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Encyclopedia > Tungsten carbide
Tungsten carbide
Tungsten carbide milling bits with carbon and tungsten samples
Tungsten carbide milling bits with carbon and tungsten samples
Molecular formula WC
Molar mass 195.86 g·mol−1
Appearance grey-black solid
CAS number [12070-09-9]
Density and phase 15.8 g·cm−3, solid
Solubility in water Insoluble
Melting point 2870 °C, 5198 °F (3143K)
Boiling point 6000°C, 10832 °F (6273K)
Thermal conductivity 84.02 W·m−1·K−1
Tensile strength 0.3448 GPa
Mohs hardness 9
Crystal structure Hexagonal
Thermodynamic data
Standard enthalpy
of formation
 ? kJ·mol−1
Standard molar entropy
 ? J·K−1·mol−1
EU classification not listed
NFPA 704
Supplementary data page
Structure and
n, εr, etc.
Phase behaviour
Solid, liquid, gas
Spectral data UV, IR, NMR, MS
Related compounds
Other anions Tungsten boride
Tungsten nitride
Other cations Molybdenum carbide
Titanium carbide
Silicon carbide
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox disclaimer and references

Monotungsten carbide, WC, or Ditungsten Carbide, W2C, is a chemical compound containing tungsten and carbon, similar to titanium carbide. Its extreme hardness makes it useful in the manufacture of cutting tools, abrasives and bearings, as a cheaper and more heat-resistant alternative to diamond. Tungsten carbide is also used as a scratch-resistant material for jewelry including watch bands and wedding rings. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x500, 95 KB)Solid tungsten carbide (PCB bits). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x500, 95 KB)Solid tungsten carbide (PCB bits). ... A chemical formula (also called molecular formula) is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... In physics, density is defined as mass m per unit volume V. For the common case of a homogeneous substance, it is expressed as: where, in SI units: ρ (rho) is the density of the substance, measured in kg·m-3 m is the mass of the substance, measured in kg... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Solution. ... This article describes water from a scientific and technical perspective. ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which it can change its state from a liquid to a gas throughout the bulk of the liquid at a given pressure. ... In physics, thermal conductivity, k, is the intensive property of a material that indicates its ability to conduct heat. ... Tensile strength measures the force required to pull something such as rope, wire, or a structural beam to the point where it breaks. ... Mohs scale of mineral hardness characterizes the scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of a harder material to scratch a softer. ... The coordination geometry of an atom is the geometrical pattern formed by its neighbors in a molecule or a crystal. ... Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... A regular hexagon A hexagon (also known as sexagon) is a polygon with six edges and six vertices. ... The standard enthalpy of formation or standard heat of formation of a compound is the change of enthalpy that accompanies the formation of 1 mole of a substance in its standard state from its constituent elements in their standard states (the most stable form of the element at 1 atmosphere... In chemistry, the standard molar entropy is the entropy content of one mole of substance, under conditions of standard temperature and pressure. ... Council Directive 67/548/EEC of 27 June 1967 on the approximation of laws, regulations and administrative provisions relating to the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous substances (as amended) is the main source of European Union law concerning chemical safety. ... NFPA 704 is a standard maintained by the U.S. National Fire Protection Association. ... The refractive index (or index of refraction) of a medium is a measure for how much the speed of light (or other waves such as sound waves) is reduced inside the medium. ... The relative dielectric constant of a material under given conditions is a measure of the extent to which it concentrates electrostatic lines of flux. ... Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy or Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometry (UV/ VIS) involves the spectroscopy of photons (spectrophotometry). ... Infrared spectroscopy (IR Spectroscopy) is the subset of spectroscopy that deals with the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. ... It has been suggested that NMR Data Processing be merged into this article or section. ... Mass spectrometry (also known as mass spectroscopy (deprecated)[1] or in common speech mass-spec) is an analytical technique used to measure the mass-to-charge ratio of ions. ... “Multivalent” redirects here. ... Tungsten nitride (WN2) is an inorganic compound, a nitride of tungsten. ... “Multivalent” redirects here. ... Titanium carbide, TiC, is an extremely hard refractory ceramic material, similar to tungsten carbide. ... Silicon carbide (SiC) is a ceramic compound of silicon and carbon and occurs in nature as the extremely rare mineral moissanite. ... In chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 kilopascals) and 25 degrees Celsius (298. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tungsten, W, 74 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 6, d Appearance grayish white, lustrous Atomic mass 183. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Standard atomic weight 12. ... Titanium carbide, TiC, is an extremely hard refractory ceramic material, similar to tungsten carbide. ... In materials science, hardness is the characteristic of a solid material expressing its resistance to permanent deformation. ... Cutting is the separation of a physical object, or a portion of a physical object, into two portions, through the application of an acutely directed force. ... For other uses, see Tool (disambiguation). ... An abrasive is a material that is used to smooth, machine, or, in some cases, roughen another softer material through extensive rubbing. ... A bearing is a device to permit constrained relative motion between two parts, typically rotation or linear movement. ... This article is about the gemstone. ... Jewelry (the American spelling; spelled jewellery in Commonwealth English) consists of ornamental devices worn by persons, typically made with gems and precious metals. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Uses in machine tools

Carbide cutting surfaces are often useful when machining through materials such as carbon steel or stainless steel, as well as in situations where other tools would wear away, such as high-quantity production runs. Sometimes, carbide will leave a better finish on the part, and allow faster machining. Carbide tools can also withstand higher temperatures than standard high speed steel tools. The material is usually tungsten-carbide cobalt, also called "cemented carbide", a metal matrix composite where tungsten carbide particles are the aggregate and metallic cobalt serves as the matrix. Carbon steel, also called plain carbon steel, is a metal alloy, a combination of two elements, iron and carbon, where other elements are present in quantities too small to affect the properties. ... The 630 foot high, stainless-clad (type 304) Gateway Arch defines St. ... High speed steel (HSS) is a material usually used in the manufacture of machine tool bits and cutters. ... A metal matrix composite (MMC) is a type of composite material with at least two constituent parts, one being a metal. ... wikipedia sucks big balls For other uses, see Cobalt (disambiguation). ...

Machining with carbide can be difficult, as carbide is more brittle than other tool materials, making it susceptible to chipping and breaking. To offset this, many manufacturers sell carbide inserts and matching insert holders. With this setup, the small carbide insert is held in place by a larger tool made of a less brittle material (usually steel). This gives the benefit of using carbide without the high cost of making the entire tool out of carbide. Also, the inserts can be changed without losing much accuracy, allowing the machinist to simply swap out a broken insert without re-zeroing the machine. Most modern face mills use carbide inserts, as well as some lathe tools and endmills. Several types of endmills An endmill is a type of Milling cutter, a cutting tool used in industrial milling applications. ...

To increase the life of carbide tools, they are sometimes coated. Four such coatings are TiN (titanium nitride), TiC (titanium carbide), Ti(CN) (titanium carbide-nitride), and TiAlN (Titanium Aluminum Nitride). (Newer coatings, known as DLC (Diamond Like Coating) are beginning to surface, enabling the cutting power of diamond without the unwanted chemical reaction between real diamond and iron.) Most coatings generally increase a tool's hardness and or lubricity. A coating allows the cutting edge of a tool to cleanly pass through the material without having the material gall (stick) to it. The coating also helps to decrease the temperature associated with the cutting process and increase the life of the tool. The coating is usually deposited via thermal CVD. However if the deposition is performed at too high temperature, an eta phase of a Co6W6C tertiary carbide forms at the interface between the carbide and the cobalt phase, facilitating adhesion failure of the coating. TiN coated drill Dark gray TiCN coating on a Gerber pocketknife Titanium nitride (TiN) is an extremely hard (~85 Rockwell C Hardness or ~2500 Vickers Hardness)1, ceramic material, often used as a coating on titanium alloy, steel, carbide, and aluminum components to improve the substrates surface properties. ... Titanium carbide, TiC, is an extremely hard refractory ceramic material, similar to tungsten carbide. ... Galling can occur when metal parts, such as the threads of nuts and bolts, are forced together and rubbing generates friction among the asperities (high spots) on the surface. ... DC plasma (violet) enhances the growth of carbon nanotubes in this laboratory-scale PECVD apparatus. ...

Manufacturing sludges

As a bi-product of the grinding and tooling manufacturing processes, tungsten carbide sludge is produced. This viscous liquid material is often suctioned to an outdoor storage evaporation tank to allow formation of a more tractable solid material(Earth Metrics Inc, 1989). Typically the dried sludge is then sold as a valuable waste product for industrial recycling. Since this market is highly specialized, it is not uncommon for the dried sludge to be trucked to distances of hundreds of miles to the recycling facility. SLUDGE (Scripting Language for Unhindered Development of a Gaming Environment) is a shareware adventure game engine developed by Hungry Software. ... The international recycling symbol. ...

Military use

Tungsten Carbide is often used in armor-piercing ammunition, especially where depleted uranium is not available or not politically acceptable. The first use of W2C projectiles occurred in Luftwaffe tank-hunter squadrons, which used 37 mm autocannon equipped Ju-87G Stuka attack planes to destroy Soviet T-34 tanks in WWII. Owing to the limited German reserves of tungsten, W2C material was reserved for making machine tools and small numbers of projectiles for the most elite combat pilots, like Hans Rudel. Depleted uranium storage yard. ... M242 Bushmaster autocannon on an M2 Bradley. ... Junkers Ju 87 Dive-Bombers The Junkers Ju 87 or Stuka was the most famous Sturzkampfflugzeug (German dive bomber) in World War II, instantly recognisable by its inverted gull-wings and fixed undercarriage. ... Hans Rudel Hans-Ulrich Rudel (July 2, 1916 - December 18, 1982) was a highly decorated German fighter pilot during World War II. Rudel was born in German Silesia. ...

Tungsten Carbide ammunition can be of the sabot type (a large arrow surrounded by a discarding push cylinder) or a subcaliber ammunition, where copper or other relatively soft material is used to encase the hard penetrating core, the two parts being separated only on impact. The latter is more common in small-caliber arms, while sabots are usually reserved for artillery use. An APFSDS separating from its spindle sabot Anti-tank flechette round with its sabot A sabot refers to a device named for a shoe used in a firearm or cannon to fire a projectile or bullet that is smaller than the bore diameter. ...

Tungsten Carbide is also an effective neutron reflector and as such was used during early investigations into nuclear chain reactions, particularly for weapons. A criticality accident occurred at Los Alamos National Laboratory on 21 August 1945 when Harry K. Daghlian, Jr. accidentally dropped a Tungsten Carbide brick onto a Plutonium sphere causing the sub-critical mass to go critical with the reflected neutrons. Nuclear weapon designs are often divided into two classes, based on the dominant source of the nuclear weapons energy. ... A criticality accident (also sometimes referred to as an excursion or power excursion) occurs when a nuclear chain reaction is accidentally allowed to occur in fissile material, such as enriched uranium or plutonium. ... Los Alamos National Laboratory, aerial view from 1995. ... August 21 is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ... Harry K. Daghlian, Jr. ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight (244) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... Properties In physics, the neutron is a subatomic particle with no net electric charge and a mass of 940 MeV/c² (1. ...

In sports

Hard carbides, especially tungsten carbide, are used by athletes, generally on poles which impact hard surfaces. Trekking poles, used by many hikers for balance and to reduce pressure on leg joints, generally used carbide tips in order to gain traction when placed on hard surfaces (like rock); such carbide tips last much longer than other types of tips. Rocks along many popular hiking trails, such as the Appalachian Trail and Pacific Crest Trail, are scratched and pockmarked from hundreds or thousands of impacts from pole tips.[citation needed] A pair of typical trekking poles. ... Two hikers in the Mount Hood National Forest Eagle Creek hiking Hiking is a form of walking, undertaken with the specific purpose of exploring and enjoying the scenery. ... The Appalachian National Scenic Trail, generally known as the Appalachian Trail or simply The A.T., is a 2,174-mile (3,500-km)[2] marked hiking trail in the eastern United States, extending between Springer Mountain in Georgia and Mount Katahdin in Maine. ... The Pacific Crest Trail is a long-distance mountain hiking and equestrian trail that runs from the United States border with Mexico to its border with Canada. ...

While ski pole tips are generally not made of carbide, since they do not need to be especially hard even to break through layers of ice, rollerski tips usually are. Roller skiing emulates cross country skiing and is used by many skiers to train during warm weather months. Because skiers require traction on bitumen (asphalt) carbide tips are used in the sport.[citation needed] A shaped, twin-tip alpine ski. ... Cross-country skiing (aka XC skiing) is an adventure and fitness activity as well as a competitive winter sport popular in many countries with large snowfields, primarily in Europe and Canada. ... Bitumen is a mixture of organic liquids that are highly viscous, black, sticky, entirely soluble in carbon disulfide, and composed primarily of highly condensed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. ... Base layer of asphalt concrete in a road under construction. ...

In fiction

In the Halo video game series, Magnetic Accelerator Cannon projectiles are coated in a hard outer layer of tungsten carbide. Halo is video game series created by Bungie Studios. ... Cairo Orbital MAC Station A Magnetic Accelerator Cannon (or MAC Gun) is a very large coilgun in the Halo universe. ...

In Monty Python's Flying Circus, in a sketch involving a dispute between a famous playwright and his son, a coal miner. The son mentions that they have started using some new 'tungsten carbide drills,' to which the father's response is 'Tungsten carbide drills?! What the bloody 'ell's tungsten carbide drills?!' This article discusses the series itself. ...

In the videogame EVE Online Tungsten Carbide Armor Plates are used as a main component for the Amarr Ships and other pieces of technology. EVE Online is a persistent world multiplayer online game set in space. ...

Domestic use

Tungsten carbide can now be found in the inventory of some jewelers, most notably as the primary material in men's wedding bands. When used in this application the bands appear with a lustrous dark hue often buffed to a mirror finish. The finish is highly resistant to scratches and scuffs, holding its mirror-like shine for years.

External links

  • International Chemical Safety Card 1320
  • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards
  • Memsnet: Properties of tungsten carbide
  • Links to external chemical sources

  Results from FactBites:
Method for producing composite of diamond and cemented tungsten carbide - Patent 4411672 (1724 words)
A method as recited in claim 1, in which said composition of tungsten carbide and cobalt is hard sintered prior to placement in adjacency with the pulverized diamond.
A method as recited in claim 1, in which said composition of tungsten carbide and cobalt is soft sintered prior to placement in adjacency with the pulverized diamond.
The present invention relates to a method for producing a composite of diamond and cemented tungsten carbide, particularly to such material suitable for forming an abrasive element, a wire drawing die or other tools to be used in a severely abrasive environment.
Tungsten Rings New Tungsten Carbide ring collection by Avant-Garde co. (595 words)
Tungsten rings are the most wear resistant rings available today.
Tungsten Rings are the most wear resistant bands available today.
Tungsten carbide can only be scratched by diamonds and corundum family stones, or abrasive materials and tools containing corundum or diamond.
  More results at FactBites »



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