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Encyclopedia > Tunisia
الجمهورية التونسية
Al-Jumhūriyyah at-Tūnisiyyah
Tunisian Republic
Flag of Tunisia
Flag Coat of Arms
MottoHurriya, Nidham, 'Adala
"Liberty, Order, Justice"
AnthemHimat Al Hima
Location of Tunisia
Capital
(and largest city)
Tunis
36°50′N, 10°9′E
Official languages Arabic
Demonym Tunisian
Government Republic
 -  President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali
 -  Prime Minister Mohamed Ghannouchi
Independence
 -  from France March 20, 1956 
Area
 -  Total 163,610 km² (92nd)
63,170 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 5.0
Population
 -  July 2005 estimate 10,102,000 (78th)
 -  1994 census 8,785,711 
 -  Density 62/km² (133rd (2005))
161/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2007 estimate
 -  Total $ 97.74 billion (60th)
 -  Per capita $9,630 (73rd)
Gini (2000) 39.8 (medium
HDI (2007) 0.766 (medium) (91st)
Currency Tunisian dinar (TND)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 -  Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Internet TLD .tn
Calling code +216

Tunisia (Arabic: تونس‎ Tūnis), officially the Tunisian Republic (الجمهورية التونسية‎), is a country situated on the Mediterranean coast of North Africa. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and Libya to the southeast. It is the northernmost African country and the smallest of the nations situated along the Atlas mountain range. Around forty percent of the country is composed of the Sahara desert, with much of the remainder consisting of particularly fertile soil, and a 1300 km coastline. Both played a prominent role in ancient times, first with the famous Phoenician city of Carthage, and later, as the Africa Province, which became known as the bread basket of the Roman Empire. Image File history File links Flag_of_Tunisia. ... Flag ratio: 2:3 The national flag of Tunisia has undergone very minor changes since it was first adapted in 1831 by the Tunisian bey Hassine I. The crescent and star are traditional symbols of Islam, and are also considered to be symbols of good luck. ... The coat of arms of Tunisia display a ship along with a lion holding a sword, and a balance. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Humat Al-Hima (Arabic: ‎ Defenders of the Homeland) is the national anthem of Tunisia since November 1987. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Arabic redirects here. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... This page contains a list of presidents of Tunisia since 1957. ... General Zine El Abidine Ben Ali (زين العابدين بن علي; born in Hammam-Sousse on September 3, 1936) is the President of the Tunisian Republic since 7 November 1987 and only the second one since its independence from France on 20 March 1956. ... The Prime Minister of Tunisia is the head of government of Tunisia. ... Mohamed Ghannouchi (born August 18, 1944) is the current (February 2005) Prime Minister of Tunisia, a position he has held since 17 November 1999. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here surface areas between 100,000 km² and 1,000,000 km². ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth distribution. ... This page talks about Human Development Index, for other HDIs see HDI (disambiguation) World map indicating Human Development Index (2007). ... This talks about the countries in the Human Development Index, for information on the Human Development Index, please Click Here World map indicating Human Development Index (2007) (Colour-blind compliant map) For red-green color vision problems. ... ISO 4217 Code TND User(s) Tunisia Inflation 2. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Central European Time (CET) is one of the names of the time zone that is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... UTC redirects here. ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Central European Summer Time (CEST) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... UTC redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .tn is the Internet country code top-level domain ( ccTLD) for Tunisia. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... Arabic redirects here. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Map showing the location of the Atlas Mountains (colored red) across North Africa The Atlas Mountains (Arabic: ‎) are a mountain range in northwest Africa extending about 2,400 km (1,500 miles) through Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia, and including The Rock of Gibraltar. ... The Sahara is the worlds second largest desert (second to Antarctica), over 9,000,000 km² (3,500,000 mi²), located in northern Africa and is 2. ... Phoenicia (or Phenicia ,[1] from Biblical Phenice [1]) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coast of modern day Lebanon and Syria. ... For other uses, see Carthage (disambiguation). ... The Roman Empire ca. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of Tunisia

At the beginning of recorded history, Tunisia was inhabited by Berber tribes. Its coast was settled by Phoenicians starting as early as the 10th century BC. The city of Carthage was founded in the 9th century B.C. by settlers from Tyre, now in modern day Lebanon. Legend says that Queen Dido founded the city in 814 B.C., as retold in the later Roman Epic Aeneid. The settlers of Carthage brought their culture and religion from the Phoenicians and other Canaanites. The present day Republic of Tunisia, al Jumhuriyah at-Tunisiyah, has over ten million people, almost all Arab-Berber. ... Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. ... Phoenicia (or Phenicia ,[1] from Biblical Phenice [1]) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coast of modern day Lebanon and Syria. ... For other uses, see Carthage (disambiguation). ... The Triumphal Arch Tyre (Arabic , Phoenician , Hebrew Tzor, Tiberian Hebrew , Akkadian , Greek Týros) is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon. ... Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598 Galleria Borghese, Rome The Aeneid (IPA English pronunciation: ; in Latin Aeneis, pronounced — the title is Greek in form: genitive case Aeneidos) is a Latin epic written by Virgil in the 1st century BC (between 29 and 19 BC) that tells the legendary story... Map of Canaan For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ...


After a series of wars with the Greek city-states of Sicily in the 5th century BC, Carthage rose to power and eventually became the dominant civilization in the Western Mediterranean. The people of Carthage worshipped a pantheon of Middle Eastern gods including Baal and Tanit. Tanit's symbol, a simple female figure with extended arms and long dress, is a popular icon found in ancient sites. The founders of Carthage also established a Tophet which was altered in Roman times. The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... For other uses, see Baal (disambiguation). ... Basic Tanit symbol Tanit was a Carthaginian lunar goddess. ... Tophet is a location near Jerusalem where according to the Bible the Canaanites sacrificed children to the god Moloch by burning them alive. ...


Though the Romans referred to the new empire growing in the city of Carthage as Punic or Phoenician the empire built around Carthage was an independent political entity from the other Phoenician settlements in the Western Mediterranean. The Punics, (from Latin pūnicus meaning Phoenician) were a group of Western Semitic speaking peoples originating from Carthage in North Africa who traced their origins to a group of Phoenician and Cypriot settlers. ... Phoenicia (or Phenicia ,[1] from Biblical Phenice [1]) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coast of modern day Lebanon and Syria. ...

Minaret of the Zitouna Mosque, Tunis
Minaret of the Zitouna Mosque, Tunis

A Carthaginian invasion of Italy led by Hannibal during the Second Punic War, one of a series of wars with Rome, nearly crippled the rise of the Roman Empire. Carthage was eventually conquered by Rome in the 2nd century BC, a turning point which led to ancient Mediterranean civilization having been influenced mainly by European instead of African cultures. After the Roman conquest, the region became one of the granaries of Rome and was fully Latinized and Christianized. It was conquered by the Vandals in the 5th century AD and reconquered by the commander Belisarius in the 6th century during the rule of Byzantine emperor Justinian. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 2048 pixels, file size: 817 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 2048 pixels, file size: 817 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Hannibal (disambiguation). ... Combatants Roman Republic Carthage Commanders Publius Cornelius Scipio†, Tiberius Sempronius Longus Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus, Gaius Flaminius†, Fabius Maximus, Claudius Marcellus†, Lucius Aemilius Paullus†, Gaius Terentius Varro, Marcus Livius Salinator, Gaius Claudius Nero, Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus†, Masinissa, Minucius†, Servilius Geminus† Hannibal Barca, Hasdrubal Barca†, Mago Barca†, Hasdrubal Gisco†, Syphax... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Vandal and Vandali redirect here. ... // Flavius Belisarius (505(?) – 565) was one of the greatest generals of the Byzantine Empire and one of the most acclaimed generals in history. ... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ... Justinian may refer to: Justinian I, a Roman Emperor; Justinian II, a Byzantine Emperor; Justinian, a storeship sent to the convict settlement at New South Wales in 1790. ...


Arab imperialism

In the 7th century the region was conquered by Arab Muslims, who founded the city of Kairouan. Successive Muslim dynasties ruled, interrupted by Berber rebellions. The reigns of the Aghlabids (9th century) and of the Zirids (from 972), Berber followers of the Fatimids, were especially prosperous. When the Zirids angered the Fatimids in Cairo (1050), the latter sent in the Banu Hilal tribe to ravage Tunisia. The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Kairouan (Arabic القيروان) (also known as Kairwan, Kayrawan, Al Qayrawan) is a muslim holy city which ranks after Mecca and Medina as a place of pilgrimage. ... The Aghlabid dynasty of emirs ruled Ifriqiya (northern Africa), nominally on behalf of the Abbasid Caliph, for about a century, until overthrown by the new power of the Fatimids. ... The Zirids were a Berber dynasty, originating in Petite Kabylie among the Kutama tribe, that ruled Ifriqiya (roughly, modern Tunisia), initially on behalf of the Fatimids, for about two centuries, until weakened by the Banu Hilal and finally destroyed by the Almohads. ... The Fatimid Empire or Fatimid Caliphate ruled North Africa from A.D. 909 to 1171. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... The Banu Hilal were an Arab tribe that migrated from Arabia into North Africa in the 11th century, having been sent by the Fatimids to punish the Zirids for abandoning Shiism. ...


The coasts were held briefly by the Normans of Sicily in the 12th century and the following Arab reconquest made disappear the last Christians in Tunisia. In 1159, Tunisia was conquered by the Almohad caliphs. They were succeeded by the Berber Hafsids (c.1230 – 1574), under whom Tunisia prospered. In the late 16th century the coast became a pirate stronghold (see: Barbary States). In the last years of the Hafsids, Spain seized many of the coastal cities, but these were recovered by the Ottoman Empire. Under its Turkish governors, the Beys, Tunisia attained virtual independence. The Hussein dynasty of Beys, established in 1705, lasted until 1957. Norman conquests in red. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i. ... Flag of Tunis under the Hafsids according to the Catalan Atlas c. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Look up pirate and piracy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The states along the Barbary Coast, Algiers, Morocco, Tripoli, and Tunis, were collectively known as the Barbary States. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... For other uses of Turkish, see Turk (disambiguation). ... Categories: Stub | Ottoman Empire | Titles ...


French imperialism

In the mid-1800s, Tunisia's government under the rule of the Bey severely compromised its legitimacy by making several controversial financial decisions that led to its downfall. France began plans to take control of Tunisia when the Bey first borrowed large sums of money in an attempt to Westernize. This failing state facilitated the Algerian raids that occurred thereafter. The weakened Bey was powerless against these raids and unable to resist European colonization. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 335 KB) Summary Vandal B, 2005 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Tunisia Tunis Cathedral of St Vincent de Paul ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 335 KB) Summary Vandal B, 2005 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Tunisia Tunis Cathedral of St Vincent de Paul ... the cathedral towers The Cathedral of St Vincent de Paul is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Tunis. ... Westernization (or westernisation) is a process whereby traditional, long-established societies come under the influence of Western culture in such matters as industry and technology, law, politics and economics, lifestyle and diet, language and the alphabet, religion and values. ...


In 1878, a secret deal was made between the United Kingdom and France that decided the fate of the North African country. Provided that the French accepted British control of Cyprus, recently given to the United Kingdom, the British would in turn accept French control of Tunisia. This satisfied the French and led to their assumption of control in 1880, anticipating the Italians. Tunisia was formally made a French protectorate on May 12, 1881. A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... This article is about states protected and/or dominated by a foreign power. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


World War II

Main article: Tunisia Campaign

In 1942 – 1943 Tunisia was the scene of the first major operations by the Allied Forces (the British Commonwealth and the United States) against the Axis Powers (Italy and Germany) during World War II. The main body of the British army, advancing from their victory in Battle of el-Alamein under the command of British Field Marshal Montgomery, pushed into Tunisia from the south. The US and other allies, following their invasions of Algeria and Morocco in Operation Torch, invaded from the west. Combatants United Kingdom United States France Germany Italy Commanders Dwight D. Eisenhower Harold Alexander Keneth Anderson Bernard Montgomery Albert Kesselring Erwin Rommel Hans-Jürgen von Arnim Giovanni Messe The Tunisia Campaign (also known as the Battle of Tunisia), was a series of World War II battles that took place... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Map of El Alamein (Al Alamayn) El Alamein (or Al Alamayn) (Arabic: ) is a town in northern Egypt on the Mediterranean Sea coast. ... Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, KG, GCB, DSO, PC (IPA: ; 17 November 1887 â€“ 24 March 1976), often referred to as Monty, was an Anglo-Irish British Army officer. ... Combatants United States United Kingdom Free French Forces Vichy France Commanders Dwight Eisenhower Andrew Cunningham François Darlan Strength 73,500 60,000 Casualties 479+ dead 720 wounded 1,346+ dead 1,997 wounded Operation Torch (initially called Operation Gymnast) was the British-American invasion of French North Africa in...


General Rommel, commander of the Axis forces in North Africa, had hoped to inflict a similar defeat on the allies in Tunisia as German forces did in the Battle of France in 1940. Before the battle for Tunisia, the inexperienced allied forces had generally been unable to withstand German blitzkriegs and properly coordinate their operations. As such the battle for Tunisia was a major test for the allies. They figured out that in order to defeat Axis forces they would have to coordinate their actions and quickly recover from the inevitable setbacks the experienced German-Italian forces would inflict. Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel ( ) (15 November 1891 – 14 October 1944) was one of the most famous German field marshals of World War II. He was the commander of the Deutsches Afrika Korps and also became known by the nickname “The Desert Fox” (Wüstenfuchs,  ) for the skillful military campaigns he... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Axis powers. ... Combatants  France  United Kingdom  Canada  Czechoslovakia  Poland  Belgium  Netherlands  Luxembourg Germany Italy Commanders Maurice Gamelin, Maxime Weygand Lord Gort (British Expeditionary Force) Leopold III H.G. Winkelman Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Fedor von Bock (Army Group B) Wilhelm von Leeb (Army Group C) H.R.H. Umberto di... This article is about the military term. ...


On February 19, 1943, General Rommel launched an attack on the American forces in the Kasserine Pass region of Western Tunisia, hoping to inflict the kind of demoralizing and alliance-shattering defeat the Germans had dealt to Poland and France. The initial results were a disaster for the United States; the area around the Kasserine Pass is the site of many US war graves from that time. The Battle of the Kasserine Pass took place in World War II during the Battle of Tunisia, fought between the German Afrika Korps under General Erwin Rommel, and the Americans under General Lloyd Fredendall in the Kasserine Pass (a 2 mile wide gap in the Dorsal Chain of the Atlas... A war grave is a place where war dead are buried. ...


However, the American forces were ultimately able to reverse their retreat. Having learned a critical lesson in tank warfare, the Allies broke through the Mareth line on March 20, 1943. The allies subsequently linked up on April 8 and on May 2, 1943 the German-Italian Army in Tunisia surrendered. Thus, the United States, United Kingdom, Free French, and Polish (as well as other forces) were able to win a major battle as an allied army. It has been suggested that Mechanized warfare be merged into this article or section. ...


The battle, though often overshadowed by Stalingrad, represented a major allied victory of World War II largely because it forged the Alliance which would one day liberate Western Europe. Belligerents Germany Romania Italy Hungary Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Friedrich Paulus # Erich von Manstein Wolfram von Richthofen Petre Dumitrescu Constantin Constantinescu Italo Garibaldi Gusztáv Vitéz Jány Josef Stalin Vasiliy Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilyevskiy Georgiy Zhukov Semyon Timoshenko Konstantin Rokossovskiy Rodion Malinovskiy Andrei Yeremenko Strength Army Group B...


Independence

Before Western colonialism, Tunisia was ruled by a line of (Turkish colonial) Beys until 1881. Up until this point the Beys of Tunisia borrowed money from Europe to finance modernization within Tunisia. When the local population resented tax rises to fund the repayment the country found itself bankrupt. It is at this point that France, Britain and Italy placed the finances of Tunisia in administration via an international agreement.

Habib Bourguiba
Habib Bourguiba

Initially, Italy was the country that demonstrated the most desire to have Tunisia as a colony having investment, citizens and geographic proximity as motivation. However this was rebuffed when Britain and France co-operated to prevent this during the years 1871 – 1878 ending in Britain supporting French influence in Tunisia in exchange for dominion over Cyprus. France still had the issue of Italian influence and thus decided to find an excuse for a pre-emptive strike. Using the pretext of a Tunisian incursion into Algeria, France marched an army of about 36,000 personnel which quickly advanced to Tunis and forced the Bey to make terms in the form of the 1881 Treaty of Bardo (Al Qasr as Sa'id), which gave France control of Tunisian governance and making it a de-facto French protectorate. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Treaty of Bardo (or Treaty of Al-Qasr as-Said, Treaty of Kasser Said) was signed on May 12, 1881 between representatives of the French Empire and Tunisian bey Muhammed as-Sadiq. ...


Tunisia enjoyed certain benefits from French rule; however, the desire for self-governance remained and in 1910 Ali Bach Hamba and Bechir Sfar created the group of young Tunisians which led to the 1920 group called the “Destour” (constitution) party. Keeping the new movement under control led the French to use a combination of carrot-and-stick tactics that worked well but did not halt the momentum for independence. In 1934, a younger, more fervent element of the Destour party called the Neo-Destour emerged, with Habib Bourguiba, Dr Mahmoud Materi, Tahar Sfar and Bahri Guiga as their leaders. This new party was immediately declared illegal by the French administration, but received strong support from the fascist organizations of the Tunisian Italians.[1]


Habib Bourguiba spent a great deal of time in French prisons. However, this did little to stem his influence or halt the momentum for change. The Second World War played into Bourguiba’s hands as he was moved from Vichy French prisons to Rome, and then to Tunisia as the Axis powers courted his influence in Tunisia. Bourguiba never endorsed these requests. He did manage relocation to Tunisia and two months after this, the Allies claimed Tunisia.


In the following ten years, the struggle for independence continued and gained momentum. Bourguiba was again incarcerated from 1952 – 1954, which in turn caused an outbreak of guerrilla attacks by supporters. In 1954, things changed abruptly when Pierre Mendes-France became the leader of the French government and pursued a policy of pulling out from burdensome French colonies, with Tunisia in this category. This resulted in the April 1955 agreement which handed internal autonomy to Tunisian hands while international relations were managed by France, a similar situation to the Turkish Bey method of governance in pre-1881. Pierre Mendès-France Pierre Mendès France (pronounced Man-dez-Fronce) (10 January 1907 - 18 October 1982), French politician, was born in Paris, into a family of Portuguese Sephardic Jewish origin. ...


The Neo-Detour were now in control, but Bourguiba refused to take the helm until the French relinquished all control over Tunisia. He did not have to wait long, as the terrible Algerian War of Independence changed the French desire for colonialism, leading to the abolition of the Treaty of Bardo and Tunisia gaining full independence in March 20, 1956. Combatants FLN (1954-62) MNA (1954-62) France (1954-62) FAF (1960-61) OAS (1961-62) Commanders Mostefa Benboulaïd Ferhat Abbas Hocine Aït Ahmed Ahmed Ben Bella Krim Belkacem Larbi Ben MHidi Rabah Bitat Mohamed Boudiaf Messali Hadj Paul Cherrière (1954-55) Henri Lorillot (1955-56...


Bourguiba became Prime Minister and, after 1957, the first president of the Republic of Tunisia as the constitutional role of the Bey was abolished.


Present-day politics

Main article: Politics of Tunisia

Tunisia is a republic with a strong presidential system dominated by a single political party. President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali has been in office since 1987, the year he deposed Habib Bourguiba in a bloodless coup. The constitution has been changed twice to allow Ben Ali to remain in power: initially from two to three terms, then from three to five. The ruling party, the Democratic Constitutional Rally (RCD), was the sole legal party for 25 years, known previously as the Socialist Destourian Party (PSD). The RCD still dominates political life. Tunisia is a republic. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A presidential system, also called a congressional system, is a system of government where an executive branch exists and presides (hence the term) separately from the legislature, to which it is not accountable and which cannot in normal circumstances dismiss it. ... General Zine El Abidine Ben Ali (زين العابدين بن علي; born in Hammam-Sousse on September 3, 1936) is the President of the Tunisian Republic since 7 November 1987 and only the second one since its independence from France on 20 March 1956. ... Habib Bourguiba - 1980 Habib Ben Ali Bourguiba (Arabic: حبيب بورقيبة) (born August 3, 1903 in Monastir, Tunisia – died April 6, 2000) was a Tunisian statesman and the first President of the Republic of Tunisia from July 25, 1957 to November 7, 1987. ... The Democratic Constitutional Rally (French: Rassemblement Constitutionel Démocratique) is the ruling party in Tunisia. ...


Facing virtually no opposition, the President is elected to 5-year terms. He appoints a Prime Minister and cabinet, who play a strong role in the execution of policy. Regional governors and local administrators also are appointed by the central government. Largely consultative mayors and municipal councils are elected. There is a unicameral legislative body, the Chamber of Deputies, which has 182 seats, 20% of which are reserved for the opposition parties. It plays a growing role as an arena for debate on national policy but never originates legislation. The Chamber virtually always passes bills presented by the executive with only one minor change. The judiciary is nominally independent but responds to executive direction, especially in political cases. The military is professional and does not play a role in politics. Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ...


Tunisia is noteworthy for its lack of public political discourse. Tunisia's precise political situation is hard to determine due to a strong level of silence and lack of transparency maintained by the government. There is compelling evidence that dissidents are routinely arrested, for crimes as minor as viewing banned web sites. There are currently six legal opposition parties all with their own newspapers. However, the Committee to Protect Journalists, in its 2005 country report on Tunisia, details a persistent record of harassment, persecution, imprisonment, and physical harm perpetrated on journalists critical of the government. Even Western journalists, when writing on Tunisian soil, are not spared this fate.[2]


Despite official proclamations, the Tunisian government imposes significant restrictions on freedom of speech and human rights. As such Tunisians are noticeably insecure when discussing political matters. The internet, however, is the most immediately apparent sign of the pervasiveness of state control. In fact the growth of the internet has been a major issue for Tunisia. As tourism (mainly from Europe) has expanded in Tunisia, so has the number of Internet Cafes. Tunisian internet access is invariably censored. This censorship is targeted at material deemed pornographic as well as press or chat room commentary that is critical of the government. For example, the website of the Al Arabiya satellite channel is officially censored and thereby inaccessible from any computer in Tunisia. It has been suggested that PC bang be merged into this article or section. ... A chat room or chatroom is a term used primarily by mass media to describe any form of synchronous conferencing, occasionally even asynchronous conferencing. ... Satellite television is television delivered by way of orbiting communications satellites located 37,000 km (22,300 miles) above the earths surface. ...


Tunisia is also one of the few Muslim countries (Azerbaijan and Turkey are two others), that prohibits the hijab in government buildings. By government edict, women that insist on wearing the hijab must quit their job. Dissenters are forced to sign a document admitting to having committed a crime punishable by law and, in cases of recidivism, are jailed. Women who insist on keeping their veils despite all threats become the subject of negative propaganda disseminated by the Tunisian authorities on all state and private media.[citation needed] “Higab” redirects here. ...


Underground opposition from Islamic Fundamentalists has an obvious but shadowy existence in Tunisia.[citation needed] Under former president Bourguiba, Islamic Fundamentalists were allowed to serve as a counterweight to more left-leaning movements.[citation needed] Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali, however, has followed an aggressive policy regarding the Fundamentalists, though the extent of government success is difficult to judge in a nation where so much is secret.[citation needed] While Tunisia has a repressive political system,[citation needed] standards of living are among the best in the developing world.[citation needed] This can be evidenced by two compelling economic observations: the level to which Tunisia has become self-sufficient in material goods, and the extent of real estate development in the cities and major towns of the country. Put simply, the mid-level retail outlet will typically offer goods more than 90% of which are home produced. As to the rise of the building and construction industry, a fleeting visit to any of Tunisia's smaller towns (let alone the cities) will confirm that development is rampant: many projects, especially hotels, are newly opened, and many more stand as skeleton buildings, ready to be developed as soon as demand - and capital funds - are available to bring them to completion. Tunisia remains an autocratic regime, but one where starvation, homelessness, and disease, problems seen in much of Africa and Asia, are rare.[citation needed]

See also: Foreign relations of Tunisia

The following is an excerpt from the The World Factbook about Tunisia; President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali has maintained Tunisias long-time policy of seeking good relations with the West, including the United States, while playing an active role in Arab and African regional bodies. ... The World Factbook 2007 (government edition) cover. ...

Following independence from France in 1956, President Habib BOURGUIBA established a strict one-party state. He dominated the country for 31 years, repressing Islamic fundamentalism and establishing rights for women unmatched by any other Arab nation. In recent years, Tunisia has taken a moderate, non-aligned stance in its foreign relations. Domestically, it has sought to defuse rising pressure for a more open political society.

Governorates

Governorates of Tunisia
Governorates of Tunisia

Tunisia is subdivided into 24 governorates, they are: Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The following is a list of the 24 governorates of Tunisia: Ariana Béja Ben Arous Bizerte Gabès Gafsa Jendouba Kairouan Kasserine Kebili Kef Mahdia Manouba Medenine Monastir Nabeul Sfax Sidi Siliana Sousse Tataouine Tozeur Tunis Zaghouan Categories: Tunisia | Lists of subnational entities ... The governorates of Tunisia are divided into 262 delegations or districts (mutamadiyat). ... A governorate is a country subdivision. ...

  1. Ariana
  2. Béja
  3. Ben Arous
  4. Bizerte
  5. Gabès
  6. Gafsa
  7. Jendouba
  8. Kairouan
  9. Kasserine
  10. Kebili
  11. Kef
  12. Mahdia
  1. Manouba
  2. Medenine
  3. Monastir
  4. Nabeul
  5. Sfax
  6. Sidi Bou Zid
  7. Siliana
  8. Sousse
  9. Tataouine
  10. Tozeur
  11. Tunis
  12. Zaghouan

The governorates are divided into 262 "delegations" or "districts" (mutamadiyat), and further subdivided into municipalities (shaykhats).[3] Ariana Governorate Ariana Governorate (Arabic: ‎) is one of the twenty-four governorates (provinces) of Tunisia. ... Béja Governorate Béja Governorate (Arabic: ‎) is one of the twenty-four governorates (provinces) of Tunisia. ... Ben Arous Governorate Ben Arous Governorate (Arabic: ‎) is one of the twenty-four governorates (provinces) of Tunisia. ... Bizerte Governorate Bizerte Governorate (Arabic: ولاية بنزرت; transliterated: Wilayat Binzart) is one of the twenty-four governorates (provinces) of Tunisia. ... Gabès Governorate Gabès Governorate (Arabic: ‎) is one of the twenty-four governorates (provinces) of Tunisia. ... Gafsa Governorate Gafsa Governorate (Arabic:ولاية قفصة) is one of the twenty-four governorates (provinces) of Tunisia. ... Jendouba Governorate Jendouba Governorate (Arabic: ‎) is one of the twenty-four governorates (provinces) of Tunisia. ... Kairouan Governorate The Kairouan Governorate (Arabic: ‎) is one of the twenty-four Governorates (provinces) of Tunisia. ... Kasserine Governorate The Kasserine Governorate (Arabic: ‎) is one of the twenty-four governorates (provinces) of Tunisia. ... Kebili Governorate Kebili Governorate (Arabic: ‎) is one of the twenty-four governorates (provinces) of Tunisia. ... Kef Governorate Kef Governorate (Arabic: ‎) is one of the twenty-four governorates (provinces) of Tunisia. ... Mahdia Governorate Mahdia Governorate (Arabic: ‎) is one of the twenty-four governorates (provinces) of Tunisia. ... Manouba Governorate Manouba Governorate (Arabic:ولاية منوبة) is one of the twenty-four governorates (provinces) of Tunisia. ... Medenine Governorate Medenine Governorate (Arabic: ‎) is one of the twenty-four governorates (provinces) of Tunisia. ... Monastir Governorate Monastir Governorate (Arabic: ‎) is one of the twenty-four governorates (provinces) of Tunisia. ... Nabeul Governorate Nabeul Governorate (Arabic: ‎) is one of the twenty-four governorates (provinces) of Tunisia. ... The Sfax Governorate is one of the governorates of Tunisia. ... Sidi Bou Said Governorate Sidi Bou Said Governorate (Arabic: ) is one of the twenty-four governorates (provinces) of Tunisia. ... Siliana Governorate Siliana Governorate (Arabic: ‎) is one of the twenty-four governorates (provinces) of Tunisia. ... Sousse Governorate Sousse Governorate (Arabic: ‎) is one of the twenty-four governorates (provinces) of Tunisia. ... Tataouine Governorate Tataouine Governorate (Arabic: ‎) is one of the twenty-four governorates (provinces) of Tunisia. ... Tozeur Governorate Tozeur Governorate (Arabic: ‎) is one of the twenty-four governorates (provinces) of Tunisia. ... Zaghouan Governorate Zaghouan Governorate (Arabic: ‎) is one of the twenty-four governorates (provinces) of Tunisia. ... The governorates of Tunisia are divided into 262 delegations or districts (mutamadiyat). ... Local government areas called districts are used, or have been used, in several countries. ... A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly referring to a city, town, or village, or a small grouping of them. ...


Geography

Topographic map of Tunisia.
Topographic map of Tunisia.
Main article: Geography of Tunisia

Tunisia is a country situated on the Mediterranean coast of North Africa, midway between the Atlantic Ocean and the Nile Valley. It is bordered by Algeria in the west and Libya in the south-east. An abrupt southern turn of its shoreline gives Tunisia two faces on the Mediterranean. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 368 × 598 pixelsFull resolution (733 × 1192 pixel, file size: 708 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 368 × 598 pixelsFull resolution (733 × 1192 pixel, file size: 708 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Location: Tunisia is located in Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Algeria and Libya Geographic coordinates: 34°00′ N 9°00′ E Area: total: 163,610 km² land: 155,360 km² water: 8,250 km² Land boundaries: total: 1,424 km border countries: Algeria 965 km, Libya 459 km... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ...


Despite its relatively small size, Tunisia has great geographical and climactic diversity. The Dorsal, an extension of the Atlas Mountains, traverses Tunisia in a northeasterly direction from the Algerian border in the west to the Cape Bon peninsula. North of the Dorsal is the Tell, a region characterized by low, rolling hills and plains, although in the northwestern corner of Tunisia, the land reaches elevations of 1,050 meters. The Sahil is a plain along Tunisia's eastern Mediterranean coast famous for its olive monoculture. Inland from the Sahil, between the Dorsal and a range of hills south of Gafsa, are the Steppes. Much of the southern region is semi-arid and desert. Semi-arid generally describes regions that receive low annual rainfall (25 to 50 cm /10 to 20 in) and generally have scrub or grass vegetation. ... This article is about arid terrain. ...

See also: List of cities in Tunisia

Map of Tunisia This is the list of cities and towns in the country of Tunisia: Akouda Ariana Beja Bekalta Bembla Ben Arous Beni Hassen Beni Khaled Bennane Bizerte Bouhjar Boumerdes Bousalem Chebba Chorbane El Djem Djerba (Jerba) Douz Enfidha Gabès (Qabis) Gafsa La Goulette Hammamet Hammam-Lif Hammam...

Economy

Main article: Economy of Tunisia

Tunisia has a diverse economy, with important agricultural, mining, energy, tourism, petroleum, and manufacturing sectors. Governmental control of economic affairs, whilst still heavy, has gradually lessened over the past decade with increasing privatization, simplification of the tax structure, and a prudent approach to debt.[citation needed] Real growth averaged 5.0% in the 1990s, and inflation is slowing. Increased trade and tourism have been key elements in this steady economic growth.[citation needed] Tunisia's association agreement with the European Union (EU), the first such accord between the EU and a Mediterranean country, entered into force on March 1, 1998. Under the agreement Tunisia will gradually remove barriers to trade with the EU over the next decade. Broader privatization, further liberalization of the investment code to increase foreign investment, and improvements in government efficiency are among the challenges for the future of Tunisia. According to the British Philip's university atlas of 2000, Tunisia also possesses major phosphate reserves in the middle section of the country. Italic textMedia:Example. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A phosphate, in inorganic chemistry, is a salt of phosphoric acid. ...


Tunisia is ranked most competitive economy of Africa in the 2007 edition of the Global Competitiveness Report that is released by the World Economic Forum. It also ranks first in the Arab World and 29th globally. World map of the 2006-2007 Global Competitiveness Index. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Arab States redirects here. ...


Demographics

Traditional Tunisian bread being made
Traditional Tunisian bread being made

The majority (98%[4]) of modern Tunisians are Arab,[5] and are speakers of Tunisian Arabic. However, there is also a small (1% at most[6]) population of Berbers located in the Jabal Dahar mountains in the South East and on the island of Jerba. The Berbers primarily speak Berber languages, often called Shelha. The other long-established community in the country is Jewish (today mainly in the capital Tunis and on Jerba), much reduced in number since independence from France. This does not cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2375x2300, 809 KB) Description Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Tunisia Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2375x2300, 809 KB) Description Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Tunisia Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Tunisian Arabic is a Maghrebi dialect of the Arabic language, spoken by some 9 million people. ... Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. ... Djerba, or Jerba, is an island off the coast of Tunisia. ... The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ... Shelha is a native language spoken by the Berbers in Tunisia, particularly in the southern region. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ...


One study indicates that the majority of the genetic material in Tunisia did not arrive with the Arabs (no more than 20% was found to come from the Middle East, and most of this presumably was added during the neolithic several millenia B.C. and not during the Arab conquest). Another study, which does not compare Tunisian genetics with those of the Middle East, states that what it calls the Arab subhaplotype Va was found at a relatively high frequency in Tunisia at 50.6%.[2], but also states that this group in fact "probably correspond to a heterogeneous group representing various ethnicities", rather than just Arabs. Yet another finds that "the Tunisian genetic distances to European samples are smaller than those to North African groups" (these groups being from the Moroccan Atlas and the Siwa oasis in Egypt). This suggests a significant European input to Tunisian genetics. A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Map showing the location of the Atlas Mountains (colored red) across North Africa The Atlas Mountains (Arabic: ‎) are a mountain range in northwest Africa extending about 2,400 km (1,500 miles) through Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia, and including The Rock of Gibraltar. ... Siwa may refer to: The Siwa Oasis in Egypt 140 Siwa, an asteroid Siwa is a Slavic goddess of fertility. ...


The first people known to history in what is now Tunisia were the Berbers. Numerous civilizations have invaded, migrated to, and been assimilated into the population over the millennia, with significant influxes of population via conquest and settlement from Phoenicians, Romans, Vandals, Arabs, Ottoman Turks, and French, to cite some significant sources. Additionally, after the Reconquista and expulsion of non-Christians and Moriscos from Spain, many Spanish Moors and Jews also arrived at the end of the 15th century. Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. ... Phoenicia (or Phenicia ,[1] from Biblical Phenice [1]) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coast of modern day Lebanon and Syria. ... This article is about the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For the state which existed in the 18th century, see Roman Republic (18th century). ... The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe that entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century and created a state in North Africa, centered on the city of Carthage. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... For other senses of this word, see Reconquista (disambiguation). ... Morisco (Spanish Moor-like) or mourisco (Portuguese) is a term referring to a kind of New Christian in Spain and Portugal. ... For other uses, see moor. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ...


Presently, nearly all Tunisians (98% of the population) are Muslim.[7] In addition to the aforementioned Jewish population there is also a small indigenous Christian population, mainly related to the descendants of the European colonies (French and Tunisian Italians)[8] Small nomadic indigenous minorities have been mostly assimilated into the larger population. For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Communities of nomadic people move from place to place, rather than settling down in one location. ...


Language

Advert primarily in Tunisian Arabic
Advert primarily in Tunisian Arabic

Standard Arabic is Tunisia's official language. However, as is the case in other Arab countries, a vernacular of Arabic is spoken. In Tunisia, the dialect is Tunisian Arabic, which is closely related to Maltese.[9] There is also a small minority of speakers of Shelha, a Berber language.[10] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 812 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Picture of an advert from Tunisia (limited to reduced rates for telephone calls in June 2007) in order to demonstrate the use of Tunisian Arabic... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 812 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Picture of an advert from Tunisia (limited to reduced rates for telephone calls in June 2007) in order to demonstrate the use of Tunisian Arabic... Modern Standard Arabic is the dialect of Arabic used in almost all writing and in formal spoken contexts. ... Tunisian Arabic is a Maghrebi dialect of the Arabic language, spoken by some 9 million people. ... Shelha is a native language spoken by the Berbers in Tunisia, particularly in the southern region. ... Afro-Asiatic - Berber The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ...


French also has a major role in the country, despite having no official status.[citation needed] It is used widely in education (for example being the medium of instruction in the sciences in secondary school), the press, and in business, and most educated Tunisians are able to speak it. Many Tunisians, particularly those residing in large urban areas, readily mix Tunisian Arabic with French.


Education

Prior to 1958 education in Tunisia was only available to a privileged minority (14%). It is now given a high priority and accounts for 6% of GNP. A basic education for children between the ages of 6 and 16 has been compulsory since 1991. Measures of national income and output are used in economics to estimate the value of goods and services produced in an economy. ...


While children generally acquire Tunisian Arabic at home, when they enter school at age 5, they are taught to read and write in Standard Arabic. From the age of 8, they are taught French while English is introduced at the age of 10. Tunisian Arabic is a Maghrebi dialect of the Arabic language, spoken by some 9 million people. ... Modern Standard Arabic is the dialect of Arabic used in almost all writing and in formal spoken contexts. ...

Colleges and universities in Tunisia include: This is a list of universities in Tunisia. ...

  • Ecole Polytechnique de Tunisie
  • International University of Tunis
  • Université Libre de Tunis
  • University of Aviation and Technology, Tunisia

Miscellaneous topics

In the movie Star Wars IV, the scenes on the planet Tatooine were filmed in Tunisia[11]. The skeleton of a krayt dragon, in the background of one of the scenes, is still there. Telephones - main lines in use: 1,214,000 (Mar, 2005) 654,000 (1997) Telephones - mobile cellular: 4,249,045 (Mar, 2005) 1,911,648 (2003) 50,000 (1998) Telephone system: above the African average and continuing to be upgraded; key centers are Sfax, Sousse, Bizerte, and Tunis; Internet access available... ... Military branches The Tunisian Armed Forces consist of the : Army Navy Air Force Arms & Security Assistance US: Arms Transfers: Lockheed C-130 Hercules cargo aircraft (2002) Italy : Arms Transfers: Alenia G.222 aircraft (2003) Germany: Arms Transfers: Type 143 MFPBs (2004) Spain: Arms Transfers: Barcelo PBs (2005) US: Assistance: $4... This article needs cleanup. ... Les Scouts Tunisiens, the national Scouting organization of Tunisia, was founded in 1934, and became a member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement in 1957 and is also a full member of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts. ... The practice of homosexuality is illegal in Tunisia and no gay rights exist. ... Tunis Zitouna Great Mosque Islam is the official state religion in Tunisia. ... Tunisia is a North African country with a predominantly Arab population. ... Tunisian Arabic is a Maghrebi dialect of the Arabic language, spoken by some 9 million people. ... This article is about the series. ... In George Lucass Star Wars saga, Tatooine is the home planet of the Skywalker family and Ben Kenobi, the setting for much of the action in the sagas films (as well as several of the novels and other pieces of written fiction) and one of the most iconic...


References

  1. ^ Moustapha Kraiem. Le fascisme et les italiens de Tunisie, 1918-1939". Cahiers du CERES. Tunis, 1969. pag 96
  2. ^ Committee to Protect Journalists 2005 Report on Tunisia. CPJ (2005). Retrieved on 2006-11-30.
  3. ^ http://www.statoids.com/utn.html
  4. ^ CIA
  5. ^ Columbia Gazetteer
  6. ^ CIA
  7. ^ CIA — The World Factbook — Tunisia. Retrieved on 2007-01-13.
  8. ^ TUNISIE — Ils ont choisi le christianisme (French) (2005-07-07). Retrieved on 2006-09-09.
  9. ^ Borg and Azzopardi-Alexander Maltese (1997:xiii) "The immediate source for the Arabic vernacular spoken in Malta was Muslim Sicily, but its ultimate origin appears to have been Tunisia. In fact Maltese displays some areal traits typical of Maghrebine Arabic, although during the past eight hundred years of independent evolution it has drifted apart from Tunisian Arabic."
  10. ^ Gabsi, Zouhir (2003) 'An outline of the Shilha (Berber) vernacular of Douiret (Southern Tunisia)' [1]
  11. ^ http://starwars.wikia.com/wiki/Krayt_dragon#Behind_the_scenes

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Maghrebi Arabic is a cover term for the dialects of Arabic spoken in the Maghreb, including Western Sahara, Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria, and Libya. ...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Tunisia. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (1302 words)
Occupying the eastern portion of the great bulge of North Africa, Tunisia is bounded on the west by Algeria, on the north and east by the Mediterranean Sea, and on the southeast by Libya.
Tunisia is governed under the 1959 constitution, as amended in 1988; the president and members of the chamber of deputies are popularly elected every five years.
In 1159, Tunisia was conquered by the Almohad caliphs of Morocco.
Tunisia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1566 words)
In 1159, Tunisia was conquered by the Almohad caliphs of Morocco.
Tunisia is in north Africa, between the Mediterranean Sea and the Sahara Desert and between Algeria and Libya.
Tunisia's association agreement with the European Union (EU) entered into force on March 1, 1998, the first such accord between the EU and Mediterranean countries to be activated.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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