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Encyclopedia > Tupac Shakur
Tupac Shakur

Background information
Birth name Tupac Amaru Shakur
Also known as 2Pac, Makaveli
Born June 16, 1971
New York City
Origin Oakland (1991-1992)
Los Angeles (1992-1996)
Died September, 1996
Genre(s) Rap
Occupation(s) Rapper, Actor, Producer, Poet, Screenwriter, Activist
Years active 1991–
Label(s) Interscope Records
Death Row Records
Makaveli Records
Amaru Entertainment
Associated
acts
Outlawz, Thug Life, Digital Underground
Website 2PacLegacy.com

Tupac Amaru Shakur (June 16, 1971September 13, 1996), also known by his stage names 2Pac, Makaveli, or simply as 'Pac, was an American artist renowned for his rap music, movie roles, poetry, and his social activism. He is recognized in the Guinness Book of World Records as the best selling hip-hop artist, with over 75 million of his albums sold worldwide [1] including over 44.5 million sales in the United States alone. Most of Shakur's songs are about growing up around violence and hardship in ghettos, racism, problems in society, and sometimes his feuds with fellow rappers. Shakur's work is known for advocating political, economic, social, and racial equality as well as his raw descriptions of violence, drug and alcohol abuse, and conflicts with the law. Many fans, critics, and industry insiders rank him as the greatest rapper ever.[2][3] Image File history File links 2Pac2. ... June 16 is the 167th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (168th in leap years), with 198 days remaining. ... 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday. ... Nickname: Big Apple, Gotham, NYC, City That Never Sleeps, The Concrete Jungle, The City So Nice They Named It Twice Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs The Bronx Brooklyn Manhattan Queens Staten Island Settled 1676 Government  - Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area... Oakland, founded in 1852, is the eighth-largest city in California[1] and the county seat of Alameda County. ... Nickname: City of Angels Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates: State California County Los Angeles County Incorporated April 4, 1850 Government Type mayor-council  - Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D)  - City Attorney Rocky Delgadillo  - Governing body City Council Area    - City  498. ... A music genre is a category (or genre) of pieces of music that share a certain style or basic musical language (van der Merwe 1989, p. ... Hip hop music is a style of music which came into existence in the United States during the mid-1970s, and became a large part of modern pop culture during the 1980s. ... Rapping is one of the elements of hip hop and the distinguishing feature of hip hop music; it is a form of rhyming lyrics spoken rhythmically over musical instruments, with a musical backdrop of sampling, scratching and mixing by DJs. ... Actors in period costume sharing a joke while waiting between takes during location filming An actor or actress is a person who acts, or plays a role, in a dramatic production. ... In the music industry, a record producer (or music producer) has many roles, among them controlling the recording sessions, coaching and guiding the musicians, and supervising the recording, mixing and mastering processes. ... The poor poet A poet is a person who writes poetry. ... Screenwriters, scenarists or script writers, are authors who write the screenplays from which movies and television programs are made. ... Activism, in a general sense, can be described as intentional action to bring about social or political change. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Interscope Records is an American record label owned and operated by Universal Music Group. ... Death Row Records is a record company that was founded in 1991 by Suge Knight and Dr. Dre, and was once home to some of raps biggest names, including: Tupac Shakur, Dr. Dre, Snoop Doggy Dogg, and Tha Dogg Pound. ... Makaveli Records was record company that would have been started by the slain rapper and CEO, Tupac Amaru Shakur. ... Amaru Records was founded by Tupac Shaukrs mother, Afeni, in early 1997 to handle his music after his untimely death in September 1996. ... Outlawz (also The Outlawz and Outlaw Immortalz) is an American rap group from Essex County, New Jersey, founded by Tupac Shakur in late 1995 after his release from prison. ... Thug Life was a hip hop group founded by multi-platinum selling hip hop artist 2Pac in late 1993. ... Digital Underground is an alternative hip hop group from Oakland, California, known for outrageous costumes and live shows, their musics humorous tone and an endless parade of identities for member Shock G, whose Humpty Hump proved especially memorable after the hit 1990 (see 1990 in music) The Humpty Dance... June 16 is the 167th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (168th in leap years), with 198 days remaining. ... 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday. ... September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... Look up artist in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Some world record attempts are more unusual than others. ... very gay West Coast rapper Snoop Dogg performing for the US Navy For information on rap music, see hip hop music. ...


In 1990, Shakur was a roadie and backup dancer for the alternative rap group Digital Underground. Shakur's debut album, 2Pacalypse Now, gained critical recognition and backlash for its controversial lyrics. Shakur became the target of lawsuits and had other legal troubles. Most notably, he was convicted of sexually assaulting a woman in 1993 (although he vigorously denied the claims). The day before the guilty verdict was issued, Shakur was shot five times in a recording studio lobby in Manhattan. Following the incident, Shakur grew suspicious that other figures in the rap industry had prior knowledge of the shooting and did not warn him; the controversy would help spark the East Coast-West Coast feud. After serving 11 months of his sentence, Shakur was released from prison on an appeal financed by Marion "Suge" Knight, the CEO of Death Row Records. In exchange for Suge's assistance, Shakur agreed to release three records under the Death Row label. Shakur's fifth album, the first double-disc release in hip hop history All Eyez on Me, counted as two albums. On September 7, 1996, Shakur was shot four times in a drive-by shooting in Las Vegas, Nevada, and died six days later on September 13, 1996, of respiratory failure and cardiac arrest at University Medical Center, Las Vegas. 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Alternative hip hop is hip hop music that is artistically different from mainstream hip hop typified by pop rap and gangsta rap. ... Digital Underground is an alternative hip hop group from Oakland, California, known for outrageous costumes and live shows, their musics humorous tone and an endless parade of identities for member Shock G, whose Humpty Hump proved especially memorable after the hit 1990 (see 1990 in music) The Humpty Dance... 2Pacalypse Now was Tupac Shakurs debut album, released in November 1991. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Suge Knight, CEO of Death Row Records Marion Suge Knight, a. ... A Chief Executive Officer (CEO), or Chief Executive, is the highest-ranking corporate officer, administrator, corporate administrator, executive, or executive officer, in charge of total management of a corporation, company, organization or agency. ... Death Row Records is a record company that was founded in 1991 by Suge Knight and Dr. Dre, and was once home to some of raps biggest names, including: Tupac Shakur, Dr. Dre, Snoop Doggy Dogg, and Tha Dogg Pound. ... All Eyez on Me is a double album by rapper Tupac Shakur. ... September 7 is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years). ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the city of Las Vegas in Nevada. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... University Medical Center (UMC) is the only hospital run by Clark County, Nevada. ...

Contents

Biography

Early life

Tupac Amaru Shakur was born in the East Harlem section of Manhattan in New York City.[4] He was named after Túpac Amaru II, an Incan revolutionary who led a Peruvian uprising against Spain and was subsequently sentenced to death. "Shakur" comes from the Arabic word thankful (to God). His mother, Afeni Shakur, was an active member of the Black Panther Party in New York in the late 1960s and early 1970s; Shakur was born just one month after her acquittal on more than 100 charges of "Conspiracy against the United States government and New York landmarks" in the New York Panther 21 court case.[5] Fearing someone might hurt her son, Afeni put the name Parish Lesane Crooks on his birth certificate but changed it a year later.[6] This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Borough of Manhattan, highlighted in yellow, lies between the East River and the Hudson River. ... Nickname: Big Apple, Gotham, NYC, City That Never Sleeps, The Concrete Jungle, The City So Nice They Named It Twice Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs The Bronx Brooklyn Manhattan Queens Staten Island Settled 1676 Government  - Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area... Túpac Amaru II (March 19, 1742 Peru – May 18, 1781) — born José Gabriel Condorcanqui — was the leader of an indigenous uprising in 1780 against the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire. ... Capital Cusco 1197-1533 Vilcabamba 1533-1572 Language(s) Quechua Government Monarchy Sapa Inca  - 1197–1220 Manco Capac  - 1532-1533 Atahualpa  - 1570-1572 Túpac Amaru History  - Established 1197  - Spanish conquest 1532–1537  - Disestablished 1572 Area  - 1527 2,000,000 km2 772,204 sq mi Population  - 1527 est. ... Afeni Shakur Afeni Shakur (born Alice Faye Williams) (born January 22, 1947, in Lumberton, North Carolina) is the mother of the famous American rapper Tupac Shakur and was an important member of the Black Panther Party. ... This article is about the American political organization. ... The Black Panther Party (originally called the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense) was an African American organization founded to promote civil rights and self-defense. ...


Violence and criminality surrounded Tupac from an early age. Shakur's godfather, Elmer "Geronimo" Pratt, was convicted of murdering a school teacher during a 1968 robbery. His stepfather, Mutulu Shakur, spent four years at large on the FBI's Ten Most Wanted Fugitives list beginning in 1982, when Tupac was a pre-teen. Mutulu was wanted in part for having helped his sister Assata Shakur, Tupac's godmother, to escape from prison in New Jersey, where she had been incarcerated for shooting two state troopers to death in 1973. Mutulu was caught in 1986 and imprisoned for an attempted robbery of a Brinks armored car in which two police officers and a guard were killed.[7] Tupac had a half-sister, Sekyiwa, two years his junior, and an older step-brother, Mopreme "Komani" Shakur, who appeared on many of his recordings. Geronimo Pratt (born 13 September 1947), also known as Geronimo ji-Jaga, was a high ranking member of the Black Panther Party. ... Mutulu Shakur is a revolutionary black leader, associated with groups like The Black Panthers. ... In the 1980s, for the fourth decade, the United States FBI continued to maintain a public list of the people it regarded as the Ten Most Wanted Fugitives. ... Assata Shakur[1] (born July 16, 1947) under the name Joanne Deborah Byron Chesimard, is an African-American activist who was a member of the Black Panther Party and Black Liberation Army. ... For the Bon Jovi album, see New Jersey (album) Official language(s) None, English de facto Capital Trenton Largest city Newark Area  Ranked 47th  - Total 8,729 sq mi (22,608 km²)  - Width 70 miles (110 km)  - Length 150 miles (240 km)  - % water 14. ... // United States See also: List of U.S. state law enforcement agencies In the United States, state police are a police body unique to each U.S. state, having statewide authority to conduct law enforcement activities and criminal investigations. ... The Brinks Company (NYSE: BCO) is a security and protection company. ... Mopreme, (born 1969 in New York as Maurice Harding) originally known as Wycked, is a West Coast rapper. ...


At age 12, Shakur enrolled in Harlem's famous "127th Street Ensemble." His first major role with this acting troupe was as Travis in A Raisin in the Sun. In 1984, his family relocated to Baltimore, [8] After completing his sophomore year at Paul Lawrence Dunbar High School he transferred to the Baltimore School for the Arts, where he studied acting, poetry, and jazz. He performed in Shakespeare plays and in the role of the Mouse King in The Nutcracker.[9] Tupac, accompanied by one of his friends, Dana "Mouse" Smith, as his beatbox, won most of the many rap competitions that he participated in and was considered to be the best rapper in his school.[10] Although he lacked trendy clothing, he was one of the most popular kids in his school because of his sense of humor, superior rapping skills, and ability to mix in with all crowds.[11] He developed a close friendship with a young Jada Pinkett (later Jada Pinkett Smith) that lasted until Shakur's death. In the documentary Tupac: Resurrection, Shakur says, "Jada is my heart. She will be my friend for my whole life," and Smith calls Shakur "one of my best friends. He was like a brother. It was beyond friendship for us. The type of relationship we had, you only get that once in a lifetime." A poem written by Shakur titled "Jada" appears in his book, The Rose That Grew From Concrete, which also includes a poem dedicated to Smith called "The Tears in Cupid's Eyes". For other uses, see Harlem (disambiguation). ... The 127th Street Ensemble was a troupe of talented African-American actors, who ranged from the poverty stricken streets of Compton, to the rich white neighbourhoods of Beverly Hills. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Monument City, Charm City, Mob Town, B-more Motto: Get In On It (formerly The City That Reads and The Greatest City in America; BELIEVE is not the official motto but rather a specific campaign) Location Location of Baltimore in Maryland Coordinates , Government Country State County United... Alternate uses: Student (disambiguation) Etymologically derived through Middle English from the Latin second-type conjugation verb stŭdērĕ, which means to study, a student is one who studies. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Acting is the work of an actor or actress, a person in theatre, film, or any other storytelling medium who tells the story by portraying a character and, usually, speaking or singing the written text or play. ... The Chinese poem Quatrain on Heavenly Mountain by Emperor Gaozong (Song Dynasty) Poetry (from the Greek , poiesis, making or creating) is a form of art in which language is used for its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or in lieu of, its ostensible meaning. ... Jazz is a musical art form that originated in New Orleans, Louisiana, United States at around the start of the 20th century, mostly popular in the 1920s. ... Shakespeare redirects here. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... (left to right)Sergei Legat, as the Nutcracker, an unidentified child as a gingerbread soldier, and Lydia Rubtsova as Marianna in Vsevolozhskys costumes for the Ivanov/Petipa/Tchaikovsky The Nutcracker, St. ... Beatboxing is the vocal percussion of hip hop culture and music. ... Jada Pinkett Smith (born Jada Koren Pinkett on September 18, 1971) is an American actress and singer. ...


In June 1988, Shakur and his family moved once again, this time to Marin City, California, where he attended Tamalpais High School. He joined the Ensemble Theater Company (ETC) to pursue his career in entertainment. His mother's crack addiction led him to move into Leila Steinberg's home with his friend Ray Luv at the age of 17. Leila Steinberg acted as a literary mentor to Shakur, an avid reader. Steinberg has kept copies of the books that Tupac read, which include J.D. Salinger's Catcher in the Rye, Jamaica Kincaid's At the Bottom of the River, Herman Melville's Moby Dick, Eileen Southern's Music of Black Americans, and the feminist writings of Alice Walker and Robin Morgan.[12] Most of these books were read before the age of 20.[13] It has been claimed that Shakur was in fact more well-read and intellectually well-rounded at that age than the average student in the first year class of most Ivy League institutions.[14] In 1989, Leila Steinberg organized a concert with Tupac's group, Strictly Dope. The concert lead to him being signed with Atron Gregory who set him up with Digital Underground. In 1990, he was hired as a back-up dancer and roadie for up-and-coming rap group Digital Underground.[15] Marin City, California is an unincorporated area in Marin County, the first county north of San Francisco across the Golden Gate Bridge. ... Tamalpais High School (nicknamed Tam) is a public secondary school located in Mill Valley, California. ... Ray Luv formed a rap group named Strictly Dope with Tupac Shakur. ... Jerome David Salinger (born January 1, 1919) is an American author best known for The Catcher in the Rye, a classic coming-of-age story that has enjoyed enduring popularity since its publication in 1951. ... The Catcher in the Rye is a famous novel by J. D. Salinger. ... Jamaica Kincaid is an Antiguan-American novelist. ... Herman Melville (August 1, 1819 – September 28, 1891) was an American novelist, essayist and poet. ... Moby-Dick[1] is an 1851 novel by Herman Melville. ... Eileen Jackson Southern (born 1920 in Minneapolis - died October 13, 2002 in Port Charlotte, Florida) was an African American musicologist, reasearcher, author and teacher. ... Alice Malsenior Walker (born February 9, 1944) is an African-American author and feminist who received the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1983 for The Color Purple. ... Robin Morgan (born January 3, 1941) is an American radical feminist activist, writer, and editor of Sisterhood is Powerful and . ... Digital Underground is an alternative hip hop group from Oakland, California, known for outrageous costumes and live shows, their musics humorous tone and an endless parade of identities for member Shock G, whose Humpty Hump proved especially memorable after the hit 1990 (see 1990 in music) The Humpty Dance... Digital Underground is an alternative hip hop group from Oakland, California, known for outrageous costumes and live shows, their musics humorous tone and an endless parade of identities for member Shock G, whose Humpty Hump proved especially memorable after the hit 1990 (see 1990 in music) The Humpty Dance...


Early career

Shakur's professional entertainment career began in early 1991, when he debuted his rap skills on the single "Same Song" from the Digital Underground album This is an EP Release. Also in 1991, he appeared in the music video for "Same Song" and made a brief appearance as himself in the movie Nothing But Trouble. In late 1991, after his rap debut, Tupac Shakur performed with Digital Underground again on the album Sons Of The P. Later that year, he released his first solo album, 2Pacalypse Now. Initially he had trouble marketing his solo debut, but Interscope Records executives Ted Field and Tom Whalley eventually agreed to distribute the record. Cover of the Tupac Shakur album 2Pacalypse Now. ... Cover of the Tupac Shakur album 2Pacalypse Now. ... 2Pacalypse Now was Tupac Shakurs debut album, released in November 1991. ... Digital Underground is an alternative hip hop group from Oakland, California, known for outrageous costumes and live shows, their musics humorous tone and an endless parade of identities for member Shock G, whose Humpty Hump proved especially memorable after the hit 1990 (see 1990 in music) The Humpty Dance... A music video is a short film or video that accompanies a complete piece of music, most commonly a song. ... Nothing But Trouble is a comedy film released in 1991. ... Sons Of The P is the second album from rap group, Digital Underground. ... 2Pacalypse Now was Tupac Shakurs debut album, released in November 1991. ... Interscope Records is an American record label owned and operated by Universal Music Group. ... Ted Field (1953 - ), music producer, movie producer, and heir to the Marshall Fields department store fortune. ...


Shakur claimed his first album was aimed at the problems facing young black males, but it was publicly criticized for its graphic language and images of violence by and against police.[16] In one incident, a young man claimed his killing of a Texas trooper was inspired by the album. Former Vice President Dan Quayle publicly denounced the album as having "no place in our society". 2Pacalypse Now did not do as well on the charts as future albums, spawning no top ten hits. His second album, Strictly 4 My N.I.G.G.A.Z., was released in 1993. Heavily produced by Stretch and the Live Squad, the album generated two hits, "Keep Ya Head Up" and "I Get Around", , the latter featuring guest appearances by members of the Digital Underground. It was originally going to be a Digital Underground track but instead Shock G gave it to Shakur. [17] James Danforth Dan Quayle (born February 4, 1947) was the 44th Vice President of the United States under George H. W. Bush (1989-1993). ... 2Pacalypse Now was Tupac Shakurs debut album, released in November 1991. ... Strictly 4 My N.I.G.G.A.Z. is a 1993 album released by rapper Tupac Shakur. ... Stretch, born Randy Walker, was an African American rapper and producer from New York City. ... Live Squad - A group consisting of the members Stretch, Majesty and K-Lowe, signed to Tommy Boy Records in 1991 they released a double A side record Murderahh!/Heartless in 1992 before getting dropped for being too hardcore in 1993. ... Keep Ya Head Up is a song by Tupac Shakur who rapped about the most critical situations of the ghetto and convey the times of burden to the public. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Digital Underground is an alternative hip hop group from Oakland, California, known for outrageous costumes and live shows, their musics humorous tone and an endless parade of identities for member Shock G, whose Humpty Hump proved especially memorable after the hit 1990 (see 1990 in music) The Humpty Dance...


Acting career

In addition to rapping, Shakur began acting in films. He made his first film appearance in the 1991 film Nothing But Trouble. His first starring role was in the 1992 movie Juice as Bishop, a trigger happy teen, for which he was hailed by Rolling Stone's Peter Travers as "the film's most magnetic figure." He went on to star in Poetic Justice (with Janet Jackson) and Above the Rim. After his death, three of his completed films Bullet, Gridlock'd and Gang Related were posthumously released. He had also been slated to star in the Hughes brothers' Menace II Society but was replaced by Larenz Tate after assaulting the directors. Director John Singleton claimed that he wrote the film Baby Boy with Shakur in mind for the leading role.[18] It was eventually filmed with Tyrese Gibson in his place and released in 2001, five years after Shakur's death. The movie features a mural of Shakur in the protagonist's bedroom as well as featuring "Hail Mary" in the movie's score. Image File history File links Juice_movie. ... Image File history File links Juice_movie. ... Juice (1992) is an urban film that has gained a certain classic status. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nothing But Trouble is a comedy film released in 1991. ... Juice (1992) is an urban film that has gained a certain classic status. ... Roland Bishop or Bishop is a fictional character from the 1992 urban film Juice. ... This article is about the magazine. ... Peter Travers is the film critic and music critic for Rolling Stone. ... DVD cover Poetic Justice is a 1993 drama/romance film starring Tupac Shakur and Janet Jackson and directed by John Singleton. ... Janet Damita Jo Jackson (born May 16, 1966) is a Grammy award-winning, Golden Globe, and Academy Award-nominated American singer, songwriter, record producer, dancer, and actress. ... Above the Rim is a 1994 basketball-drama film, written by Jeff Pollack and Benny Medina, and directed by Jeff Pollack. ... Bullet is a 1996 action crime drama starring Tupac Shakur, Mickey Rourke and Adrien Brody. ... Gridlockd is a 1997 film starring Tupac Shakur, Tim Roth, and Thandie Newton, and directed by Vondie Curtis-Hall. ... Gang Related {1997) is a film written and directed by Jim Kouf which stars James Belushi and Tupac Shakur. ... Posthumous means after death. ... The Hughes Brothers is the collective named for twin brothers Allen and Albert Hughes (b. ... Menace II Society is the directorial debut of twin brothers Allen and Albert Hughes. ... Larenz Tate in Biker Boyz (2003) Larenz Tate (born September 8, 1975 in Chicago, Illinois) is an American actor. ... John Daniel Singleton (born January 6, 1968 in Los Angeles, California) is an African-American film director, producer, and screenwriter. ... DVD cover Baby Boy is a 2001 film written, produced, and directed by John Singleton. ... Tyrese Darnell Gibson (born December 30, 1978), often known simply as Tyrese or Black-Ty, is an African American R&B artist, rapper, former male fashion model. ...


Thug Life

In late 1993, Shakur formed the group Thug Life with a few of his friends, including Big Syke, Macadoshis, his step-brother Mopreme Shakur, and Rated R. The group released their first and only album Thug Life Vol. 1 on September 26, 1994. The group usually performed their concerts without Shakur.[19] Thug Life was a hip hop group founded by multi-platinum selling hip hop artist 2Pac in late 1993. ... Tyruss Big Syke Himes was born and raised in Inglewood, California. ... Thug Life: Volume 1 was the first release by the group Thug Life, started by rapper 2Pac, and was released on September 26, 1994. ...


Legal issues

Even as he garnered fame as a rapper and actor, Shakur gained notoriety for his conflicts with the law. On October of 1991 he filed a $10 million lawsuit against the Oakland Police Department, alleging they brutally beat him over a jaywalking incident. The suit was later settled for $42,000.[20][21] It has been suggested that civil trial be merged into this article or section. ...


In October 1993, in Atlanta, Shakur shot two off-duty police officers (one in the leg, one in the buttocks) who were harassing a black motorist. Charges against Shakur were dismissed when it was discovered that both officers were intoxicated and were in possession of stolen weapons from an evidence locker during the incident.[22] Nickname: Hotlanta, The Big Peach, The ATL, A-Town Location in Fulton County in the state of Georgia Coordinates: Country United States State Georgia Counties Fulton, Dekalb  - Mayor Shirley Franklin (D) Area    - City  132. ...


In December 1993, Shakur was charged with sexually abusing a woman in his hotel room. According to the complaint, Shakur sodomized the woman and then encouraged his friends to sexually abuse her. Shakur vehemently denied the charges. He had prior relations days earlier with the woman who was pressing the charges against him. She performed oral sex on him on a club dance floor and the two later had sex in his hotel room. The allegations were made after she revisited his hotel room for the second time where she engaged in sexual activity with his friends and claimed Shakur's entourage had gang-raped her, saying to him while leaving, "How could you do this to me?" Shakur stated he had fallen asleep shortly after she arrived and later awoke to her accusations and legal threats. He later said he felt guilty for leaving her alone, and did not want anyone else to go to jail, but at the same time he did not want to go to jail for a crime he didn't commit. Shakur was convicted of "sexual abuse (forcibly touching the buttocks)". In sentencing Shakur to one-and-a-half years in prison, the judge described the crime as "an act of brutal violence against a helpless woman."[23] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... François Elluin, Sodomites provoking the wrath of God, from Le pot pourri de Loth (1781). ...


In 1994, he was convicted of attacking a former employer while on a music video set. He was sentenced to 15 days in jail with additional days on a highway work crew, community service, and a $2000 fine. In 1995, a wrongful death lawsuit was brought against Shakur for a 1992 shooting that left, Qa'id Walker-Teal, a six-year old of Marin City, California dead. The child had been the victim of a stray bullet in a shootout between Shakur's entourage and a rival group, though the ballistics tests proved the bullet was not from any members Shakur's entourage's guns. Criminal charges were not sought, and Shakur settled with the family for an amount estimated between $300,000 and $500,000.[24][25] After serving part of his sentence on the sexual abuse conviction, he was released on bail pending his appeal. On April 5, 1996, a judge sentenced him to serve 120 days in jail for violating terms of probation.[26] Ballistics (gr. ...


The November 1994 shooting

On the night of November 30, 1994, the day before the verdict in his sexual abuse trial was to be announced, Shakur was shot five times in the lobby of the Quad Recording Studios in Manhattan by two black men in an apparent robbery attempt. He would later accuse Puff Daddy and Notorious B.I.G. — whom he saw after the shooting — of setting him up. According to the doctors at Bellevue Hospital, where he was admitted immediately following the incident, Shakur was shot five times, twice in the head, twice in the groin and once through the arm and thigh. He checked out of the hospital, against doctor's orders, three hours after surgery. The day following the incident, December 1, 1994, Shakur entered the courthouse in a wheelchair and was found guilty of three counts of sexual abuse, but innocent of six others, including sodomy. November 30 is the 334th day (335th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 31 days remaining. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... For other uses, see Manhattan (disambiguation). ... Sean John Combs (born November 4, 1969 aka P. Diddy, Puff Daddy, Sean Puffy Combs) is an American record producer and CEO and founder of Bad Boy Entertainment, one of the driving forces in hip hop in the mid to late 1990s. ... Christopher Wallace (May 21, 1972 - March 9, 1997), also known as Biggie Smalls (after a stylish gangster in the 1975 comedy, Lets Do it Again), but best known as The Notorious B.I.G. (Business Instead of Game). ... December 1 is the 335th (in leap years the 336th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... François Elluin, Sodomites provoking the wrath of God, from Le pot pourri de Loth (1781). ...


Prison sentence

Tupac in a police mugshot (March 8, 1995)
Tupac in a police mugshot (March 8, 1995)

Shakur began serving his prison sentence at Clinton Correctional Facility on February 14th, 1995. Shortly afterwards, he released his multi-platinum album Me Against the World. Shakur is the only artist ever to have an album at #1 on the Billboard 200 while serving a prison sentence. The album made its debut on the Billboard 200 and stayed at the top of the charts for 5 weeks. The album had first week sales of 240,000 copies which was the record for highest first week sales for a solo male rap artist at the time.[27] He married his long-time girlfriend, Keisha Morris, while serving his sentence. This marriage was later annulled. While in prison Shakur read many books by Niccolò Machiavelli, Sun Tzu's The Art of War and other works of political philosophy and strategy.[28] He also wrote a screenplay titled Live 2 Tell while incarcerated. Picture of Tupac Shakurs police mugshot, March 8, 1995. ... Picture of Tupac Shakurs police mugshot, March 8, 1995. ... Al Capone. ... March 8 is the 67th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (68th in leap years). ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Clinton Correctional Facility is a maximum-security New York state prison located in the Adirondack village of Dannemora. ... Me Against the World is a hip-hop album by Tupac Shakur, released on February 27, 1995 (see 1995 in music). ... The Billboard 200 is a ranking of the 200 highest-selling music albums and EPs in the United States, published weekly by Billboard magazine. ... Annulment is a legal procedure for declaring a marriage null and void. ... Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (May 3, 1469 – June 21, 1527) was an Italian political philosopher, musician, poet, and romantic comedic playwright. ... Sun Tzu (孫子 also commonly written in pinyin: Sūn Zǐ) was the author of The Art of War, an influential ancient Chinese book on military strategy (for the most part not dealing directly with tactics). ... For other uses, see The Art of War (disambiguation) A modern edition of The Art of War translated into English by Samuel B. Griffith. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political philosophy is the study of fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what... A strategy is a long term plan of action designed to achieve a particular goal, as differentiated from tactics or immediate actions with resources at hand. ... A screenplay or script is a blueprint for producing a motion picture. ... Live 2 Tell is a movie written by Tupac Shakur while he was incarcerated at the Clinton Correctional Facility. ...


In October 1995, Shakur's case was on appeal but due to all of Shakur's legal fees he could not raise the $1.4 million bail. After serving eleven months of his one and a half year to four and a half year sentence,[29] Shakur was released from prison, due in large part to the help and influence of Marion "Suge" Knight, CEO of Death Row Records. Knight posted $1.4 million bail pending appeal of the conviction, in exchange for which Shakur was obligated to release three albums for the Death Row label.[30]


Life on Death Row

Image of Tupac, Snoop Doggy Dogg, and Suge Knight during Tupac's tenure on Death Row Records. (1996)
Image of Tupac, Snoop Doggy Dogg, and Suge Knight during Tupac's tenure on Death Row Records. (1996)

After his release from prison, Shakur immediately went back to work recording. He began a new group, The Outlawz, and with them released the notorious "diss" track "Hit 'Em Up", a scathing lyrical attack on the Notorious B.I.G (Christopher Wallace) and others associated with him. In the track, Shakur claims to have had sex with Faith Evans, Wallace's wife at the time, and attacks Wallace's street cred. Though there is no hard evidence suggesting that they did, Tupac was convinced that Wallace and Sean "Puffy" Combs had known about the shooting beforehand based on their behavior that night and what his sources told him. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (786x846, 99 KB) Summary Tupac, Snoop Doggy Dogg, and Suge Knight. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (786x846, 99 KB) Summary Tupac, Snoop Doggy Dogg, and Suge Knight. ... Snoop Dogg Calvin Cordozar Broadus (born October 20, 1971 in Long Beach, California) is a rap musician and actor. ... Suge Knight, CEO of Death Row Records Marion Suge Knight, a. ... Years after his death, Tupac Shakur is still considered one of the most influential rap artists of all time. ... Hit Em Up is a song performed and written by Tupac Shakur and his clique, The Outlawz. ... Christopher Wallace (May 21, 1972 - March 9, 1997), also known as Biggie Smalls (after a stylish gangster in the 1975 comedy, Lets Do it Again), but best known as The Notorious B.I.G. (Business Instead of Game). ... Faith Renée Evans (born June 10, 1973) is a Grammy Award-winning American R&B singer, songwriter and producer. ...

Main article: Tupac Shakur feuds

Shakur aligned himself with Death Row Records CEO Suge Knight, who was already bitter toward Combs and his successful Bad Boy label; this added fuel to the building East-West feud. Wallace and Shakur would remain bitter enemies until Shakur's death. Rapper Tupac Shakur had several well known feuds with rappers. ... Bad Boy Records (originally Bad Boy Entertainment) is an East Coast hip hop record label founded by producer/rapper Sean Diddy Combs in 1993, and is a subsidiary of Warner Music Group. ...


In February 1996, Shakur released his fourth solo album, All Eyez on Me. This double album was the first and second of his three-album commitment to Death Row Records. It sold over 9 million copies.[31] The album was a general departure from the introspective subject matter of Me Against the World, being more oriented toward a thug and gangsta mentality. Shakur continued his recordings despite increasing problems at the Death Row label. Dr. Dre left his post as house producer to form his own label, Aftermath. CEO Suge Knight was under investigation for illegal and unethical activities and business practices. Despite these problems, Shakur produced hundreds of tracks during his time at Death Row, most of which would be released on posthumous albums such as Better Dayz and Until the End of Time. He also began the process of recording an album with the Boot Camp Clik and their label Duck Down Records, both New York-based, entitled One Nation. The goal of this project was to bring closure to the East Coast-West Coast feud by bringing together what Shakur thought were the best rappers from both coasts. This project remains unreleased, though some of Tupac's contributions to the album have been used in various other posthumous releases. 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... All Eyez on Me is a double album by rapper Tupac Shakur. ... André Romell Young (born February 18, 1965 in Los Angeles, California), better known by stage name Dr. Dre, is an influential Grammy Award-winning American record producer, hip hop producer, rapper, actor and record executive. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Better Dayz is the sixth posthumous album released by Tupac Shakurs mother, Afeni Shakur. ... Until the End of Time is a posthumous album release from the late rapper Tupac Shakur. ... Boot Camp Clik is a hip hop group from Brooklyn, New York. ...


By the end of his life, Tupac was in the middle of starting his film development company Euphanasia, and was going to start writing and directing films. Tupac wanted to host concerts that would be free for students who get a C or above, and wanted to build community centers and start baseball and football leagues for inner-city children. Tupac and Johnny "J" were starting up 24/7 Productions and Tupac was starting up Non-Stop Productions. Thug Passion was a drink that Tupac was planning on bottling and selling; the song "Thug Passion" was made to be a theme song for the drink. Tupac was going to step back from rapping by releasing albums every five years or so on his new record label, Makaveli Records, which would have been distributed by Death Row Records. Tupac and Suge Knight were in the process of expanding Death Row to the East, establishing a Death Row East. Tupac died before this could be fulfilled. Euphanasia is a movie development company founded by Tupac Shakur near the end of his life. ... Johnny J is a music producer who is best noticed for his work on 2Pac’s albums, All Eyez on Me and Me Against the World. ... Non-Stop Productions was a music production company that Tupac Shakur and Johnny J had started together. ... Thug Passion is a drink made in 1996 by Tupac Shakur. ... Makaveli Records was record company that would have been started by the slain rapper and CEO, Tupac Amaru Shakur. ...


Makaveli

While in prison Shakur read and studied Niccolò Machiavelli and his works, which inspired his pseudonym "Makaveli" under which he released the album The Don Killuminati: The 7 Day Theory. The Don Killuminati: The 7 Day Theory presents a stark contrast to previous works. Throughout the album, Shakur continues to focus on the themes of pain and aggression, making this album one of the emotionally darker works of his career. Shakur wrote and recorded all the lyrics in only three days and the production took another four days, combining for a total of seven days to complete the album (hence the name). The album was completely finished before Shakur died and Shakur had complete creative input on the album from the name of the album to the cover which Shakur chose to symbolize how the media has crucified him. The album debuted at #1 and sold 663,000 copies in the first week.[32] Shakur had plans of starting Makaveli Records which would have included the Wu-Tang Clan, The Outlawz, Big Daddy Kane, Big Syke, and Gang Starr. Taken from http://www. ... Taken from http://www. ... Makaveli: The Don Killuminati: 7 Day Theory was the final album recorded before Tupac Shakurs death. ... Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (May 3, 1469 – June 21, 1527) was an Italian political philosopher, musician, poet, and romantic comedic playwright. ... Makaveli: The Don Killuminati: 7 Day Theory was the final album recorded before Tupac Shakurs death. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Wu-Tang redirects here. ... Years after his death, Tupac Shakur is still considered one of the most influential rap artists of all time. ... Antonio Hardy (born September 10, 1968), known by his stage name Big Daddy Kane, is a rapper from Brooklyn, New York. ... Tyruss Big Syke Himes was born and raised in Inglewood, California. ... Gang Starr is an influential American hip hop duo composed of MC Guru and DJ Premier based in Brooklyn, New York. ...


Fatal September 1996 shooting

The famous photograph of Shakur and Suge Knight just moments before the shooting.
The famous photograph of Shakur and Suge Knight just moments before the shooting.

On September 7, 1996, Shakur attended the Mike Tyson - Bruce Seldon boxing match at the MGM Grand in Las Vegas. After the boxing match, Shakur spotted 21 year-old Orlando "Baby Lane" Anderson, a member of the Southside Crips in the MGM Grand lobby. Shakur rushed him and knocked Anderson down, and Shakur's entourage beat him. The incident was captured on the hotel's video surveillance. Anderson and a group of Crips had beaten up a member of Death Row's entourage in a Foot Locker a few weeks earlier, precipitating Shakur's attack. After the fight with Anderson, Shakur met up with Suge Knight to go to Death Row-owned Club 662 (now known as restaurant/club Seven). Shakur rode with Knight in Knight's 1996 black BMW 750i sedan,[33][34] as part of a larger convoy of cars including some of Shakur's friends, The Outlawz, and bodyguards. Image File history File links Tupac4. ... September 7 is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years). ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... Mike Tyson, born June 30, 1966, in Brooklyn, New York, USA and named Michael Gerard Tyson, is a former World Heavyweight Champion. ... Bruce Seldon (born January 30, 1967) was the World Boxing Association Heavyweight champion from 1995 to 1996. ... Professional boxing bout featuring Ricardo Domínguez (left) versus Rafael Ortíz Boxing, also called pugilism (from Latin), prizefighting (when referring to professional boxing) or the sweet science[1] is a sport and martial art in which two participants of similar weight fight each other with their fists in a... ... Orlando Baby Lane Anderson (1974 - May 29, 1998) was an affiliate of the Southside Crips and is the person usually cited as the murderer of the American rap-legend Tupac Shakur. ... The blue bandanas worn by most Crip gangs. ... Foot Locker, Inc. ... 1999-2000 BMW 735iL The BMW E38 automobile platform was the basis for the 1994 through 2001 7-series of automobiles. ... Years after his death, Tupac Shakur is still considered one of the most influential rap artists of all time. ...


At approximately 11:10 PM, Suge pulled over to an intersection by another vehicle so Shakur could exchange words with the two unidentified women in the other vehicle and invite them to go to the club with them[1]. At approximately 11:15 p.m., while stopped at the intersection of East Flamingo Road and Koval Lane, Shakur was shot at several times in a drive-by shooting. Shakur was struck by four bullets out of the twelve shots that were fired at him; he was hit twice in the chest, and once each in his left arm and thigh, while Knight was grazed in the head by a piece of glass. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


At the time of the shooting, Shakur was riding alongside with Suge Knight, with his bodyguard following behind in a vehicle belonging to Kidada Jones, Shakur's then-fiancée. The bodyguard, Frank Alexander, stated that when he was about to ride along with the rapper in Suge Knight's car, Shakur asked him to drive Kidada Jones' car instead just in case they were too drunk and needed additional vehicles from Club 662 back to the hotel. Shortly after the shootings, the bodyguard reported in his documentary, Before I Wake, that one of the convoy's cars drove off after the assailant but he never heard back from the occupants. Kidada Ann Jones (Born on March 22, 1974 In Los Angeles, California, USA) Is An American Actress, model And Fashion Designer who is best known for appearing in Tommy Hilfiger advertisements. ...


After arriving on the scene, police and paramedics took Shakur and Knight to the University Medical Center. Shakur was placed on life support until his death six days later, on September 13, 1996, at 4:03 PM PDT at the age of 25. The official cause of death was respiratory failure and cardiac arrest. After his death, Shakur's body was cremated. His ashes were spread over Los Angeles, the Pacific Ocean, Shakur's aunt's land and his mother's land in North Carolina, and some has been mixed with marijuana and smoked by The Outlawz.[35] Family and friends plan to spread the remaining ashes during a ceremony in Soweto, South Africa. The ceremony has been delayed from September 13, 2006, to June 16, 2007, which would have been Shakur's 36th birthday.[36] University Medical Center (UMC) is the only hospital run by Clark County, Nevada. ... Life support, in the medical field, refers to a set of therapies for preserving a patients life when essential body systems are not functioning sufficiently to sustain life unaided. ... September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... PST is UTC-8 The Pacific Time Zone observes standard time by subtracting eight hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC-8). ... Respiratory failure is a medical term for inadequate gas exchange by the respiratory system. ... Cremation is the practice of disposing of a corpse by burning. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (901 km)  - % water 9. ... Outlawz (also The Outlawz and Outlaw Immortalz) is an American rap group from Essex County, New Jersey, founded by Tupac Shakur in late 1995 after his release from prison. ... Johannesburg, including Soweto, from the International Space Station Soweto is an urban area in the City of Johannesburg, in Gauteng, South Africa. ... September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... June 16 is the 167th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (168th in leap years), with 198 days remaining. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ...


Theories of the crime

Although no one has ever been formally charged, nor publicly identified by the police as a suspect, police sources have indicated they believe that Anderson (who has since been murdered himself) was the killer. Officers in the Compton, California Police Department Gang Unit claimed in a leaked report the Crips were bragging about the killing soon after Anderson returned from Las Vegas. Officers further indicated they were disappointed with the lack of initiative shown by the Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department in pursuing Shakur's killer(s).


Due largely to the perceived lack of progress on the case by law enforcement, many independent investigations and theories of the crime have emerged. Because of the acrimony between Christopher Wallace (aka The Notorious B.I.G.) and Shakur, there was speculation from the outset about the possibility of Wallace's involvement in the murder. Wallace vehemently denied involvement. However, in a notable 2002 investigation by the Los Angeles Times, writer Chuck Phillips claimed to have uncovered evidence implicating Wallace, in addition to Anderson and the Southside Crips, in the murder.[37] In the article, Phillips quoted unnamed gang-member sources who claimed Wallace had ties to the Crips, often hiring them for security during West Coast appearances. Phillips' informants also state that Wallace gave the gang members one of his own guns for use in the attack on Shakur, and that he put out a $1 million contract on Tupac's life. By the time Phillips' specific allegations were published, however, Wallace himself had been murdered.[38] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Los Angeles Times (also known as the LA Times) is a daily newspaper published in Los Angeles, California and distributed throughout the Western United States. ...


Wallace's family and associates have vehemently denied Wallace's involvement in Shakur's death.[39] In support of their claims, Wallace's family submitted documentation to MTV indicating that Wallace was working in a New York recording studio the night of Shakur's murder. Wallace's manager Wayne Barrow and rapper James "Lil' Cease" Lloyd made public announcements denying Wallace's involvement in the murder and claiming further that they were both with Wallace in the recording studio the night of the shooting. MTV (Music Television) is an American cable television network headquartered in New York City. ...


The high profile nature of the killing and ensuing gang violence caught the attention of British filmmaker Nick Broomfield who made the documentary Biggie & Tupac, which examines the lack of progress in the case by speaking to those close to Wallace, Shakur, and the investigation. Shakur's close childhood friend and member of the Outlawz, Yafeu "Yaki Kadafi" Fula, was in the convoy when the shooting happened and indicated to police that he might be able to identify the assailants. He was killed shortly thereafter in a housing project in Irvington, New Jersey.[40] Nick Broomfield with his famous sound boom and half-on headphones. ... Biggie & Tupac is a feature-length documentary film about Biggie Smalls and Tupac Shakur, made by Nick Broomfield. ... Outlawz (also The Outlawz and Outlaw Immortalz) is an American rap group from Essex County, New Jersey, founded by Tupac Shakur in late 1995 after his release from prison. ... // Yafeu Akiyele Fula (born October 9, 1977; died November 10, 1996) was a rapper who was part of the California rap group Tha Outlawz, who are best known for their collaborations with Tupac Shakur. ... Map of Irvington Township in Essex County Irvington is a Township located in Essex County, New Jersey. ...


In the first few seconds of the song "Intro/Bomb First (My Second Reply) on the album The Don Killuminati: The 7 Day Theory, Shakur can be heard saying "Shoulda shot me".[41][42] Many theorists mistook the statement as "Suge shot me" or "Suge shot 'em" until confirmation by multiple audio tests and confirmation from members of The Outlawz. This, along with reports of Knight's strong-arm tactics with artists and other illegal business tactics including involvement with the Mob Piru Bloods street gang gave rise to a theory that Knight was complicit in Shakur's murder, as it was reported that Suge Knight owed Tupac up to seventeen million dollars in back royalties, but no evidence has been provided to support this theory. Makaveli: The Don Killuminati: 7 Day Theory was the final album recorded before Tupac Shakurs death. ... Suge Knight, CEO of Death Row Records Marion Suge Knight, a. ...


Other theories have been put forth, including a conspiracy theory that Shakur is alive and well, but in hiding. Many supporters of these theories point to the symbolism in Shakur's The Don Killuminati: The 7 Day Theory album and in the video for the single "I Ain't Mad at Cha". Efforts exposing these conspiracy theories include 2Pac Lives The Death of Makaveli / The Resurrection of Tupac Amaru (Volume 1) released in 2005.[43] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... 2Pac Lives The Death of Makaveli/The Resurrection of Tupac Amaru (Volume 1) is an investigative book about theories of Tupac Shakur still being alive. ...


Style and influences

All Eyez on Me, Shakur's classic 1996 album
All Eyez on Me, Shakur's classic 1996 album

Shakur's first album, 2Pacalypse Now, revealed the socially conscious side of Shakur. On this album Shakur attacked social injustice, poverty and police brutality on songs "Brenda's Got a Baby", "Trapped" and "Part Time Mutha." His style on this album was heavily influenced by the social consciousness and Afrocentrism pervading hip-hop in the late 1980's and early 1990's. On this initial release, Shakur helped extend the legacy of such rap groups as Boogie Down Productions, Public Enemy, X-Clan, and even Grandmaster Flash, as he became one of the first major socially conscious rappers from the West Coast. album cover upped as fair use This is an album cover. ... album cover upped as fair use This is an album cover. ... All Eyez on Me is a double album by rapper Tupac Shakur. ... 2Pacalypse Now was Tupac Shakurs debut album, released in November 1991. ... Boogie Down Productions (1989) Boogie Down Productions was originally composed of KRS One, D Nice, and DJ Scott La Rock. ... Public Enemy, also known as PE!, is a seminal hip hop group from Long Island, New York known for their politically charged lyrics, criticism of the media, and active interest in the concerns of the African American community. ... X-Clan is an alternative hip hop group from New York City, composed of Grand Verbalizer Funk Lesson, Lumumba Professor X, Grand Architect, The Rhythm Provider and MC Isis. ... Joseph Saddler (born January 1, 1958 in Bridgetown, Barbados), better known as Grandmaster Flash, is a hip hop musician and DJ; one of the pioneers of hip-hop DJing, cutting, and mixing. ...


On his second album, Shakur continued to rap about the social ills facing African-Americans, with songs like "The Streetz R Deathrow" and "Last Wordz." He also showed his compassionate side with the inspirational anthem "Keep Ya Head Up", while simultaneously putting his legendary aggressiveness on display with the title track from the album, Strictly 4 My N.I.G.G.A.Z. He even added a salute to his former group Digital Underground by including them on the playful track "I Get Around." Throughout his career, an increasingly aggressive attitude can be seen pervading Shakur's subsequent albums. Strictly 4 My N.I.G.G.A.Z. is a 1993 album released by rapper Tupac Shakur. ... Digital Underground is an alternative hip hop group from Oakland, California, known for outrageous costumes and live shows, their musics humorous tone and an endless parade of identities for member Shock G, whose Humpty Hump proved especially memorable after the hit 1990 (see 1990 in music) The Humpty Dance...


The contradictory themes of social inequality and injustice, unbridled aggression, compassion, playfulness, and hope all continued to shape Shakur's work, as witnessed with the release of his incendiary 1995 album Me Against the World. In 1996 Shakur released All Eyez on Me. With many tracks on the album considered to be classics, including "Ambitionz Az a Ridah", "I Ain't Mad at Cha", "California Love (RMX) [Remix]", "Life Goes On" and "Picture Me Rollin'", many critics consider this album to be a classic. All Eyez on Me was a change of style from his earlier works. While still containing conscious songs and themes, Shakur's album was heavily influenced by party tracks and tended to have a more "feel good" vibe than his earlier albums. Shakur described it as a celebration of life. Nonetheless, the album was critically and commercially successful. Me Against the World is a hip-hop album by Tupac Shakur, released on February 27, 1995 (see 1995 in music). ... All Eyez on Me is a double album by rapper Tupac Shakur. ... I Aint Mad at Cha is the name of a song by rapper 2Pac released as the forth single from his album All Eyez on Me. ... California Love is a rap song by Tupac Shakur featuring accompaniment from Dr. Dre. ...


Shakur's work has influenced many modern rap artists. Eminem,[44] Nas,[45] Lloyd Banks,[46] Rick Ross,[47] Ja Rule, The Game, and 50 Cent[48] all acknowledge his influence on their work. The likes of Snoop Dogg, Diddy, Pharrell, Ghostface Killa, Lil' Scrappy, DMX, Lil' Jon, Mary J. Blige, Juvenile, Big Boi, Andre 3000, Jermaine Dupri, WC, Sean Paul, Ice Cube, Missy Elliot, Mike Tyson and Nelly have all named songs by Shakur that they personally enjoyed.[49] Marshall Bruce Mathers III (born October 17, 1972), better known as Eminem, is an American Grammy and Academy Award Winning rapper, record producer, and actor from Detroit, Michigan. ... Nasir bin Olu Dara Jones (born September 14, 1973), known simply as Nas, formerly Nasty Nas, is a prominent American rapper. ... Christopher Lloyd(born April 30, 1982), better known as Lloyd Banks, is an American rapper and is a member of the popular group G-Unit. ... William Roberts born February 8th 1977 in Carol City, Florida) better known by his stage name Rick Ross, is a rapper from Carol City in northern Miami-Dade County, Florida. ... Jeffrey Atkins (born February 29, 1976), better known by his stage name Ja Rule, is an American rapper from Hollis, Queens, New York City, New York, United States. ... Jayceon Terell Taylor (born November 27, 1979 in Los Angeles,[1] California), better known by his stage name The Game, is a multi-platinum American rapper signed to Interscope Records. ... For the U.S. currency value, see Half dollar (United States coin). ... Calvin Cordozar Broadus, Jr. ... Sean John Combs (born November 4, 1969[1]) is an American Grammy-winning entertainment mogul, record producer, actor and rapper. ... Pharrell Williams (born April 5, 1973) is an American singer, rapper, composer, and songwriter. ... Ghostface Killah (born Dennis Coles, aka Tony Starks) is an American rapper and member of the Wu-Tang Clan. ... Lil Scrappy (born Darryl Kevin Richardson II on January 20, 1984 in Atlanta, Georgia) is an American rapper signed to BME Recordings. ... DMX can mean: DMX, alias for Earl Simmons, American Rap artist DMX Krew, an electronic music producer Digital Multiplex or DMX-512, a lighting communications protocol. ... Lil Jon This article is about the American rap producer. ... Mary Jane Blige (born January 11, 1971[1]), is a six-time Grammy Award-winning American R&B, soul, and hip-hop soul singer, songwriter, producer, and actress who has sold over sixty-five million albums and singles worldwide. ... Juvenile (born Terius Gray on March 25, 1975 in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA) is an African American rapper. ... Big Boi (born Antwan André Patton on February 1, 1975 in Savannah, Georgia) is an American hip hop artist and producer; one half of the alternative hip-hop duo OutKast. ... Andr 3000 (born Andr Benjamin on May 27, 1975 in Atlanta, Georgia) is an African American hip hop artist and producer; one half of the successful and avant-garde hip-hop duo OutKast. ... Jermaine Dupri also known simply as JD (born Jermaine Dupri Mauldin on September 23, 1972) is an African-American record producer and rapper. ... WC or Wc may be: WC (rapper), hardcore gangsta rapper and member of the Westside Connection trio. ... Sean Paul Ryan Francis Henriques (born January 8, 1973) is a popular Jamaican reggae and dancehall artist. ... OShea Jackson (born June 15, 1969 in South Central, Los Angeles, California), is a rapper, actor and film director, who has legally adopted his stage name, Ice Cube. ... Missy Elliott on the cover of her album Missy Elliott (born Melissa Arnette Elliott on July 1, 1971 in Portsmouth, Virginia), formerly known as Missy Misdemeanor Elliott, is the first female hip hop superstar, known for a long series of hits including The Rain, Shes A Bitch, Get Ur... Mike Tyson, born June 30, 1966, in Brooklyn, New York, USA and named Michael Gerard Tyson, is a former World Heavyweight Champion. ... Cornell Haynes Jr. ...


Legacy

Tupac Shakur has one of the largest personal legacies of any music artist in history. The music and messages in his work pervaded the styles of the following generations and his music had great impact all over the nation and world. At a Mobb Deep concert following the death of the famed icon and release of his The Don Killuminati: The 7 Day Theory album, Cormega recalled in an interview that the fans were all shouting "Makaveli"[50], and emphasized the influence of the The Don Killuminati: The 7 Day Theory and of Shakur himself even in New York at the height of the media-dubbed 'Inter-coastal rivalry'. Mobb Deep, also known as The Infamous Mobb Deep, is a hip hop duo made up of Havoc and Prodigy. ... Makaveli: The Don Killuminati: 7 Day Theory was the final album recorded before Tupac Shakurs death. ... Cormega, born Corey McKay on April 27, 1976 in Brooklyn and raised in Queensbridge, New York, is an American rapper noted for his street topics and style representative of QB. He is also famous for his hip-hop feud with childhood friend and fellow rapper Nas. ...


To preserve Shakur's legacy, his mother founded the Shakur Family Foundation (later re-named the Tupac Amaru Shakur Foundation or TASF) in 1997. The TASF's stated mission is to "provide training and support for students who aspire to enhance their creative talents." The TASF sponsors essay contests, charity events, a performing arts day camp for teenagers and undergraduate scholarships. The Foundation officially opened the Tupac Amaru Shakur Center for the Arts (TASCA) in Stone Mountain, Georgia on June 11, 2005. A charitable organization (also known as a charity) is a trust, company or unincorporated association established for charitable purposes only. ... The performing arts include theater, motion pictures, drama, comedy, music, dance, opera, magic and the marching arts, such as brass bands, etc. ... The Tupac Amaru Shakur Center for the Arts, based in Stone Mountain, Georgia, is a performing arts center supported through the Tupac Amaru Shakur Foundation. ... Stone Mountain is a city located in DeKalb County, Georgia. ... June 11 is the 162nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (163rd in leap years), with 203 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Tupac: Resurrection, a 2003 documentary on Shakur's life
Tupac: Resurrection, a 2003 documentary on Shakur's life

On November 14, 2003, a documentary about Shakur entitled Tupac: Resurrection, was released under the supervision of his mother and narrated entirely in his voice. The movie was nominated for "Best Documentary" in the 2005 Academy Awards. Proceeds will go to a charity set up by Afeni Shakur. Image File history File links Tupac1. ... Image File history File links Tupac1. ... November 14 is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 47 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Academy Award for Documentary Feature is one of the most prestigious awards for documentary films. ... 77th Academy Awards Sunday, February 27, 2005 at the Kodak Theatre in Hollywood, California Hosts Preshow: Billy Bush, Jann Carl, Chris Connelly & Shaun Robinson Show: Chris Rock Crew Producer: Gilbert Cates Director: Louis J. Horvitz Duration 3 hours, 10 minutes The 77th Academy Awards, honoring the best in film for... Afeni Shakur Afeni Shakur (born Alice Faye Williams) (born January 22, 1947, in Lumberton, North Carolina) is the mother of the famous American rapper Tupac Shakur and was an important member of the Black Panther Party. ...


On April 17, 2003, Harvard University co-sponsored an academic symposium entitled "All Eyez on Me: Tupac Shakur and the Search for the Modern Folk Hero." The speakers discussed a wide range of topics dealing with Shakur's impact on everything from entertainment to sociology.[51] April 17 is the 107th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (108th in leap years). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) , is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. Founded in 1636,[1] Harvard is the oldest institution of higher learning still operating in the United States. ...


Many of the speakers discussed Shakur's status and public persona, including State University of New York English professor Mark Anthony Neal, who gave the talk "Thug Nigga Intellectual: Tupac as Celebrity Gramscian" in which he argued that Shakur was an example of the "organic intellectual" expressing the concerns of a larger group.[52] Professor Neal has also indicated in his writings that the death of Shakur has left a "leadership void amongst hip-hop artists."[53] Neal further describes Tupac as a "walking contradiction", a status that allowed him to "make being an intellectual accessible to ordinary people." The State University of New York, abbreviated SUNY (IPA pronunciation: ) is a system of public institutions of higher education in New York, United States. ...


Professor of Communications Murray Forman, of Northeastern University, spoke of the mythical status surrounding Shakur's life and death. He addressed the symbolism and mythology surrounding Shakur's death in his talk entitled "Tupac Shakur: O.G. (Ostensibly Gone)". Among his findings were that Shakur's fans have "succeeded in resurrecting Tupac as an ethereal life force."[54] In "From Thug Life to Legend: Realization of a Black Folk Hero", Professor of Music at Northeastern University, Emmett Price, compared Shakur's public image to that of the trickster-figures of African-American folklore which gave rise to the urban "bad-man" persona of the post-slavery period. He ultimately described Shakur as a "prolific artist" who was "driven by a terrible sense of urgency" in a quest to "unify mind, body, and spirit."[55] Northeastern University (NU) is a private research university in Boston, Massachusetts, in the New England region of the United States. ... // For the Derek Sherinian album, see Mythology (Derek Sherinian album). ...


Michael Dyson, University of Pennsylvania Avalon Professor of Humanities and African American Studies and author of the book Holler If You Hear Me: Searching for Tupac Shakur[56] indicated that Shakur "spoke with brilliance and insight as someone who bears witness to the pain of those who would never have his platform. He told the truth, even as he struggled with the fragments of his identity."[56] At one Harvard Conference the theme was Shakur's impact on entertainment, race relations, politics and the "hero/martyr".[57] In late 1997, the University of California, Berkeley offered a student-led course entitled "History 98: Poetry and History of Tupac Shakur."[58] The University of California, Berkeley (also known as UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, and by other names, see below) is the oldest and flagship campus of the ten-campus University of California system. ...


In August 2006 Tupac Shakur Legacy was released. The interactive biography was written by Jamal Joseph. It features unseen family photographs, intimate stories, and over 20 removable reproductions of his handwritten song lyrics, contracts, scripts, poetry, and other personal papers. Tupac Shakur Legacy (ISBN 074329260) is an official interactive biography of Tupac Shakur released on August 16, 2006. ... Jamal Joseph is a writer, director, producer, poet, activist, and educator. ...


Shakur's album 6th posthumous studio album, Pac's Life, was released on November 21, 2006 to commemorate the 10th anniversary of Shakur's death. Even 10 years after his death he is still considered one of the most popular artists in the music industry.[59] Pacs Life is the sixth posthumously released studio album from the late hip hop icon Tupac Shakur, commemorating the 10 year anniversary of the death of the late poet, activist, actor, and hip-hop icon. ... November 21 is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...


Records

Although Tupac Shakur's life was cut short in 1996, he still manages to hold and break new records even to this day.

  • In 1995, with the release of Shakur's Me Against the World became the first music artist to be incarcerated and have a #1 album on the Billboard 200 album at the same time. This was Shakur's Me Against the World as he was serving time at Clinton Correctional Facility.
  • In 1996, with the release of All Eyez on Me Shakur became the first rapper to release a two-disc album.
  • In 1996 Shakur also became the first rap artist to release two #1 albums on the Billboard 200 in the same year. Shakur's All Eyez on Me, released February 13th, 1996, and his first album released under the pseudonym, Makaveli, The Don Killuminati: The 7 Day Theory, also released that year on November 5th.
  • With over 75 million albums sold to date, Shakur is the highest selling rap artist of all-time. With very few updates on his sales, new albums still being released and the continued sales of his prior albums, this number continues to rise.

Me Against the World is a hip-hop album by Tupac Shakur, released on February 27, 1995 (see 1995 in music). ... The Billboard 200 is a ranking of the 200 highest-selling music albums and EPs in the United States, published weekly by Billboard magazine. ... Me Against the World is a hip-hop album by Tupac Shakur, released on February 27, 1995 (see 1995 in music). ... Clinton Correctional Facility is a maximum-security New York state prison located in the Adirondack village of Dannemora. ... All Eyez on Me is a double album by rapper Tupac Shakur. ... The Billboard 200 is a ranking of the 200 highest-selling music albums and EPs in the United States, published weekly by Billboard magazine. ... All Eyez on Me is a double album by rapper Tupac Shakur. ... Makaveli: The Don Killuminati: 7 Day Theory was the final album recorded before Tupac Shakurs death. ...

Awards

During his lifetime, and since his death, Tupac's body of work has always been highly regarded by his fans and entertainment industry insiders alike. Here are some of the industry and fan awards Tupac has received for his work:

  • At the 1994 American music awards, he was nominated for favorite rap/hip hop artist.
  • At the American music awards held on January 29 1996, he was awarded favorite rap/hip hop artist.
  • His Album Me Against the World was nominated for a 1996 Grammy Award for Best Rap Album.
  • He was also nominated for Best Solo performance at 1996 Grammy's for his hit song, "Dear Mama".[60]
  • In 1996, his chart topping album, All Eyez on Me was nominated for a 1997 Grammy Award for Best Rap Album.
  • Also in 1997, his hits "California Love," featuring Dr. Dre and Roger Troutman, and "How Do You Want It", featuring KC and JoJo, were both nominated for the 1997 Grammy for Best Rap Performance By A Duo Or Group.[61]
  • His moving track, "Changes" was nominated for the 2000 Grammy Award for Best Rap Solo Performance.[62]
  • Shakur was inducted into the Hip-Hop Hall of Fame in 2002.[63]
  • In 2003, MTV's "22 Greatest MCs" countdown listed Tupac as the "number 1 MC", as voted by the viewers.[64]
  • In 2004, at the VH1 Hip Hop Honors Shakur was honored along with DJ Hollywood, Kool Herc, KRS-One, Public Enemy, Run-DMC, Rock Steady Crew, and Sugarhill Gang.[65]
  • Also in 2004, a VIBE magazine poll rated Shakur "the greatest rapper of all time" as voted by fans.
  • Again in 2004, he was nominated a Black Reel award, for his song Runnin' Dying To Live from the movie about his life, Tupac Resurrection.
  • In 2005, Top Soundtrack Song of the Year: "Runnin' (Dying To Live)" from Tupac: Resurrection by Shakur featuring The Notorious B.I.G. at the 18th Annual [SCAP Rhythm and Soul Music Awards].
  • Also in 2005, MTV listed Tupac's The Don Killuminati: The 7 Day Theory (released under the pseudonym "Makaveli") as one of the "Top 10 Greatest Hip-Hop Albums of All Time."
  • At the First Annual Turks & Caicos International Film Festival held on Tuesday, October 17, 2006, Tupac Shakur was honored for his undeniable voice and talent and as a performer who crossed racial, ethnic, cultural and medium lines, his mother, Afeni Shakur accepted the award on Tupac's behalf.[66]

Me Against the World is a hip-hop album by Tupac Shakur, released on February 27, 1995 (see 1995 in music). ... All Eyez on Me is a double album by rapper Tupac Shakur. ... VH1 (VH-1: Video Hits One until 1994) is an American cable television channel that was created in January 1985 by Warner-Amex Satellite Entertainment, at the time a division of Warner Communications and owners of MTV. VH1 and sister channel MTV are currently part of the MTV Networks division... Hip Hop Honors was a one-time program that aired on VH1 in November 2004. ... Vibe or VIBE may refer to: VIBE, a magazine about music artists, actors and other entertainers owned by Quincy Jones. ... Rapping is one of the elements of hip hop and the distinguishing feature of hip hop music; it is a form of rhyming lyrics spoken rhythmically over musical instruments, with a musical backdrop of sampling, scratching and mixing by DJs. ... Makaveli: The Don Killuminati: 7 Day Theory was the final album recorded before Tupac Shakurs death. ...

Discography

This following is a discography for rapper Tupac Shakur, who is known as the top-selling rapper in the world, having sold over 75 million albums worldwide. ...

Albums

Studio albums

2Pacalypse Now was Tupac Shakurs debut album, released in November 1991. ... Strictly 4 My N.I.G.G.A.Z. is a 1993 album released by rapper Tupac Shakur. ... Me Against the World is a hip-hop album by Tupac Shakur, released on February 27, 1995 (see 1995 in music). ... All Eyez on Me is a double album by rapper Tupac Shakur. ... Makaveli: The Don Killuminati: 7 Day Theory was the final album recorded before Tupac Shakurs death. ...

Posthumous created studio albums

R U Still Down? (Remember Me) was the first posthumous album by Tupac Shakur, released in 1997. ... Still I Rise is an album by 2Pac and his group The Outlawz excluding member Hussein Fatal for undisclosed reasons. ... Until the End of Time is a posthumous album release from the late rapper Tupac Shakur. ... Better Dayz is the sixth posthumous album released by Tupac Shakurs mother, Afeni Shakur. ... Loyal to the Game is an album containing previously unreleased music recorded by Tupac Shakur before his death in 1996. ... Pacs Life is the sixth posthumously released studio album from the late hip hop icon Tupac Shakur, commemorating the 10 year anniversary of the death of the late poet, activist, actor, and hip-hop icon. ...

Other albums

Greatest Hits is a double disc greatest hits album for rapper 2Pac, released by Death Row Records in 1998. ... The Rose that Grew from Concrete is an album based on the poetry of Tupac Shakur, released in 2000. ... Nu-Mixx Klazzics is a remix album by 2Pac, released in 2003 by Death Row Records. ... 2Pac Live is an album by rapper Tupac Shakur. ... Outline This album features some recordings of Tupacs poetry in musical form, by other well known artists such Ludacris and Bone Thugs n Harmony. ...

Filmography

Year Title Role Notes
1991 Nothing But Trouble Himself (Brief appearance)
1992 Juice Bishop First starring role
1993 Poetic Justice Lucky Co-starred with Janet Jackson
1994 Above the Rim Birdie
1996 Bullet Tank Released one month after Shakur's death.
1997 Gridlock'd Ezekiel 'Spoon' Whitmore Released several months after Shakur's death.
1997 Gang Related Detective Rodríguez Shakur's last performance in a film.
2003 Tupac: Resurrection Himself Official documentary
2008 Live 2 Tell (Screenwriter) Expected 2007

This following is a filmography for actor and rapper Tupac Shakur ... // April 28 - Bonnie Raitt marries actor Michael Noonan OKeefe in New York Tiny Toon Adventures: How I Spent My Vacation is made. ... Nothing But Trouble is a comedy film released in 1991. ... This is a list of film-related events in 1992. ... Juice (1992) is an urban film that has gained a certain classic status. ... // March 31 - Actor Brandon Lee is accidentally killed during the filming of The Crow. ... DVD cover Poetic Justice is a 1993 drama/romance film starring Tupac Shakur and Janet Jackson and directed by John Singleton. ... // November 1 - George Lucas leaves the day-to-day operations of his filmmaking business and starts a sabbatical (while on sabbatical, he wrote the prequel Star Wars trilogy). ... Above the Rim is a 1994 basketball-drama film, written by Jeff Pollack and Benny Medina, and directed by Jeff Pollack. ... This is a list of film-related events in 1996. ... Bullet is a 1996 action crime drama starring Tupac Shakur, Mickey Rourke and Adrien Brody. ... This is a list of film-related events in 1997. ... Gridlockd is a 1997 film starring Tupac Shakur, Tim Roth, and Thandie Newton, and directed by Vondie Curtis-Hall. ... This is a list of film-related events in 1997. ... Gang Related {1997) is a film written and directed by Jim Kouf which stars James Belushi and Tupac Shakur. ... // February 24 - The Pianist, directed by Roman Polanski, wins 7 Cesar Awards: Best Film, Best Director, Best Actor, Best Sound, Best Production Design, Best Music and Best Cinematography. ... Films scheduled to be released in 2008 include: // LR: Limited release in select cities WR: Wide-release to theaters IMAX: Release to IMAX theaters 9 24 The A-Team Artemis Fowl Battle Royale Benighted The Brazilian Job Bubba Nosferatu and the Curse of the She-Vampires Caitlin Captain Underpants The... Live 2 Tell is a movie written by Tupac Shakur while he was incarcerated at the Clinton Correctional Facility. ...

Documentaries

Tupac Shakur's life has been recognized in big and small documentaries each trying capture the many different events during his short lifetime, most notably the Academy Award nominated, Tupac: Resurrection released in 2003. This following shows a list of documentaries based on Tupac Shakur. ...

  • Tupac Shakur: Thug Immortal (1997)
  • Tupac Shakur: Words Never Die (TV) (1997)
  • Tupac Shakur: Before I Wake... (2001)
  • Tupac Shakur: Thug Angel: The Life of an Outlaw (2002)
  • Biggie & Tupac (2002)
  • 2Pac 4 Ever (2003)
  • Tupac: Resurrection (2003) (Academy Award nominated)
  • Tupac vs. (2004)
  • Tupac: The Hip Hop Genius (TV) (2004)
  • So Many Years, So Many Tears (2006)

Biggie & Tupac is a feature-length documentary film about Biggie Smalls and Tupac Shakur, made by Nick Broomfield. ...

Biographical books

  • Tupac: Resurrection (2003) ISBN 0-7434-7435-X
  • Tupac Shakur Legacy (2006) ISBN 0-7432-9260-X
  • Thru My Eyes: Thoughts on Tupac Shakur in Pictures and Words
  • Rebel for the Hell of It: The Life of Tupac Shakur
  • Death Rap Tupac Shakur
  • Tupac Shakur (They Died Too Young)
  • Got Your Back : The Life of a Bodyguard in the Hardcore World of Gangsta Rap
  • Back in the Day: My Life and Times With Tupac Shakur
  • The Killing of Tupac Shakur
  • Jesus and the Hip-Hop Prophets: Spiritual Insights from Lauryn Hill and Tupac Shakur
  • How Long Will They Mourn Me?: The Life and Legacy of Tupac Shakur
  • Holler If You Hear Me
  • Dear 2Pac
  • All Eyez on Me: The Life and Times of Tupac Shakur
  • Tupac (Hip Hop)
  • Tupac: A Thug Life
  • Tough Love: Cultural Criticism & Familial Observations on the life and death of Tupac Shakur (Black Words Series)
  • Tupac Shakur (Just the Facts Biographies)
  • Tupac Shakur (People in the News)
  • Tupac Shakur (Rock Music Library)
  • Tupac and Elvis (Inevitably Restless)
  • Tupac Shakur (Hip-Hop Stars)
  • Static: My Tupac Shakur Story
  • Tupac Shakur: 2Pac in the Studio (The Studio Years (1989 - 1996))

Tupac Shakur Legacy (ISBN 074329260) is an official interactive biography of Tupac Shakur released on August 16, 2006. ...

Poetry books

  • The Rose That Grew From Concrete (1999) ISBN 0-671-02844-8
  • Inside a Thug's Heart (2004) ISBN 0-7582-0789-1

See also

This following is a discography for rapper Tupac Shakur, who is known as the top-selling rapper in the world, having sold over 75 million albums worldwide. ... This following is a filmography for actor and rapper Tupac Shakur ... This following shows a list of documentaries based on Tupac Shakur. ... // Timeline: Life of Tupac Shakur This is a timeline of the events in the life of rap superstar Tupac Shakur. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Rapper Tupac Shakur had several well known feuds with rappers. ... Amaru Records was founded by Tupac Shaukrs mother, Afeni, in early 1997 to handle his music after his untimely death in September 1996. ... The Tupac Amaru Shakur Center for the Arts, based in Stone Mountain, Georgia, is a performing arts center supported through the Tupac Amaru Shakur Foundation. ... Thug Life was a hip hop group founded by multi-platinum selling hip hop artist 2Pac in late 1993. ... Outlawz (also The Outlawz and Outlaw Immortalz) is an American rap group from Essex County, New Jersey, founded by Tupac Shakur in late 1995 after his release from prison. ... Afeni Shakur Afeni Shakur (born Alice Faye Williams) (born January 22, 1947, in Lumberton, North Carolina) is the mother of the famous American rapper Tupac Shakur and was an important member of the Black Panther Party. ... Assata Shakur[1] (born July 16, 1947) under the name Joanne Deborah Byron Chesimard, is an African-American activist who was a member of the Black Panther Party and Black Liberation Army. ... This is the list of best selling music artists (including groups) worldwide, alltime. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ XXL Magazine October 2006
  2. ^ Vibe.com, Tupac Shakur's Legacy Continues
  3. ^ MTV2 Presents: 22 Greatest MC's broadcast July 2003
  4. ^ Tupac:Resurrection, published by Atria Books, 2003, ISBN 0-7434-7434-1
  5. ^ Afeni Shakur, brief biography in PDF format, published 2002 by Amaru Entertainment
  6. ^ Joseph, J. Tupac Shakur Legacy. Atria Books. 2006.
  7. ^ LAbyrinth: A Detective Investigates the Murders of Tupac Shakur and Biggie Smalls, the Implication of Death Row Records' Suge Knight, and the Origins of the Los Angeles Police Scandal by Randall Sullivan, Publisher: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2002. ISBN 0-87113-838-7 pg 76
  8. ^ published by Atria Books, 2003, ISBN 0-7434-7434-1' Pg 17
  9. ^ LAbyrinth, pg 77
  10. ^ Back in the Day: My Life and Times with Tupac Shakur
  11. ^ Back in the Day: My Life and Times with Tupac Shakur
  12. ^ Tupac's Book Shelf: "All Eyez on Me: Tupac Shakur and the Search for a Modern Folk Hero," W.E.B. Du Bois Institute for Afro-American Research, Harvard University, April 17, 2003
  13. ^ Tupac's Book Shelf: "All Eyez on Me: Tupac Shakur and the Search for a Modern Folk Hero," W.E.B. Du Bois Institute for Afro-American Research, Harvard University, April 17, 2003
  14. ^ Tupac's Book Shelf,Mark Anthony Neal
  15. ^ Thug Angel
  16. ^ Top 100 Albums. Recording Industry Association of America (2006-03-08). Retrieved on 2006-04-20.
  17. ^ http://tupacmania.net/modules/articles/article.php?id=300
  18. ^ Baby Boy Trivia IMDB. URL last accessed May 17, 2006.
  19. ^ Tupac: A Thug Life
  20. ^ Jones, J., "Tupac Comes to Life for Bay Area Teens". Northgate News Online, U.C.-Berkeley Graduate School of Journalism. Nov. 18, 2003. Retrieved from http://journalism.berkeley.edu/ngno/stories/001588.html on Apr. 9, 2006.
  21. ^ D., Davey. "Tupac Shakur: Online With Tupac" (Interview). nd. Retrieved from http://www.allhiphop.com/features/?ID=587 on Apr. 9, 2006.
  22. ^ Smothers, R. "Rapper Charged in Shootings of Off-Duty Officers". New York Times. Nov. 2, 1993
  23. ^ James, George, "Rapper Faces Prison Term For Sex Abuse", New York Times, B1 (February 8, 1995); also Olen, Helaine, "Rapper Shakur Gets Prison for Assault", Los Angeles Times, A4 (February 8, 1995); Romano, Lois, "The Reliable Source", Washington Post, B3 (February 8, 1995)
  24. ^ "Marin slaying case against rapper opens", San Francisco Chronicle, Nov. 3, 1995
  25. ^ "Settlement in Rapper's Trial for Boy's Death". San Francisco Chronicle. November 8, 1995.
  26. ^ "Rapper Is Sentenced To 120 Days in Jail". New York Times. April 5, 1996.
  27. ^ "Timeline: 25 Years of Rap Records". BBC News. Oct. 11, 2004. Retrieved on Apr. 10, 2006, from http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/music/3734910.stm
  28. ^ Au, W. J. "Yo, Niccolo!". December 11, 1996. Salon.com. Retrieved on April 10, 2006, from http://archive.salon.com/media/media2961211.html
  29. ^ Info from StreetGangs.com, from http://www.streetgangs.com/topics/tupac/091496passes.html
  30. ^ "Biography: Suge Knight". AOL Music. nd. Retrieved on April 10, 2006, from http://music.aol.com/artist/main.adp?tab=bio&artistid=279843&albumid=0
  31. ^ http://www.digitaldreamdoor.com/pages/best_sold_albums.html
  32. ^ XXL Magazine October 2006
  33. ^ Shakur riding in BMW on September 7, 1996, 1
  34. ^ Shakur riding in BMW, 2
  35. ^ Tupac Shakur Legacy
  36. ^ http://www.allhiphop.com/hiphopnews/?ID=6135 Tupac's life after death
  37. ^ "Paper investigates rapper murder". BBC News. Sep. 6, 2002. Retrieved on Apr. 10, 2006, from http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/music/2240857.stm
  38. ^ "Fresh probe over rapper's murder". BBC News. March 18, 2006. Retrieved on April 10, 2006, from http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/4820224.stm
  39. ^ "Rapper's family denies murder theory". BBC News. September 9, 2002. Retrieved on April 10, 2006, from http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/music/2246862.stm
  40. ^ Jones, S. "The Truth is Being Covered Up". Philadelphia Weekly. September 18, 2002.
  41. ^ MTV's Big Urban Myths
  42. ^ October 2006 XXL Magazine
  43. ^ This work is not released by a major publishing house.
  44. ^ MTV, Eminem: Reconstructing Tupac
  45. ^ MTV, They Told Us
  46. ^ Crave Music Lloyd Banks: The Savior
  47. ^ http://www.allhiphop.com/features/?ID=1526
  48. ^ Rolling Stone, Tupac Shakur by 50 Cent
  49. ^ http://www.mtv.com/bands/t/tupac/news_feature_102703_3/ All Ears On Me: Essential Tupac
  50. ^ http://www.allhiphop.com/features/?ID=1532
  51. ^ Gewertz, K. "Symposium analyzes, celebrates 'Thug'". Harvard University Gazette. April 24, 2003. Retrieved from http://www.news.harvard.edu/gazette/2003/04.24/11-hiphop.html on April 16, 2006.
  52. ^ Neal, M. "Thug Nigga Intellectual: Tupac as Celebrity Gramscian". Harvard University. 2003.
  53. ^ Neal, M. "New Black Man". Retrieved on ppApril 16]], 2006, from http://newblackman.blogspot.com/2005/09/race-ing-katrina.html
  54. ^ Forman, M. "Tupac Shakur: O.G. (Ostensibly Gone)". Harvard University. 2003.
  55. ^ Price, E. "From Thug Life to Legend: Realization of a Black Folk Hero". Harvard University. 2003.
  56. ^ a b Dyson, M. Holler If You Hear Me: Searching for Tupac Shakur. BasicCivitas Books. 2001.,
  57. ^ Harvard Gazette May 1, 2003 edition, writer Ken Gewertz
  58. ^ "Berkeley University Offers Class On Tupac". VH1.com. Sep. 10, 1997. Retrieved on July 26, 2006, from http://www.vh1.com/artists/news/1171/09101997/2pac.jhtml
  59. ^ http://home.businesswire.com/portal/site/google/index.jsp?ndmViewId=news_view&newsId=20070206005852&newsLang=en
  60. ^ Me Against The World, Notes, by CD Universe, Me Against the World and Dear Mama nominated for Grammy.
  61. ^ http://www.cduniverse.com/search/xx/music/pid/6982459/a/All+Eyez+On+Me.htm All Eyez On Me Album, Notes section, by CD Universe, All Eyez on Me Grammy Nominations.
  62. ^ http://www.cduniverse.com/productinfo.asp?pid=1076506&BAB=A Greatest Hits Album, Notes section, by CD Universe, retrieved on 18, January, 2006.
  63. ^ BET.com - Notorious B.I.G., Tupac Shakur To Be Inducted Into Hip-Hop Hall Of Fame
  64. ^ MTV2 Presents: 22 Greatest MC's broadcast July 2003
  65. ^ http://www.vh1.com/shows/events/hip_hop_honors/2006/honorees_archive.jhtml?year=2004
  66. ^ http://www.fest21.com/en/tags/turks_and_caicos_international_film_festival Turks and Caicos International Film Festival - Festival To Honor John Debney and Tupac Shakur, Friday, October 13
  67. ^ Jacques Agnant vs Estate of Tupac Shakur (Compl. P 15)

Christopher Wallace (May 21, 1972 - March 9, 1997), also known as Biggie Smalls (after a stylish gangster in the 1975 comedy, Lets Do it Again), but best known as The Notorious B.I.G., was a popular Brooklyn-born rapper of the mid 1990s. ... Suge Knight, CEO of Death Row Records Marion Suge Knight, a. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... March 8 is the 67th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (68th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... April 20 is the 110th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (111th in leap years). ... May 17 is the 137th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (138th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 8 is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 53 days remaining. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 11 is the 345th day (346th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... April 10 is the 100th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (101st in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... April 10 is the 100th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (101st in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 7 is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years). ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... The current BBC News logo BBC News and Current Affairs is a major arm of the BBC responsible for the corporations newsgathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... March 18 is the 77th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (78th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... April 10 is the 100th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (101st in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 9 is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years). ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... April 10 is the 100th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (101st in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 18 is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years). ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... April 16 is the 106th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (107th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 26 is the 207th day (208th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 158 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Persondata
NAME Shakur, Tupac
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Tupac Amaru Shakur, Tupac, Pac, 2Pac, and Makaveli
SHORT DESCRIPTION American rap artist, actor, activist, and poet
DATE OF BIRTH June 16, 1971
PLACE OF BIRTH New York City, New York
DATE OF DEATH September 13, 1996
PLACE OF DEATH Las Vegas, Nevada

  Results from FactBites:
 
Tupac Shakur - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5166 words)
Tupac Amaru Shakur was born in the Harlem section of Manhattan in New York City.
Shakur's godfather, Elmer "Geronimo" Pratt, was convicted of murdering a schoolteacher during a 1968 robbery.
Shakur's close childhood friend and member of the Outlawz, Yafeu "Yaki Kadafi" Fula, was in the convoy when the shooting happened and indicated to police that he might be able to identify the assailants.
Tupac Shakur 2pac Fan Site - Tupac.tv | Biography (3906 words)
Tupac Shakur's name was adopted the alias "Tupac" from Tupac Amaru, the last Inca royal heir in the captured Inca Empire in western South America, which resisted Spanish imperialism in what is now Peru.
Tupac Shakur was born Lesane Parish Crooks in the Bronx, New York City on June 16, 1971 to Afeni Shakur, a member of the Black Panthers.
Tupac alone was shot a total of five times while he played dead on the ground and also robbed of thousands of dollars of gold jewelry he was wearing.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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