function is to force more air into the pump's intake, or air supply. The third basic part is a center hub rotating assembly (CHRA) which contains bearing, lubrication, cooling, and a shaft that directly connects the turbine and impeller. The shaft, bearing, impeller, and turbine can rotate at speeds in the tens or hundreds of thousands of RPM (revolutions per minute). WWII era steam turbine used for ship propulsion. ... An electrically-driven waterworks pump near the Hengsteysee, Germany. ... A colorized automobile engine The internal combustion engine is a heat engine in which the burning of a fuel occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ... An impeller is a rotor inside a tube or conduit to increase the pressure and flow of a fluid. ... A bearing is a component used to reduce friction in a machine. ... Lubrication occurs when opposing surfaces are completely separated by a lubricant film. ... Revolutions per minute (abbreviated rpm, RPM, r/min, or min-1) is a unit of frequency, commonly used to measure rotational speed, in particular in the case of rotation around a fixed axis. ...


The lubrication system can be either a closed system or be fed from the engine's oil supply. The lubrication system may double as the cooling system, or separate coolant may be pumped through the center housing from an outside source. Oil lubrication and water cooling using engine oil and engine coolant are commonplace in automotive applications.

A Pair of turbochargers mounted to an Inline 6 engine in a dragster.
A Pair of turbochargers mounted to an Inline 6 engine in a dragster.

The turbine and impeller are each contained within their own folded conical housing on opposite sides of the center hub rotating assembly. These housings collect and direct the gas flow. The size and shape can dictate some performance characteristics of the overall turbocharger. The area of the cone to radius from center hub is expressed as a ratio (AR, A/R, or A:R). Often the same basic turbocharger assembly will be available from the manufacturer with multiple AR choices for the turbine housing and sometimes the compressor cover as well. This allows the designer of the engine system to tailor the compromises between performance, response, and efficiency to application or preference. Both housings resemble snail shells, and thus turbochargers are sometimes referred to in slang as snails. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 179 KB) Summary A pair of turbochargers mounted to a Toyota Inline 6 in a dragster. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 179 KB) Summary A pair of turbochargers mounted to a Toyota Inline 6 in a dragster. ... The straight-6 (also inline 6, I-6, or I6) is an internal combustion engine with six cylinders aligned in a single row. ... Drag racing is a form of auto racing in which cars attempt to complete a fairly short, straight and level course in the shortest amount of time. ... WWII era steam turbine used for ship propulsion. ... An impeller is a rotor inside a tube or conduit to increase the pressure and flow of a fluid. ... The name snail applies to most members of the molluscan class Gastropoda that have coiled shells. ... Slang is the use of highly informal words and expressions that are not considered standard in the speakers dialect or language. ...


By spinning at a relatively high speed the compressor turbine draws in a large volume of air and forces it into the engine. As the turbocharger's output flow volume exceeds the engine's volumetric flow, air pressure in the intake system begins to build, often called boost. The speed at which the assembly spins is proportional to the pressure of the compressed air and total mass of air flow being moved. Since a turbo will spin to RPMs far beyond what is needed or of what it is mechanically capable of, the speed must be controlled, and thus is also the property used to set the desired compression pressure. A wastegate is the most common mechanical control system and is often further augmented by an electronic boost controller. The manifold absolute pressure (MAP) sensor is an important sensor in modern internal combustion engines that use fuel injection. ... An intake is an air intake for an engine. ... Boost in automotive engineering is a positive manifold pressure in cars with turbochargers or superchargers. ... A wastegate is a valve that diverts exhaust gases away from the turbine wheel in a turbocharger. ... A boost controller is a device in a turbocharged or supercharged car that regulates boost pressure. ...


The implementation of a turbocharger is to improve upon the size to output efficiency of an engine by solving for one of its cardinal limitations. A naturally aspirated automobile engine uses only the downward stroke of a piston to create an area of low pressure in order to draw air into the cylinder. Since the number of air and fuel molecules determine the potential energy available to force the piston down on the combustion stroke, and because of the relatively constant pressure of the atmosphere, there ultimately will be a limit to the amount of air and consequently fuel filling the combustion chamber. This ability to fill the cylinder with air is its volumetric efficiency. Since the turbocharger increases the pressure at the point where air is entering the cylinder, and the amount of air brought into the cylinder is largely a function of time and pressure, more air will be drawn in as the pressure increases. The intake pressure, in the absence of the turbocharger determined by the atmosphere, can be controllably increased with the turbocharger. A naturally-aspirated engine (NA - aspiration meaning breathing) refers to an internal combustion engine (normally petrol or diesel powered) that is neither turbocharged nor supercharged. ... A combustion chamber is part of an engine in which fuel is burned. ... Volumetric efficiency in internal combustion engine design refers to the efficiency with which the engine can move the charge into and out of the cylinders. ...


The application of a compressor to increase pressure at the point of cylinder air intake is often referred to as forced induction. Centrifugal superchargers operate in the same fashion as a turbo; however, the energy to spin the compressor is taken from the rotating output energy of the engine's crankshaft as opposed to exhaust gas. For this reason turbochargers are ideally more efficient, since their turbines are actually heat engines, converting some of the heat energy from the exhaust gas that would otherwise be wasted, into useful work. Superchargers use output energy to achieve a net gain, which is at the expense of some of the engine's total output. Forced induction is a term used to describe internal combustion engines that are not naturally aspirated. ... Cover of Hot Rod magazine showing Ford Flathead V8 engine with centrifugal supercharger (on top) The centrifugal type supercharger is practically identical in operation to a turbocharger, with the exception that instead of exhaust gases driving an impeller, there is only a compressor housing, and that is driven from the...

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Fuel efficiency

Since a turbocharger increases the specific horsepower output of an engine, the engine will also produce increased amounts of waste heat. This can sometimes be a problem when fitting a turbocharger to a car that was not designed to cope with high heat loads. This extra waste heat combined with the lower compression ratio (more specifically, expansion ratio) of turbocharged engines contributes to slightly lower thermal efficiency, which has a small but direct impact on overall fuel efficiency. The horsepower (hp) is the name of several non-metric units of power. ... Waste heat is the by-product heat of machines and technical processes for which no useful application is found. ... The compression ratio is a single number that can be used to predict the performance of any engine (such as an internal-combustion engine or a Stirling Engine). ... The thermal efficiency of a heat engine is the efficiency in which the chemical energy of a fuel is turned into useful work, though it is also used as a synonym for thermodynamic efficiency. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Fuel economy in automobiles. ...


It is another form of cooling that has the largest impact on fuel efficiency: charge cooling. Even with the benefits of intercooling, the total compression in the combustion chamber is greater than that in a naturally-aspirated engine. To avoid knock while still extracting maximum power from the engine, it is common practice to introduce extra fuel into the charge for the sole purpose of cooling. While this seems counterintuitive, this fuel is not burned. Instead, it absorbs and carries away heat when it changes phase from liquid to gas. Also, because it is more dense than the other inert substance in the combustion chamber, nitrogen, it has a higher specific heat and more heat capacitance. It "holds" this heat until it is released in the exhaust stream, preventing destructive knock. This thermodynamic property allows manufacturers to achieve good power output with common pump fuel at the expense of fuel economy and emissions. For the Australian rock group, see Intercooler_(band). ... A combustion chamber is part of an engine in which fuel is burned. ... A naturally-aspirated engine or normally-aspirated engine (NA - aspiration meaning breathing) refers to an internal combustion engine (normally petrol or diesel powered) that is neither turbocharged nor supercharged. ... Knocking (also called pinking or pinging)—technically detonation— in internal combustion engines occurs when fuel in the cylinder is ignited by the firing of the spark plug but burns too quickly, combusting completely before the optimum moment during the compression phase of the four-stroke cycle. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 14. ... Exhaust gas is gas which occurs as a result of combustion of fuel such as gasoline/petrol, diesel or coal. ... Knocking (also called pinking or pinging)—technically detonation— in internal combustion engines occurs when fuel in the cylinder is ignited by the firing of the spark plug but burns too quickly, combusting completely before the optimum moment during the compression phase of the four-stroke cycle. ...


Lastly, the efficiency of the turbocharger itself can have an impact on fuel efficiency. Using a small turbocharger will give good response and low lag at low to mid RPMs, but can choke the engine on the exhaust side and generate huge amounts of pumping-related heat on the intake side as RPMs rise. A large turbocharger will be very efficient at high RPMs, but is not a realistic application for a street driven automobile. Variable vane and ball bearing technologies can make a turbo more efficient across a wider operating range, however, other problems have prevented this technology from appearing in more road cars (see Variable geometry turbocharger). Currently, the Porsche 911 (997) Turbo and the Porsche Cayenne Turbo S are the only gasoline cars in production with this kind of turbocharger. One way to take advantage of the different operating regimes of the two types of supercharger is sequential turbocharging, which uses a small turbocharger at low RPMs and a larger one at high RPMs. Variable geometry turbocharger improves upon turbocharger design by automatically changing the size of the vanes in the turbine housing, allowing control of boost by controlling exhaust turbine inlet pressure. ... The Porsche Type 997, or simply 997 (nine-nine-seven or nine-ninety-seven) is the project code name for the current version of the sports car Porsche 911, built by the German manufacturer Porsche since 2004. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Porsche Cayenne The Porsche Cayenne is an SUV automobile made by Porsche since 2002. ... Twin-Turbo is turbo aspirated engine, usually V6 or V8 (but not always), on which each block has it own turbine (turbo charger). ...


The engine management systems of most modern vehicles can control boost and fuel delivery according to charge temperature, fuel quality, and altitude, among other factors. Some systems are more sophisticated and aim to deliver fuel even more precisely based on combustion quality. For example, the Trionic-7 system from Saab Automobile provides immediate feedback on the combustion while it is occurring using an electrical charge. Boost in automotive engineering is a positive manifold pressure in cars with turbochargers or superchargers. ... Saab Automobile AB is a subsidiary of General Motors. ...


The new 2.0L FSI turbo engine from Volkswagen/Audi incorporates lean burn and direct injection technology to conserve fuel under low load conditions. It is a very complex system that involves many moving parts and sensors in order to manage airflow characteristics inside the chamber itself, allowing it to use a stratified charge with excellent atomization. The direct injection also has a tremendous charge cooling effect enabling this engine to use a higher compression ratio and boost pressures than a typical port-injection turbo engine. Gasoline direct injection or GDI is a variant of fuel injection employed in modern four stroke petrol engines. ... Volkswagen (Ger. ... Audi is a German automobile manufacturer with headquarters in Ingolstadt, Bavaria. ...

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Design details

The ideal gas law states that when all other variables are held constant, if pressure is increased in a system so will temperature. Here exists one of the negative consequences of turbocharging, the increase in the temperature of air entering the engine due to compression. Isotherms of an ideal gas The ideal gas law is the equation of state of an ideal gas. ...


A turbo spins very fast; most peak between 80,000 and 200,000 RPM (using low inertia turbos, 150,000-250,000 RPM) depending on size, weight of the rotating parts, boost pressure developed and compressor design. Such high rotation speeds would cause problems for standard ball bearings leading to failure so most turbo-chargers use fluid bearings. These feature a flowing layer of oil that suspends and cools the moving parts. The oil is usually taken from the engine-oil circuit and usually needs to be cooled by an oil cooler before it circulates through the engine. Some turbochargers use incredibly precise ball bearings that offer less friction than a fluid bearing but these are also suspended in fluid-dampened cavities. Lower friction means the turbo shaft can be made of lighter materials, reducing so-called turbo lag or boost lag. Some car makers use water cooled turbochargers for added bearing life. The principle of inertia is one of the fundamental laws of classical physics which are used to describe the motion of matter and how it is affected by applied forces. ... A 4 point contact ball bearing A ball bearing is a common type of rolling-element bearing, a kind of bearing. ... Fluid bearings, also called fluid dynamic bearings or hydrostatic or gas bearings, are bearings which support load on a thin layer of liquid or gas. ...


Turbochargers with foil bearings are in development which eliminates the need for bearing cooling or oil delivery systems, thereby eliminating the most common cause of failure, while also significantly reducing turbo lag. Foil Bearing Foil bearings are a type of hydrodynamic bearing. ...


To manage the upper-deck air pressure, the turbocharger's exhaust gas flow is regulated with a wastegate that bypasses excess exhaust gas entering the turbocharger's turbine. This regulates the rotational speed of the turbine and the output of the compressor. The wastegate is opened and closed by the compressed air from turbo (the upper-deck pressure) and can be raised by using a solenoid to regulate the pressure fed to the wastegate membrane. This solenoid can be controlled by Automatic Performance Control, the engine's electronic control unit or an after market boost control computer. Another method of raising the boost pressure is through the use of check and bleed valves to keep the pressure at the membrane lower than the pressure within the system. A wastegate is a valve that diverts exhaust gases away from the turbine wheel in a turbocharger. ... Various solenoid actuators from Trombetta Motion Technologies A solenoid is a loop of wire, often wrapped around a metallic core, which produces a magnetic field when an electrical current is passed through it. ... Automatic Performance Control (APC) is a system that was introduced on turbo charged Saab H engines in 1982. ... In automotive electronics, an electronic control unit (ECU) is an embedded microcomputer that controls one or more of the electrical subsystems in a vehicle. ...


Some turbochargers (normally called variable geometry turbochargers) utilise a set of vanes in the exhaust housing to maintain a constant gas velocity across the turbine, the same kind of control as used on power plant turbines. These turbochargers have minimal amount of lag, have a low boost threshold, and are very efficient at higher engine speeds. In many setups these turbos don't even need a wastegate. The vanes are controlled by a membrane identical to the one on a wastegate but the level of control required is a bit different. The first production car to use these turbos was the limited-production 1989 Shelby CSX-VNT, equipped with a 2.2L petrol engine. The Shelby CSX-VNT utilised a turbo from Garrett, called the VNT-25 because it uses the same compressor and shaft as the more common Garrett T-25. This type of turbine is called a Variable Nozzle Turbine (VNT). Turbocharger manufacturer Aerocharger uses the term 'Variable Area Turbine Nozzle' (VATN) to describe this type of turbine nozzle. Other common terms include Variable Turbine Geometry (VTG), Variable Geometry Turbo (VGT) and Variable Vane Turbine (VVT). Variable geometry turbocharger improves upon turbocharger design by automatically changing the size of the vanes in the turbine housing, allowing control of boost by controlling exhaust turbine inlet pressure. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Shelby CSX was a limited-production performance automobile based on the Dodge Shadow. ... Garrett Engine Boosting Systems is a subsidiary of Honeywell Corporation. ...


The 2006 Porsche 911 Turbo has a twin turbocharged 3.6-litre flat six, and the turbos used are BorgWarner's Variable Geometry Turbos (VGTs) . This is significant because although VGTs have been used on advanced diesel engines for a few years and on the Shelby CSX-VNT, this is the first time the technology has been implemented on a high production petrol car (only 500 Shelby CSX-VNTs were produced) . This is because in petrol cars exhaust temperatures are much higher (than in diesel cars), and this normally has adverse effects on the delicate, moveable vanes of the turbo. Porsche engineers claim to have managed this problem with the new 911 Turbo. The Porsche Type 997, or simply 997 (nine-nine-seven or nine-ninety-seven) is the project code name for the current version of the sports car Porsche 911, built by the German manufacturer Porsche since 2004. ... BorgWarner is a U.S. automotive parts supplier, known for its automatic transmissions and turbo chargers. ...

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Reliability

As long as the oil supply is clean and the exhaust gas does not become overheated (lean mixtures or advanced spark timing on a gasoline engine) a turbocharger can be very reliable but care of the unit is important. Replacing a turbo that lets go and sheds its blades will be expensive. The use of synthetic oils is recommended in turbo engines. Synthetic oil is oil consisting of chemical compounds which were not originally present in crude oil (petroleum) but were artificially made (synthesized) from other compounds. ...


After high speed operation of the engine it is important to let the engine run at idle speed for around one to three minutes before turning off the engine. For example Saab, in its owner manuals, recommends a period of just 30 seconds. This lets the turbo rotating assembly cool from the lower exhaust gas temperatures. Not doing this will also result in the critical oil supply to the turbocharger being severed when the engine stops while the turbine housing and exhaust manifold are still very hot, leading to coking of the lubricating oil trapped in the unit when the heat soaks into the bearings and later, failure of the supply of oil when the engine is next started causing rapid bearing wear and failure. Even small particles of burnt oil will accumulate and lead to choking the oil supply and failure. A turbo timer is a device designed to keep an automotive engine running for a pre-specified period of time, in order to execute this cool-down period automatically. Oil coking is completely eliminated by foil bearings. This problem is less pronounced with turbochargers used in diesel engines, due to the lower exhaust temperatures and generally slower engine speeds. It is usual for the manufacturer to specify a 10-second period of idling before switching off to ensure the turbocharger is running at its idle speed to prevent damage to the bearings when the oil supply is cut off. Saab Automobile AB is a subsidiary of General Motors. ... Coke is a solid carbonaceous residue derived from low-ash, low-sulfur bituminous coal. ... A turbo timer is a device designed to keep an automotive engine running for a pre-specified period of time in order to automatically execute the cool-down period required to prevent preature turbo wear and failure. ... Foil Bearing Foil bearings are a type of hydrodynamic bearing. ... A Diesel engine built by MAN AG in 1906 Rudolf Diesels 1893 patent on his engine design The diesel engine is a type of internal combustion engine; more specifically, it is a compression ignition engine, in which the fuel is ignited solely by the high temperature created by compression...


By installing a Turbo timer, it will allow you to set the exact time in order for the turbos to cool down. A turbo timer is a device designed to keep an automotive engine running for a pre-specified period of time in order to automatically execute the cool-down period required to prevent preature turbo wear and failure. ...


A more complex and problematic protective barrier against oil coking is the use of watercooled bearing cartridges. The water boils in the cartridge when the engine is shut off and forms a natural recirculation to drain away the heat. It is still a good idea to not shut the engine off while the turbo and manifold are still glowing.


In custom applications utilising tubular headers rather than cast iron manifolds, the need for a cooldown period is reduced because the lighter headers store much less heat than heavy cast iron manifolds. Cast iron usually refers to grey cast iron, but can mean any of a group of iron-based alloys containing more than 2% carbon (alloys with less carbon are carbon steel by definition). ...


Diesel engines are usually much kinder to turbos because their exhaust gas temperature is much lower than that of gasoline engines.

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Lag

A lag is sometimes felt by the driver of a turbocharged vehicle as a delay between pushing on the accelerator pedal and feeling the turbo kick-in. This is symptomatic of the time taken for the exhaust system driving the turbine to come to high pressure and for the turbine rotor to overcome its rotational inertia and reach the speed necessary to supply boost pressure. The directly-driven compressor in a positive-displacement supercharger does not suffer this problem. (Centrifugal superchargers do not build boost at low RPMs like a positive displacement supercharger will). Conversely on light loads or at low RPM a turbocharger supplies less boost and the engine is more efficient than a supercharged engine. Lag often refers to delays experienced in computing communications, however it may also apply to written or other forms of communication. ... Increasing the mass increases the rotational inertia of an object. ... A supercharger (also known as a blower) is an air compressor used to compress air into the cylinders of an internal combustion engine. ...


Lag can be reduced by lowering the rotational inertia of the turbine, for example by using lighter parts to allow the spool-up to happen more quickly. Ceramic turbines are a big help in this direction. Unfortunately, their relative fragility limits the maximum boost they can supply. Another way to reduce lag is to change the aspect ratio of the turbine by reducing the diameter and increasing the gas-flow path-length. Increasing the upper-deck air pressure and improving the wastegate response helps but there are cost increases and reliability disadvantages that car manufacturers are not happy about. Lag is also reduced by using a foil bearing rather than a conventional oil bearing. This reduces friction and contributes to faster acceleration of the turbo's rotating assembly. Foil Bearing Foil bearings are a type of hydrodynamic bearing. ...


Another common method of equalizing turbo lag is to have the turbine wheel "clipped", or to reduce the surface area of the turbine wheel's rotating blades. By clipping a minute portion off the tip of each blade of the turbine wheel, less restriction is imposed upon the escaping exhaust gases. This imparts less impedance onto the flow of exhaust gases at low RPM, allowing the vehicle to retain more of its low-end torque, but also pushes the effective boost RPM to a slightly higher level. The amount a turbine wheel is and can be clipped is highly application-specific. Turbine clipping is measured and specified in degrees. In physics, torque can be thought of informally as rotational force. The SI units for Torque are newton meters although centinewton meters (cN·m), foot-pounds force (ft·lbf), inch pounds (lbf·in) and inch ounces (ozf·in) are also frequently used expressions of torque. ...


Other setups, most notably in V-type engines, utilize two identically-sized but smaller turbos, each fed by a separate set of exhaust streams from the engine. The two smaller turbos produce the same (or more) aggregate amount of boost as a larger single turbo, but since they are smaller they reach their optimal RPM, and thus optimal boost delivery, faster. Such an arrangement of turbos is typically referred to as a parallel twin-turbo system. A V engine is a common configuration for an internal combustion engine in which the pistons are aligned so that, if viewed along the line of the crankshaft, they appear to be in a V. Usually, two opposing pistons share one crank on the crankshaft. ... Twin-Turbo is turbo aspirated engine, usually V6 or V8 (but not always), on which each block has it own turbine (turbo charger). ...


Some car makers combat lag by using two small turbos (such as Kia, Toyota, Subaru, Maserati, Mazda, and Audi). A typical arrangement for this is to have one turbo active across the entire rev range of the engine and one coming on-line at higher RPM. Early designs would have one turbocharger active up to a certain RPM, after which both turbochargers are active. Below this RPM, both exhaust and air inlet of the secondary turbo are closed. Being individually smaller they do not suffer from excessive lag and having the second turbo operating at a higher RPM range allows it to get to full rotational speed before it is required. Such combinations are referred to as a sequential twin-turbo. Sequential twin-turbos are usually much more complicated than a single or parallel twin-turbo systems because they require what amounts to three sets of pipes-intake and wastegate pipes for the two turbochargers as well as valves to control the direction of the exhaust gases. An example of this is the current BMW E60 5-Series 535d. Many new diesel engines use this technology to not only eliminate lag but also to reduce fuel consumption and produce cleaner emissions. Kia has several meanings: Kia Motors is a South Korean automobile manufacturer; Kia Asamiya is a popular Japanese manga artist. ... Toyota redirects here. ... Subaru (In katakana: スバル), a Japanese car company, is the automobile division of Fuji Heavy Industries Co. ... Present Maserati logo Maserati is a famous Italian manufacturer of racing cars and sports cars, established in 1914 in Bologna. ... Mazda Motor Corporation ) (TYO: 7261 ) is a Japanese automobile maker based in Hiroshima, Japan. ... Audi is a German automobile manufacturer with headquarters in Ingolstadt, Bavaria. ... Twin-Turbo is turbo aspirated engine, usually V6 or V8 (but not always), on which each block has it own turbine (turbo charger). ... The BMW E60 automobile platform is the basis of the 2004-onwards 5-Series automobile. ... The BMW 5 Series is a series of midsize luxury automobiles manufactured by BMW in Germany. ...


Lag is not to be confused with the boost threshold; however, many publications still make this basic mistake. The boost threshold of a turbo system describes the minimum turbo RPM at which the turbo is physically able to supply the requested boost level [citation needed]. Newer turbocharger and engine developments have caused boost thresholds to steadily decline to where day-to-day use feels perfectly natural. Putting your foot down at 1200 engine RPM and having no boost until 2000 engine RPM is an example of boost threshold and not lag.


Race cars often utilise anti-lag to completely eliminate lag at the cost of reduced turbocharger life. It has been suggested that Misfiring system be merged into this article or section. ...


On modern diesel engines, this problem is virtually eliminated by utilising a variable geometry turbocharger. A Diesel engine built by MAN AG in 1906 Rudolf Diesels 1893 patent on his engine design The diesel engine is a type of internal combustion engine; more specifically, it is a compression ignition engine, in which the fuel is ignited solely by the high temperature created by compression... Variable geometry turbocharger improves upon turbocharger design by automatically changing the size of the vanes in the turbine housing, allowing control of boost by controlling exhaust turbine inlet pressure. ...

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Boost

Boost refers to the increase in manifold pressure that is generated by the turbocharged in the intake path or specifically intake manifold that exceeds normal atmospheric pressure. This is also the level of boost as shown on a pressure gauge, usually in bar, psi or possibly kPa. Colloquially also referred as "pounds of boost". This is representative of the extra air pressure that is achieved over what would be achieved without the forced induction. Boost in automotive engineering is a positive manifold pressure in cars with turbochargers or superchargers. ... The manifold absolute pressure (MAP) sensor is an important sensor in modern internal combustion engines that use fuel injection. ... An intake is an air intake for an engine. ... In automotive engineering, an intake manifold or inlet manifold is a part of an engine that supplies the fuel/air mixture to the cylinders. ... diurnal (daily) rhythm of air pressure in northern Germany (black curve is air pressure) Atmospheric pressure is the pressure above any area in the Earths atmosphere caused by the weight of air. ... Many techniques have been developed for the measurement of reduced or increased pressures. ... The bar (symbol bar) and the millibar (symbol mbar, also mb) are units of pressure. ... {{dablink|The abbreviation psi has multiple meanings; see // Definition At 1 lbf/in2, a force of one pound-force is applied to an area of one square inch. ... The pascal (symbol Pa) is the SI unit of pressure. ... A colloquialism is an expression not used in formal speech or writing. ... Forced induction is a term used to describe internal combustion engines that are not naturally aspirated. ...


Boost pressure is limited to keep the entire engine system including the turbo inside its design operating range by controlling the wastegate which shunts the exhaust gases away from the exhaust side turbine. In some cars the maximum boost depends on the fuel's octane rating and is electronically regulated using a knock sensor, see Automatic Performance Control (APC). A wastegate is a valve that diverts exhaust gases away from the turbine wheel in a turbocharger. ... The octane rating is a measure of the autoignition resistance of gasoline (petrol) and other fuels used in spark-ignition internal combustion engines. ... It has been suggested that Detonation internal combustion engine be merged into this article or section. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Automatic Performance Control (APC) is a system that was introduced on turbo charged Saab H engines in 1982. ...


Many diesel engines do not have any wastegate because the amount of exhaust energy is controlled directly by the amount of fuel injected into the engine and slight variations in boost pressure do not make a difference for the engine.

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Applications

Turbocharging is very common on diesel engines in conventional automobiles, in trucks, locomotives, for marine and heavy machinery applications. In fact, for current automotive applications, non-turbocharged diesel engines are becoming increasingly rare. Diesels are particularly suitable for turbocharging for several reasons: A Diesel engine built by MAN AG in 1906 Rudolf Diesels 1893 patent on his engine design The diesel engine is a type of internal combustion engine; more specifically, it is a compression ignition engine, in which the fuel is ignited solely by the high temperature created by compression... The driver of this DAF tractor with an auto-transport semi-trailer truck prepares to offload Å koda Octavia cars in Cardiff, Wales For other meanings, see Truck (disambiguation). ... Great Western Railway No. ...

  • Naturally-aspirated diesels have lower power-to-weight ratios compared to gasoline engines; turbocharging will improve this P:W ratio.
  • Diesel engines require more robust construction because they already run at very high compression ratio and at high temperatures so they generally require little additional reinforcement to be able to cope with the addition of the turbocharger. Gasoline engines often require extensive modification for turbocharging.
  • Diesel engines have a narrower band of engine speeds at which they operate, thus making the operating characteristics of the turbocharger over that "rev range" less of a compromise than on a gasoline-powered engine.
  • Diesel engines blow nothing but air into the cylinders during cylinder charging, squirting fuel into the cylinder only after the intake valve has closed and compression has begun. Gasoline/petrol engines differ from this in that both fuel and air are introduced during the intake cycle and both are compressed during the compression cycle. The higher intake charge temperatures of forced-induction engines reduces the amount of compression that is possible with a gasoline/petrol engine, whereas diesel engines are far less sensitive to this.

Today, turbocharging is most commonly used on two types of engines: Gasoline engines in high-performance automobiles and diesel engines in transportation and other industrial equipment. Small cars in particular benefit from this technology, as there is often little room to fit a larger-output (and physically larger) engine. Saab has been the leading car maker using turbochargers in production cars, starting with the 1978 Saab 99. All current Saab models are turbocharged. The Porsche 944 utilized a turbo unit in the 944 Turbo (Porsche internal model number 951), to great advantage, bringing its 0-100 km/h (0-60 mph) times very close to its contemporary non-turbo "big brother", the Porsche 928. A naturally-aspirated engine or normally-aspirated engine (NA - aspiration meaning breathing) refers to an internal combustion engine (normally petrol or diesel powered) that is neither turbocharged nor supercharged. ... The compression ratio is a single number that can be used to predict the performance of any engine (such as an internal-combustion engine or a Stirling Engine). ... Saab Automobile AB is a subsidiary of General Motors. ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... The 99 was an automobile produced by Saab from 1969 to 1984. ... 944 as racing car Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Porsche 944 The Porsche 944 was a high performance sports car produced by German auto manufacturer Porsche. ... The Porsche 928 is a grand tourer automobile made by Porsche AG of Germany from 1978 to 1995, during which time it was one of their most expensive offerings. ...


Small car turbos are increasingly being used as the basis for small jet engines used for flying model aircraft—though the conversion is a highly specialised job—one not without its dangers. Jet engine enthusiasts have constructed home-built jet engines from automotive turbochargers, often running on propane and using a home-built combustion canister plumbed in between the high pressure side of the turbo's compressor and the intake side of the turbine. An oil supply for the bearings is still needed, usually provided by an electric pump. Starting such home-built jets is usually achieved by blowing air through the unit with a compressor or a domestic leaf-blower. Making these engines is not an easy task- unless the combustion canister design is correct the engine will either fail to start, fail to stabilise once running or even over-rev and destroy itself. A Pratt and Whitney turbofan engine for the F-15 Eagle is tested at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, USA. The tunnel behind the engine muffles noise and allows exhaust to escape. ... A Die Cast Boeing 747 static model. ... Propane is a three-carbon alkane, normally a gas, but compressible to a liquid with inexpensive containers. ... Compressor has several meanings: A gas compressor is a mechanical device that takes in a gas and increases its pressure by squeezing a volume of it into a smaller volume. ...


Most modern turbocharged aircraft use an adjustable wastegate. The wastegate is controlled manually, or by a pneumatic/hydraulic control system, or, as is becoming more and more common, by a flight computer. In the interests of engine longevity, the wastegate is usually kept open, or nearly so, at sea-level to keep from overboosting the engine. As the aircraft climbs, the wastegate is gradually closed, maintaining the manifold pressure at or above sea-level. In aftermarket applications, aircraft turbochargers sometimes do not overboost the engine, but rather compress ambient air to sea-level pressure. For this reason, such aircraft are sometimes referred to as being turbo-normalised. Most applications produced by the major manufacturers (Beech, Cessna, Piper and others) increase the maximum engine intake air pressure by as much as 35%. Special attention to engine cooling and component strength is required because of the increased combustion heat and power.


Turbo-Alternator[1] is a form of turbocharger that generates electricity instead of boosting engine's air flow. On September 21, 2005, Foresight Vehicle announced the first known implementation of such unit for automobiles, under the name TIGERS (Turbo-generator Integrated Gas Energy Recovery System).[2] September 21 is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

[edit]

History

The turbocharger was invented by Swiss engineer Alfred Buchi, who had been working on steam turbines. His patent for the internal combustion turbocharger was applied for in 1905. Diesel ships and locomotives with turbochargers began appearing in the 1920s. 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Diesel or diesel fuel is a specific fractional distillate of fuel oil (mostly petroleum) that is used as fuel in a diesel engine invented by German engineer Rudolf Diesel. ... ...


One of the first applications of a turbocharger to a non-Diesel engine came when General Electric engineer, Sanford Moss attached a turbo to a V12 Liberty aircraft engine. The engine was tested at Pikes Peak in Colorado at 14,000 feet to demonstrate that it could eliminate the power losses usually experienced in internal combustion engines as a result of altitude. GE redirects here. ... A V12 engine is a V engine with 12 cylinders. ... General characteristics Layout V-12 Cooling water Cylinders 12 Valve type Displacement 27 litres Rotation rate 1700 rpm Power 400 hp Power (300 kW Weight 383kg The Liberty L-12 was 27 litre water-cooled 45 degree V-12 aircraft engine of 400 horsepower (300 kW). ... Pikes Peak (formerly Pikes Peak, see below) is a mountain in the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains, 10 miles (16 km) west of Colorado Springs, Colorado, in El Paso County. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ...


Turbochargers were first used in production aircraft engines in the 1930s prior to World War II. The primary purpose behind most aircraft-based applications was to increase the altitude at which the airplane can fly, by compensating for the lower atmospheric pressure present at high altitude. Aircraft such as the Lockheed P-38 Lightning, Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress and B-29 Superfortress all used exhaust driven "turbo-superchargers" to increase high altitude engine power. It is important to note that turbosupercharged aircraft engines actually utilized a gear-driven centrifugal type supercharger in series with a turbocharger. This article is becoming very long. ... diurnal (daily) rhythm of air pressure in northern Germany (black curve is air pressure) Atmospheric pressure is the pressure above any area in the Earths atmosphere caused by the weight of air. ... P-38 may also refer to the P-38, an army-issue can opener, or to the Walther P38 handgun The Lockheed P-38 Lightning was one of the most important American fighters of the Second World War. ... A B_17 nicknamed Sally B in England in 2001 The B_17 Flying Fortress was the first mass_produced, four_engine heavy bomber. ... The Boeing B-29 Superfortress was a four-engine heavy bomber propeller aircraft flown by the United States Army Air Forces in World War II and other military organizations afterwards. ... Cover of Hot Rod magazine showing Ford Flathead V8 engine with centrifugal supercharger (on top) The centrifugal type supercharger is practically identical in operation to a turbocharger, with the exception that instead of exhaust gases driving an impeller, there is only a compressor housing, and that is driven from the...


Turbo-Diesel trucks were produced in Europe and America (notably by Cummins) after 1949. The turbocharger hit the automobile world in 1952 when Fred Agabashian qualified for pole position at the Indianapolis 500 and led for 100 miles before tire shards disabled the blower. Cummins Inc. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Fred Agabashian (21 August 1913 - 13 October 1989) was an American Formula One driver (Indy 500 only) who debuted on May 30, 1950. ... Indianapolis 500, 1994 An Indianapolis 500 racecar depicted on the Indiana state quarter The Indianapolis 500-Mile Race, often shortened to Indianapolis 500 or Indy 500, is an American automobile race, held annually over the Memorial Day weekend at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway in Speedway, Indiana. ...

The Corvair's innovative turbocharged flat-6 engine; The turbo, located at top right, feeds pressurized air into the engine through the chrome T-tube visible spanning the engine from left to right.
The Corvair's innovative turbocharged flat-6 engine; The turbo, located at top right, feeds pressurized air into the engine through the chrome T-tube visible spanning the engine from left to right.

The first production turbocharged automobile engines came from General Motors. The A-body Oldsmobile Cutlass Jetfire and Chevrolet Corvair Monza Spyder were both fitted with turbochargers in 1962. The Oldsmobile is often recognized as the first, since it came out a few months earlier than the Corvair. Its Turbo Jetfire was a 215 in³ (3.5 L) V8, while the Corvair engine was either a 145 in³ (2.3 L)(1962-63) or a 164 in³ (2.7 L) (1964-66) flat-6. Both of these engines were abandoned within a few years, and GM's next turbo engine came more than ten years later. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 1243 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Turbocharger Chevrolet Corvair Chevrolet Corvair engine Portal:Cars Portal:Cars/Did you know Metadata... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 1243 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Turbocharger Chevrolet Corvair Chevrolet Corvair engine Portal:Cars Portal:Cars/Did you know Metadata... The Chevrolet Corvair was a rear-engined automobile produced by the Chevrolet division of General Motors from 1960 to 1969. ... Turbocharger Cut-away A turbocharger is a device used in internal-combustion engines to increase the power output of the engine by increasing the mass of oxygen and fuel entering the engine. ... The flat-6 engine of the Honda Valkyrie motorcycle A flat-6 is a 6 cylinder configuration of a flat engine or boxer engine. ... The Corvairs innovative flat-6 engine The Chevrolet Corvair engine was a flat-6 piston engine used exclusively in the 1960s Chevrolet Corvair automobile. ... General Motors Corporation (NYSE: GM), also known as GM, is an American automobile maker with worldwide operations and brands including Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GMC, Holden, Hummer, Opel, Pontiac, Saturn, Saab and Vauxhall. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into List of GM platforms. ... The Oldsmobile Cutlass was an automobile made by the Oldsmobile division of General Motors. ... The Chevrolet Corvair was a rear-engined automobile produced by the Chevrolet division of General Motors from 1960 to 1969. ... 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar). ... The 1967 Toronados 425 V8, the first front-wheel drive V8 application. ... The Liberty V8 aircraft engine clearly shows the configuration A V8 engine is a V engine with eight cylinders. ... The Corvairs innovative flat-6 engine The Chevrolet Corvair engine was a flat-6 piston engine used exclusively in the 1960s Chevrolet Corvair automobile. ... The flat-6 engine of the Honda Valkyrie motorcycle A flat-6 is a 6 cylinder configuration of a flat engine or boxer engine. ...


Offenhauser's turbocharged engines returned to Indianapolis in 1966, with victories coming in 1968. The Offy turbo peaked at over 1,000 hp in 1973, while Porsche dominated the Can-Am series with a 1100 hp 917/30. Turbocharged cars dominated the Le Mans between 1976 and 1994. Offenhauser was a Formula One engine manufacturer from 1950 through 1960 for the Indianapolis 500. ... 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... Dr. Ing. ... Cover of Car and Driver magazine, showing transparent diagram of CanAm racer The Canadian-American Challenge Cup or Can Am, was an SCCA/CASC sports car racing series from 1966 to 1974. ... The Porsche 917 gave Porsche its first overall wins at the 24 hours of Le Mans in 1970 and 1971. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ...


BMW led the resurgence of the automobile turbo with the 1973 2002 Turbo, with Porsche following with the 911 Turbo, introduced at the 1974 Paris Motor Show. Buick was the first GM division to bring back the turbo, in the 1978 Buick Regal, followed by the Mercedes-Benz 300D and Saab 99 in 1978. The worlds first production turbodiesel automobile was also introduced in 1978 by Peugeot with the launch of the Peugeot 604 turbodiesel. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... See also BMW 2002tii The BMW New Class was a line of compact sedans launched with the 1962 1500. ... The Porsche 911 (pronounced as nine eleven) is a sports car made by Porsche AG of Stuttgart, Germany. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... The Mondial de lAutomobile (Paris Motor Show in English) is an annual auto show in Paris. ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... The Buick Regal was a mid-size automobile produced by General Motors Buick division from 1973 through 2004, during which Buick also used the Century name on mid-size models; the two frequently shared bodies and powertrains. ... This page is about the Mercedes-Benz brand of automobiles and trucks from the DaimlerChrysler automobile manufacturer. ... 1982 Mercedes Benz 300TD The W123 chassis of the Mercedes-Benz 300D automobile was introduced as a 1976 model (1977 U.S.). Its 3. ... The 99 was an automobile produced by Saab from 1969 to 1984. ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... Peugeot is a major French car brand, part of PSA Peugeot Citroën. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Peugeot 604 The Peugeot 604 was a full-size automobile produced by the French manufacturer Peugeot from 1975 to 1985. ...


Renault however gave another step and installed a turbocharger to the smallest and lightest car they had, the R5, making it the first Supermini automobile with a turbocharger. This gave the car about 160bhp in street form and up to 300+ in race setup, an exorbitant power for a 1400cc motor. When combined with its incredible lightweight chassis, it could nip at the heels of the incredibly fast Ferrari 308. Pontiac also introduced a turbo in 1980 and Volvo Cars followed in 1981. Renault S.A. is a French vehicle manufacturer producing cars, vans, buses, tractors and trucks. ... See also Renault 5 Turbo for the mid-engined sports car The Renault 5 is a sub-compact automobile produced by the French manufacturer Renault. ... 1996 Volkswagen Polo, a popular modern European supermini A supermini is a European hatchback car category. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article concerns the automobile; for the Native American leader, see Chief Pontiac, for the city in Michigan, see Pontiac, Michigan. ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... Volvo Cars, or Volvo Personvagnar, is an automobile maker founded in 1927 in the city of Gothenburg in Sweden. ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In Formula 1, in the so called "Turbo Era" of 1977 until 1989, engines with a capacity of 1500 cc could achieve anywhere from 1000 to 1500 hp (746 to 1119 kW) (Renault, Honda, BMW). Renault was the first manufacturer to apply turbo technology in the F1 field, in 1977. The project's high cost was compensated for by its performance, and led to other engine manufacturers following suit. The Turbo-charged engines took over the F1 field and ended the Ford Cosworth DFV era in the mid 1980s. Formula One, abbreviated to F1 and also known as Grand Prix racing, is the highest class of single-seat open-wheel auto racing. ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Renault S.A. is a French vehicle manufacturer producing cars, vans, buses, tractors and trucks. ... For other uses, see Honda (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

[edit]

References

  • Don Sherman (February 2006). "Happy 100th Birthday to the Turbocharger". Automobile Magazine.
[edit]

Automobile Magazine is an automobile magazine in the United States. ...

See also

[edit]

A boost gauge is a dashboard mounted instrument that indicates turbocharger or supercharger boost pressure in an internal combustion engine. ... A boost controller is a device in a turbocharged or supercharged car that regulates boost pressure. ... Twin-Turbo is turbo aspirated engine, usually V6 or V8 (but not always), on which each block has it own turbine (turbo charger). ... A front-mounted intercooler on a Mitsubishi Eclipse An intercooler is a device used on turbocharged and supercharged internal combustion engines to improve the volumetric efficiency, increase the amount of charge in the engine, and lower charge air temperature thereby increasing power and reliability. ... A turbo timer is a device designed to keep an automotive engine running for a pre-specified period of time in order to automatically execute the cool-down period required to prevent preature turbo wear and failure. ... A supercharger (also known as a blower) is an air compressor used to compress air into the cylinders of an internal combustion engine. ... // [edit] Introduction The term blowoff valve is commonly used in the disussion of turbocharged vehicles. ...

External links

  • How turbochargers work at HowStuffWorks.com
  • Autozine Technical School: Forced Induction
  • Turbocharged Car Video Archive

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