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Encyclopedia > Tungsten
74 tantalumTungstenrhenium
Mo

W

Sg
General
Name, Symbol, Number Tungsten, W, 74
Chemical series transition metals
Group, Period, Block 6, 6, d
Appearance grayish white, lustrous
Standard atomic weight 183.84(1) g·mol−1
Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d4 6s2
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 12, 2
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 19.25 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 17.6 g·cm−3
Melting point 3695 K
(3422 °C, 6192 °F)
Boiling point 5828 K
(5555 °C, 10031 °F)
Critical point 13892 K, {{{mpa}}} MPa
Heat of fusion 52.31 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 806.7 kJ·mol−1
Heat capacity (25 °C) 24.27 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P(Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T(K) 3477 3773 4137 4579 5127 5823
Atomic properties
Crystal structure cubic body centered
Oxidation states 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, −1
(mildly acidic oxide)
Electronegativity 2.36 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies 1st: 770 kJ/mol
2nd: 1700 kJ/mol
Atomic radius 135 pm
Atomic radius (calc.) 193 pm
Covalent radius 146 pm
Miscellaneous
Magnetic ordering no data
Electrical resistivity (20 °C) 52.8 n Ω·m
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 173 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 4.5 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (r.t.) (annealed)
4290 m·s−1
Young's modulus 411 GPa
Shear modulus 161 GPa
Bulk modulus 310 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.28
Mohs hardness 7.5
Vickers hardness 3430 MPa
Brinell hardness 2570 MPa
CAS registry number 7440-33-7
Selected isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of tungsten
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
180W 0.12% 1.8×1018 y α 2.516 176Hf
181W syn 121.2 d ε 0.188 181Ta
182W 26.50% W is stable with 108 neutrons
183W 14.31% W is stable with 109 neutrons
184W 30.64% W is stable with 110 neutrons
185W syn 75.1 d β- 0.433 185Re
186W 28.43% W is stable with 112 neutrons
References

Tungsten (pronounced /ˈtʌŋstən/), also called wolfram (/ˈwʊlfrəm/), is a chemical element that has the symbol W (German: Wolfram) and atomic number 74. A very hard, heavy, steel-gray to white transition metal, tungsten is found in several ores including wolframite and scheelite and is remarkable for its robust physical properties, especially the fact that it has the highest melting point of all the non-alloyed metals and the second highest of all the elements after carbon. The pure form is used mainly in electrical applications but its many compounds and alloys are widely used in many applications, most notably in light bulb filaments, in X-ray tubes (as both the filament and target), and in superalloys. Tungsten is the only metal from the third transition series that is known to occur in biomolecules. [1] [2] Tungsten may mean: Tungsten, the chemical element Tungsten (music), a type of phonograph pickup stylus Tungsten, Northwest Territories, a Canadian townsite Tungsten (Cantung) Airport, a Canadian private airport Tungsten Handheld, Palm Inc. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tantalum, Ta, 73 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 6, d Appearance gray blue Standard atomic weight 180. ... General Name, Symbol, Number rhenium, Re, 75 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 186. ... General Name, Symbol, Number molybdenum, Mo, 42 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 95. ... General Name, Symbol, Number seaborgium, Sg, 106 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (266) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d4 7s2 (guess based on tungsten) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 12... Original image: media:W-TableImage-BIG.png File links The following pages link to this file: Tungsten User:Femto/elements e9 Categories: GFDL images ... This is a standard display of the periodic table of the elements. ... An extended periodic table was suggested by Glenn T. Seaborg in 1969. ... This is a list of chemical elements, sorted by name and color coded according to type of element. ... A table of chemical elements ordered by atomic number and color coded according to type of element. ... A group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... In chemistry, the term transition metal (sometimes also called a transition element) has two possible meanings: It commonly refers to any element in the d-block of the periodic table, including zinc, cadmium and mercury. ... A group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... In the periodic table of the elements, a period is a horizontal row of the table. ... A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups. ... The group 6 in the periodic table consists of the elements chromium (24) molybdenum (42) tungsten (74) seaborgium (106) Group 6 is the new IUPAC name for this group, the old style name was group VIA in the old European system or group VIB in the old US system. ... A period 6 element is one of the chemical elements in the sixth row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements, including the Lanthanides. ... D Block is a rap group based in Yonkers, New York. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... Tungsten green-silver metal powder. ... The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom at rest, most often expressed in unified atomic mass units. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude we list here masses between 60. ... Hydrogen = 1 List of Elements in Atomic Number Order. ... Electron atomic and molecular orbitals In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons in an atom, molecule, or other physical structure (, a crystal). ... General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 131. ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... Example of a sodium electron shell model An electron shell, also known as a main energy level, is a group of atomic orbitals with the same value of the principal quantum number n. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... This box:      For other uses, see Solid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Room temperature (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... In physical chemistry, thermodynamics, chemistry and condensed matter physics, a critical point, also called a critical state, specifies the conditions (temperature, pressure) at which the liquid state of the matter ceases to exist. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... Standard enthalpy change of fusion of period three. ... The joule per mole (symbol: J·mol-1) is an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material. ... The standard enthalpy change of vaporization, ΔvHo, also (less correctly) known as the heat of vaporization is the energy required to transform a given quantity of a substance into a gas. ... The joule per mole (symbol: J·mol-1) is an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ... Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... In chemistry, the oxidation state is an indicator of the degree of oxidation of an atom in a chemical compound. ... For other uses, see acid (disambiguation). ... Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ... The ionization potential, ionization energy or EI of an atom or molecule is the energy required to remove one mole of electrons from one mole of isolated gaseous atoms or ions. ... The joule per mole (symbol: J·mol-1) is an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material. ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius van der Waals radius edit Atomic radius, and more generally the size of an atom, is not a precisely defined physical quantity, nor is it constant in all circumstances. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... One picometre is defined as 1x10-12 metres, in standard units. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius van der Waals radius edit The covalent radius, rcov, is a measure of the size of atom which forms part of a covalent bond. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... For other senses of this word, see magnetism (disambiguation). ... // Headline text POOP!! Danny Hornsby (also known as Gnome) is a measure indicating how strongly a Gnome can opposes the flow of electric current. ... K value redirects here. ... During heat transfer, the energy that is stored in the intermolecular bonds between atoms changes. ... For other uses, see Speed of sound (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Room temperature (disambiguation). ... Metre per second (U.S. spelling: meter per second) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds. ... In solid mechanics, Youngs modulus (E) is a measure of the stiffness of a given material. ... In materials science, shear modulus, G, or sometimes S or μ, sometimes referred to as the modulus of rigidity, is defined as the ratio of shear stress to the shear strain:[1] where = shear stress; force acts on area ; = shear strain; length changes by amount . ... The bulk modulus (K) of a substance essentially measures the substances resistance to uniform compression. ... Figure 1: Rectangular specimen subject to compression, with Poissons ratio circa 0. ... The Mohs scale of mineral hardness characterizes the scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of a harder material to scratch a softer material. ... A Vickers hardness tester The Vickers hardness test was developed in the early 1920s as an alternative method to measure the hardness of materials. ... The Brinell scale characterises the indentation hardness of materials through the scale of penetration of an indenter, loaded on a material test-piece. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... Tungsten (W) Standard atomic mass: 183. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... Natural abundance refers to the prevalence of different isotopes of an element as found in nature. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... In physics, the decay mode describes a particular way a particle decays. ... The decay energy is the energy released by a nuclear decay. ... The electronvolt (symbol eV) is a unit of energy. ... In nuclear physics, a decay product, also known as a daughter product, is a nuclide resulting from the radioactive decay of a parent or precursor nuclide. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different times, this page lists times longer than 1019 seconds (317 billion years) See also times of other orders of magnitude. ... Alpha decay Alpha decay is a type of radioactive decay in which an atom emits an alpha particle (two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium nucleus) and transforms (or decays) into an atom with a mass number 4 less and atomic number 2... General Name, Symbol, Number hafnium, Hf, 72 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 6, d Appearance grey steel Standard atomic weight 178. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... Look up day in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Electron capture is a decay mode for isotopes that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive isotopes that can decay by positron... General Name, Symbol, Number tantalum, Ta, 73 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 6, d Appearance gray blue Standard atomic weight 180. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... Properties In physics, the neutron is a subatomic particle with no net electric charge and a mass of 940 MeV/c² (1. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... Properties In physics, the neutron is a subatomic particle with no net electric charge and a mass of 940 MeV/c² (1. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... Properties In physics, the neutron is a subatomic particle with no net electric charge and a mass of 940 MeV/c² (1. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... Look up day in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... General Name, Symbol, Number rhenium, Re, 75 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 186. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... Properties In physics, the neutron is a subatomic particle with no net electric charge and a mass of 940 MeV/c² (1. ... Recommended values for many properties of the elements, together with various references, are collected on these data pages. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is distinguished by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... See also: List of elements by atomic number In chemistry and physics, the atomic number (also known as the proton number) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom. ... In chemistry, the term transition metal (sometimes also called a transition element) has two possible meanings: It commonly refers to any element in the d-block of the periodic table, including zinc, cadmium and mercury. ... For other uses, see Ore (disambiguation). ... Wolframite (Fe,Mn)WO4, is an iron manganese tungstate mineral that is the intermediate between ferberite (Fe2+ rich) and huebernite (Mn2+ rich). ... Scheelite is a calcium tungstate mineral with the chemical formula CaWO4. ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... An alloy is a homogeneous hybrid of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... The light bulb is one of the most significant inventions in the history of the human race, illuminating the darkness of the evening and bringing light indoors at all times in order focus on the task at hand. ... An X-Ray tube is a vacuum tube designed to produce man made X-Ray photons on demand. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Superalloy. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ...

Contents

Isotopes

Main article: isotopes of tungsten

Naturally occurring tungsten consists of five isotopes whose half-lives are so long that they can be considered stable. All can decay into isotopes of element 72 (hafnium) by alpha emission; 180W has been observed to have a half-life of (1.8 ± 0.2)·1018 yr. The other naturally occurring isotopes have not been observed to decay, constraining their half-lives to be: Tungsten (W) Standard atomic mass: 183. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hafnium, Hf, 72 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 6, d Appearance grey steel Standard atomic weight 178. ... Alpha decay is a form of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus ejects an alpha particle and transforms into a nucleus with mass number 4 less and atomic number 2 less. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ...


182W, T1/2 > 8.3·1018 yr;


183W, T1/2 > 29·1018 yr;


184W, T1/2 > 13·1018 yr;


186W, T1/2 > 27·1018 yr.


[3] On average, two alpha decays of 180W occur in one gram of natural tungsten per year.


27 artificial radioisotopes of tungsten have been characterized, the most stable of which are 181W with a half-life of 121.2 days, 185W with a half-life of 75.1 days, 188W with a half-life of 69.4 days and 178W with a half-life of 21.6 days. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives of less than 24 hours, and most of these have half-lives that are less than 8 minutes. Tungsten also has 4 meta states, the most stable being 179mW (t½ 6.4 minutes). A radionuclide is an atom with an unstable nucleus. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... Radioactive decay is the set of various processes by which unstable atomic nuclei (nuclides) emit subatomic particles. ... A nuclear isomer is a metastable state of an atom caused by the excitation of a proton or neutron in its nucleus so that it requires a change in spin before it can release its extra energy. ...


Notable characteristics

Pure tungsten is steel-gray to tin-white and is a hard metal. Tungsten can be cut with a hacksaw when it is very pure (it is brittle and hard to work when impure) and is otherwise worked by forging, drawing, extruding, or sintering. Of all metals this element has the highest melting point (3,422 °C) (6,192 °F), lowest vapor pressure and the highest tensile strength. Tungsten has the lowest coefficient of thermal expansion of any pure metal. Its corrosion resistance is excellent and it can be attacked only slightly by most mineral acids. Tungsten metal forms a protective oxide when exposed to air but can be oxidized at high temperature.[specify] Steel alloyed with small quantities of tungsten greatly increases its toughness. Standard hacksaws. ... This article is about smithing. ... Drawing is a manufacturing process for producing a wire, bar or tube by pulling on a material until it increases in length. ... For the process that creates volcanic rock, see extrusive (geology). ... Sintering is a method for making objects from powder, increasing the adhesion between particles as they are heated. ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ... Tensile strength isthe measures the force required to pull something such as rope, wire, or a structural beam to the point where it breaks. ... During heat transfer, the energy that is stored in the intermolecular bonds between atoms changes. ... Headline text Happy Hannukah and a happy new year!! POOP e Butt ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ...


Chemical compounds

The most common formal oxidation state of tungsten is +6, but it exhibits all oxidation states from -1 to +6.[4] Tungsten typically combines with oxygen to form the yellow tungstic oxide, WO3, which dissolves in aqueous alkaline solutions to form tungstate ions, WO42−. In chemistry, the oxidation state is an indicator of the degree of oxidation of an atom in a chemical compound. ... Tungsten trioxide (tungstic anhydride, WO3) is an intermediary compound in the process of converting tungstates to pure tungsten. ...


Aqueous polyoxoanions

Aqueous tungstate solutions are noted for the formation of heteropoly acids and polyoxometalate anions under neutral and acidic conditions. As tungstate is progressively treated with acid, it first yields the soluble, metastable "paratungstate A" anion, W7O246−, which over hours or days converts to the less soluble "paratungstate B" anion, H2W12O4210−. Further acidification produces the very soluble metatungstate anion, H2W12O406−, after equilibrium is reached. The metatungstate ion exists as a symmetric cluster of twelve tungsten-oxygen octahedra known as the "Keggin" anion. Many other polyoxometalate anions exist as metastable species. The inclusion of a different atom such as phosphorus in place of the two central hydrogens in metatungstate produces a wide variety of heteropoly acids, such as phosphotungstic acid H3P W12O40 in this example. A polyoxometalate (abbreviated POM) is a metallate containing anion or molecule consisting of transition metal ions bonded to other ligands, generally oxygen atoms, though some derivatives might contain nitrogen or sulfur, and generally based upon MO6 octahedra (though not exclusively). ... An anion is an ion with negative charge. ... An anion is an ion with negative charge. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... An octahedron (plural: octahedra) is a polyhedron with eight faces. ... Metastability is the ability of a non-equilibrium state to persist for a long period of time. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... A heteropoly acid is a chemical compound composed of: a metal such as tungsten, molybdenum or vanadium, termed the addenda atom; oxygen; an element generally from the p-block of the periodic table, such as silicon, phosphorus or arsenic termed the hetero atom; acidic hydrogen atoms. ... Phosphotungstic acid (PTA), tungstophosphoric acid, or tungsten hydrogen oxide phosphate (HPW), is a . ...


See also tungsten compounds.


Biological role

Tungsten is an essential nutrient for some organisms. An essential nutrient is a nutrient required for normal body functioning that cannot be synthesized by the body. ...


Enzymes called oxidoreductases use tungsten in a way that is similar to molybdenum by using it in a tungsten-pterin complex. Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... In biochemistry, an oxidoreductase is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of electrons from one molecule (the oxidant, also called the hydrogen donor or electron donor) to another (the reductant, also called the hydrogen acceptor or electron acceptor). ... General Name, Symbol, Number molybdenum, Mo, 42 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 95. ... A pterin is any chemical compound that contains the bicyclic ring system of a pteridine. ...


On August 20, 2002, officials representing the U.S.-based Centers for Disease Control and Prevention announced that urine tests on leukemia patient families and control group families in the Fallon, Nevada area had shown elevated levels of the metal tungsten in the bodies of both groups.[5] Sixteen recent cases of cancer in children were discovered in the Fallon area which has now been identified as a cancer cluster, (it should be noted, however, that the majority of the cancer victims are not long time residents of Fallon). Dr. Carol H. Rubin, a branch chief at the CDC, said data demonstrating a link between tungsten and leukemia is not available at present.[6] is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... This article is about the urine of animals generally. ... Leukemia or leukaemia (Greek leukos λευκός, white; aima αίμα, blood) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow and is characterized by an abnormal proliferation (production by multiplication) of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes). ... Corn Field in Fallon, NV August 2004. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Cancer cluster is a term used by epidemiologists, statisticians, and public health workers to define an occurrence of a greater-than-expected number of cancer cases within a group of people in a geographic area over a period of time1. ...


Applications

Tungsten is a metal with a wide range of uses, the largest of which is as tungsten carbide (W2C, WC) in cemented carbides. Cemented carbides (also called hardmetals) are wear-resistant materials used by the metalworking, mining, petroleum and construction industries. Tungsten is widely used in light bulb and vacuum tube filaments, as well as electrodes, because it can be drawn into very thin wire with a high melting point. Other uses: Monotungsten carbide, WC, or Ditungsten Carbide, W2C, is a chemical compound containing tungsten and carbon, similar to titanium carbide. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... Calcium carbide. ... This article is about mineral extractions. ... Petro redirects here. ... The light bulb is one of the most significant inventions in the history of the human race, illuminating the darkness of the evening and bringing light indoors at all times in order focus on the task at hand. ... Structure of a vacuum tube diode Structure of a vacuum tube triode In electronics, a vacuum tube, electron tube, or (outside North America) thermionic valve or just valve, is a device used to amplify, switch or modify a signal by controlling the movement of electrons in an evacuated space. ... For other uses, see Electrode (disambiguation). ...

  • Now widely used in wedding bands as a popular new substitute for gold or platinum. Tungsten has a similar density to gold.[7].
  • Its high melting point makes tungsten suitable for aerospace and high temperature uses which include electrical, heating, and welding applications, notably in the GTAW process (also called TIG welding).
  • Hardness and density properties make this metal ideal for making heavy metal alloys that are used in armament, heat sinks, and high density applications, such as weights, counterweights, ballast keels for yachts and tail ballast for commercial aircraft.
  • The high density makes it an ideal ingredient for darts, normally 80% and sometimes up to 97%. This allows darts containing tungsten to have a smaller diameter than those of other metals at the same weight, permitting tighter groupings.
  • High speed steel contains tungsten and some tungsten steels contain as much as 18% tungsten.
  • Superalloys containing tungsten are used in turbine blades and wear resistant parts and coatings. Examples are Hastelloy and Stellite.
  • Tungsten powder is used as a filler material in plastic composites which are used as a nontoxic substitute for lead, in bullets, shot, and radiation shields.
  • Tungsten chemical compounds are used in catalysts, inorganic pigments, and tungsten disulfide high-temperature lubricants which are stable to 500 °C (930 °F).
  • Since this element's thermal expansion is similar to borosilicate glass, it is used for making glass-to-metal seals.
  • It is used in kinetic energy penetrators, usually alloyed with nickel and iron or cobalt, to form heavy alloys, used as an alternative to depleted uranium.
  • in cannon shells, grenades and missiles tungsten can be used as a shell fragments. Super sonic tungsten shrapnel penetrate most materials very well. Particularly air-bursting munitions are known for using tungsten shrapnel.
  • Tungsten is used as an interconnect material in integrated circuits. Contact holes are etched in silicon dioxide dielectric material, filled with tungsten and polished to form connections to transistors. Typical contact holes can be as small as 65 nm.
  • Tungsten carbide is one of the hardest carbides and is used in machine tools such as milling and turning tools, and used together with cobalt and carbon is often the best choice for such applications.
  • Used extensively for shielding in the radiopharmaceutical industry. It is often employed when transporting individual FDG doses (called 'pigs') - the high energy of fluorine-18 makes lead much less effective.
  • Tungsten is used in the emitters of focused ion beam and electron microscopes.
  • Tungsten is also beginning to be used in jewelry. Its hardness makes it ideal for rings that will never scratch, are hypoallergenic and will not need polishing. This property is especially useful in designs with a brushed finish.
  • Also used in fishing lures like the Mormyshka. Many fishing flies use tungsten bead heads to sink the fly rapidly.
  • Tungsten is used as ballast in high level race cars in series such as NASCAR and Formula 1.

Miscellaneous: Oxides are used in ceramic glazes and calcium/magnesium tungstates are used widely in fluorescent lighting. Crystal tungstates are used as scintillation detectors in nuclear physics and nuclear medicine. The metal is also used in X-ray targets and heating elements for electrical furnaces. Salts that contain tungsten are used in the chemical and tanning industries. Tungsten 'bronzes' (so-called due to the colour of the tungsten oxides) along with other compounds are used in paints. Some types of strings for musical instruments are wound with tungsten wire. Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), also known as tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding, is an arc welding process that uses a nonconsumable tungsten electrode to produce the weld. ... Tig may refer to: TIG Welding, a metal welding process. ... For other uses, see Heavy metal (disambiguation). ... An alloy is a homogeneous hybrid of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. ... This article is about the substance or device. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... For the British doo-wop revival band of the 1970s and 1980s, see Darts (band). ... High speed steel (often abbreviated HSS) is a material usually used in the manufacture of machine tool bits and other cutters. ... A superalloy, or high-performance alloy, is an alloy able to withstand extreme temperatures that would destroy conventional metals like steel and aluminum. ... A Siemens steam turbine with the case opened. ... HASTELLOY is the registered trademark name of Haynes International, Inc. ... Stellite is also the name of a winning racehorse trained in Scotland, sometimes called The Burr. ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... This article is about firearms projectiles. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ... A lubricant (colloquially, lube) is a substance (often a liquid) introduced between two moving surfaces to reduce the friction and wear between them. ... It has been suggested that Kimax be merged into this article or section. ... French anti-tank round with its sabot APFSDS at point of separation of sabot. ... Depleted uranium storage yard. ... Monotungsten carbide, WC, or Ditungsten Carbide, W2C, is a chemical compound containing tungsten and carbon, similar to titanium carbide. ... Calcium carbide. ... Endmills for a milling machine. ... Center lathe with DRO and chuck guard. ... A radiopharmaceutical is a radioactive pharmaceutical. ... Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine medical imaging technique which produces a three dimensional image or map of functional processes in the body. ... Fluorine-18 is a fluorine radioisotope which is an important source of positrons. ... Focused ion beam, also known as FIB, is a scientific instrument that resembles a scanning electron microscope. ... An electron microscope is a type of microscope that uses electrons as a way to illuminate and create an image of a specimen. ... Finger rings worn by Mary Nevill, Baroness Dacre, 1559. ... Look up hypoallergenic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Mormyshka ( or Mormishka, or Marmooska) is a sort of Fishing lure or a jig. ... 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Nuclear physics is the branch of physics concerned with the nucleus of the atom. ... Shown above is the bone scintigraphy of a young woman. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... This article is about making hides into leather. ... For other uses, see Paint (disambiguation). ... The strings of a harp A string is the vibrating element which is the source of vibration in string instruments, such as the guitar, harp, piano, and members of the violin family. ...

Closeup of a tungsten filament inside a halogen lamp.
Closeup of a tungsten filament inside a halogen lamp.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1110x1125, 215 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tungsten Incandescent light bulb Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1110x1125, 215 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tungsten Incandescent light bulb Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... The incandescent light bulb uses a glowing wire filament heated to white-hot by electrical resistance, to generate light (a process known as thermal radiation). ...

Production

Tungsten output in 2005
Tungsten output in 2005

Tungsten is found in the minerals wolframite (iron-manganese tungstate, FeWO4/MnWO4), scheelite (calcium tungstate, (CaWO4), ferberite and hübnerite. There are major deposits of these minerals in China (with about 57% world share), Russia, Austria and Portugal, reports the British Geological Survey. The metal is commercially produced by reducing tungsten oxide with hydrogen or carbon. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixels Full resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 57 KB, MIME type: image/png) This bubble map shows the global distribution of mined output of tungsten in 2005 as a percentage of the the top producer (China - 46,900... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixels Full resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 57 KB, MIME type: image/png) This bubble map shows the global distribution of mined output of tungsten in 2005 as a percentage of the the top producer (China - 46,900... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... Wolframite (Fe,Mn)WO4, is an iron manganese tungstate mineral that is the intermediate between ferberite (Fe2+ rich) and huebernite (Mn2+ rich). ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Scheelite is a calcium tungstate mineral with the chemical formula CaWO4. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... Ferberite is a black mineral composed of iron(II) tungstate (tungsten oxide), chemical formula FeWO4. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The British Geological Survey is a publicly-funded body which aims to advance geoscientific knowledge of the United Kingdom landmass and its continental shelf by means of systematic surveying, monitoring and research. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ...


World tungsten reserves have been estimated at 7 million t W. Many of these reserves are not economically viable at this time. At current rates of consumption, these reserves will last for approximately 140 years. It is estimated that 30% of the reserves are wolframite and 70% are scheelite ores. Another factor that controls the tungsten supply is scrap recycling of tungsten, which is more readily refined for reuse than raw ore.


History

Tungsten (Swedish tung sten meaning "heavy stone"), even though the current name for the element in Swedish is wolfram (sometimes spelled in Swedish as volfram), from the denomination volf rahm by Wallerius in 1747, translated from the description by Agricola in 1546 as Lupi spuma, meaning "wolf's froth" after the way tin is eaten up like a wolf after sheep in the process of its extraction.[8] Johan Gottschalk Wallerius (11 July 1709 – 16 November 1785) was a Swedish chemist and mineralogist. ... Georg Agricola Georgius Agricola (March 24, 1494 – November 21, 1555) was a German scholar and man of science. ...


It was first hypothesized to exist by Peter Woulfe in 1779 who examined wolframite and concluded that it must contain a new substance. In 1781 Carl Wilhelm Scheele ascertained that a new acid could be made from tungstenite. Scheele and Torbern Bergman suggested that it could be possible to obtain a new metal by reducing tungstic acid. In 1783 José and Fausto Elhuyar found an acid in wolframite that was identical to tungstic acid. In Spain later that year the brothers succeeded in isolating tungsten through reduction of this acid with charcoal. They are credited with the discovery of the element.[9][10] Peter Woulfe (1727 – 1803) was an Irish chemist and mineralogist who first had the idea that wolframite might contain a previously undiscovered element. ... Wolframite (Fe,Mn)WO4, is an iron manganese tungstate mineral that is the intermediate between ferberite (Fe2+ rich) and huebernite (Mn2+ rich). ... Carl Wilhelm Scheele Scheeles house with his pharmacy in Köping. ... For other uses, see acid (disambiguation). ... Torbern Olof Bergman (March 20, 1735 Katrineberg, Sweden, – July 8, 1784 Medevi, Sweden) was a Swedish chemist. ... José Elhuyar was the co-discoverer of tungsten with his brother Fausto Elhuyar. ... Fausto Elhuyar was the joint discoverer of tungsten with his brother Juan José Elhuyar This article is a substub, the first step on the way to becoming a full article. ... Charcoal is the blackish residue consisting of impure carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances. ...


In World War II, tungsten played an enormous role in background political dealings. Portugal, as the main European source of the element, was put under pressure from both sides, because of its sources of wolframite ore. The resistance to high temperatures, as well as the extreme strength of its alloys, made the metal into a very important raw material for the weaponry industry.


See also

A field emission gun consists of a sharply pointed tungsten tip held at several kilovolts negative potential relative to a nearby electrode, so that there is a very high potential gradient at the surface of the tungsten. ... Oliver Sacks in 2005. ... Uncle Tungsten: Memories of a Chemical Boyhood (or just Uncle Tungsten) is a memoir by Oliver Sacks about his childhood published in 2002. ...

References

  1. ^ J McMaster and John H Enemark (1998). "The active sites of molybdenum- and tungsten-containing enzymes". Current Opinion in Chemical Biology 2 (2): 201–207. doi:10.1016/S1367-5931(98)80061-6. 
  2. ^ "Molybdenum and tungsten in biology" (2002). Trends in Biochemical Sciences 27 (7): 360–367. doi:10.1016/S0968-0004(02)02107-2. 
  3. ^ National Nuclear Data Center table of nuclides, http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/chart/
  4. ^ Emsley, John (2000). The Elements, 3rd edition. 
  5. ^ Cancer Clusters: Fallon Cancer Study: Final Report | CDC HSB
  6. ^ http://www.rgj.com/news/printstory.php?id=22000
  7. ^ How to Make Convincing Fake-Gold Bars
  8. ^ 74 Tungsten
  9. ^ http://www.itia.info/FileLib/ITIA_Newsletter_June05.pdf
  10. ^ http://www.itia.info/FileLib/ITIA_Newsletter_December05.pdf

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links

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Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... The Periodic Table redirects here. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... General Name, symbol, number helium, He, 2 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 1, s Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 4. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, symbol, number beryllium, Be, 4 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 2, s Appearance white-gray metallic Standard atomic weight 9. ... For other uses, see Boron (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Distinguished from fluorene and fluorone. ... For other uses, see Neon (disambiguation). ... For sodium in the diet, see Salt. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... Aluminum redirects here. ... Not to be confused with Silicone. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number scandium, Sc, 21 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 3, 4, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 44. ... General Name, symbol, number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 47. ... General Name, symbol, number vanadium, V, 23 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 5, 4, d Appearance silver-grey metal Standard atomic weight 50. ... REDIRECT [[ Insert text]]EWWWWWWWWWWWWW YO General Name, symbol, number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 51. ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... For other uses, see Cobalt (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... Not to be confused with Galium. ... General Name, Symbol, Number germanium, Ge, 32 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 14, 4, p Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 72. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ... For other uses, see Selenium (disambiguation). ... Bromo redirects here. ... For other uses, see Krypton (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number rubidium, Rb, 37 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 5, s Appearance grey white Standard atomic weight 85. ... General Name, Symbol, Number strontium, Sr, 38 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 5, s Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 87. ... General Name, Symbol, Number yttrium, Y, 39 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 3, 5, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 88. ... General Name, Symbol, Number zirconium, Zr, 40 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 5, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 91. ... General Name, Symbol, Number niobium, Nb, 41 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 92. ... General Name, Symbol, Number molybdenum, Mo, 42 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 95. ... General Name, Symbol, Number technetium, Tc, 43 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metal Standard atomic weight [98](0) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Kr] 4d5 5s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 13, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Ruthenium, Ru, 44 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 101. ... General Name, Symbol, Number rhodium, Rh, 45 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 9, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 102. ... For other uses, see Palladium (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cadmium, Cd, 48 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metallic Standard atomic weight 112. ... General Name, Symbol, Number indium, In, 49 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 114. ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... This article is about the element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tellurium, Te, 52 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 127. ... For other uses, see Iodine (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 131. ... General Name, Symbol, Number caesium, Cs, 55 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 6, s Appearance silvery gold Standard atomic weight 132. ... For other uses, see Barium (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number lanthanum, La, 57 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block 3, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 138. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cerium, Ce, 58 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 140. ... General Name, Symbol, Number praseodymium, Pr, 59 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 140. ... General Name, Symbol, Number neodymium, Nd, 60 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white, yellowish tinge Standard atomic weight 144. ... General Name, Symbol, Number promethium, Pm, 61 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance metallic Atomic mass [145](0) g/mol Electron configuration [Xe] 4f5 6s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 23, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number samarium, Sm, 62 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 150. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gadolinium, Gd, 64 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 157. ... General Name, Symbol, Number terbium, Tb, 65 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 158. ... General Name, Symbol, Number dysprosium, Dy, 66 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 162. ... General Name, Symbol, Number holmium, Ho, 67 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 164. ... General Name, Symbol, Number erbium, Er, 68 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 167. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thulium, Tm, 69 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block ?, 6, f Appearance silvery gray Atomic mass 168. ... Yb redirects here; for the unit of information see Yottabit General Name, Symbol, Number ytterbium, Yb, 70 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 173. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lutetium, Lu, 71 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 174. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hafnium, Hf, 72 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 6, d Appearance grey steel Standard atomic weight 178. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tantalum, Ta, 73 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 6, d Appearance gray blue Standard atomic weight 180. ... General Name, Symbol, Number rhenium, Re, 75 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 186. ... General Name, Symbol, Number osmium, Os, 76 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 6, d Appearance silvery, blue cast Standard atomic weight 190. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number platinum, Pt, 78 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 195. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... This article is about the element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thallium, Tl, 81 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 6, p Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 204. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... General Name, Symbol, Number bismuth, Bi, 83 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 15, 6, p Appearance lustrous pink Standard atomic weight 208. ... General Name, Symbol, Number polonium, Po, 84 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 6, p Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight (209) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p4 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 6 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number astatine, At, 85 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 6, p Appearance metallic (presumed) Standard atomic weight (210) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p5 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 7 Physical properties Phase solid Melting point 575 K... For other uses, see Radon (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number francium, Fr, 87 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 7, s Appearance metallic Standard atomic weight (223) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 7s1 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8, 1 Physical properties Phase  ? solid Density (near r. ... For other uses, see Radium (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number actinium, Ac, 89 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block 3, 7, f Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight (227) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thorium, Th, 90 Chemical series Actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 232. ... General Name, Symbol, Number protactinium, Pa, 91 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance bright, silvery metallic luster Standard atomic weight 231. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number neptunium, Np, 93 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight (237) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f4 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 22, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... This article is about the radioactive element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number americium, Am, 95 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white sometimes yellow Standard atomic weight (243) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f7 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near... General Name, Symbol, Number curium, Cm, 96 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block ?, 7, f Appearance silvery Atomic mass (247) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f7 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number berkelium, Bk, 97 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (247) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f9 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 27, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number californium, Cf, 98 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (251) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f10 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 28, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number einsteinium, Es, 99 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Standard atomic weight (252) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f11 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 29, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase... General Name, Symbol, Number fermium, Fm, 100 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (257) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f12 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 30, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number mendelevium, Md, 101 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (258) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f13 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 31, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number nobelium, No, 102 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (259) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f14 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Melting... General Name, Symbol, Number lawrencium, Lr, 103 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Standard atomic weight [262] g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f14 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 9, 2 Physical... General Name, Symbol, Number rutherfordium, Rf, 104 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 7, d Standard atomic weight (265) g·mol−1 Electron configuration probably [Rn] 5f14 6d2 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 10, 2 Physical properties Phase presumably a solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number dubnium, Db, 105 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (262) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d3 7s2 (guess based on tantalum) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 11... General Name, Symbol, Number seaborgium, Sg, 106 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (266) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d4 7s2 (guess based on tungsten) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 12... General Name, Symbol, Number bohrium, Bh, 107 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (264) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d5 7s2 (guess based on rhenium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 13... General Name, Symbol, Number hassium, Hs, 108 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (269) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d6 7s2 (guess based on osmium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 14... General Name, Symbol, Number meitnerium, Mt, 109 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 9, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (268) g·mol−1 Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d7 7s2 (guess based on iridium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number darmstadtium, Ds, 110 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (281) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d9 7s1 (guess based on platinum) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 17... General Name, Symbol, Number roentgenium, Rg, 111 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably yellow or orange metallic Atomic mass (284) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s1 (guess based on gold) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 1... General Name, Symbol, Number ununbium, Uub, 112 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray liquid Atomic mass (285) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 (guess based on mercury) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununtrium, Uut, 113 Chemical series presumably poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (284) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p1 (guess based on thallium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununquadium, Uuq, 114 Chemical series presumably poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (298) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p2 (guess based on lead) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununpentium, Uup, 115 Group, Period, Block 15, 7, p Atomic mass (299) g·mol−1 Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p3 (guess based on bismuth) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 5 CAS registry number 54085-64-2 Selected isotopes References... General Name, Symbol, Number ununhexium, Uuh, 116 Chemical series presumably poor metals Group, Period, Block 16, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (302) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p4 (guess based on polonium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununseptium, Uus, 117 Chemical series presumably halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably dark metallic Standard atomic weight predicted, (310) g·mol−1 Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p5 (guess based on astatine) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununoctium, Uuo, 118 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably colorless Atomic mass predicted, (314) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p6 (guess based on radon) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 8 Phase... The alkali metals are a series of elements comprising Group 1 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). ... The alkaline earth metals are a series of elements comprising Group 2 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba) and radium (Ra). ... The lanthanide (or lanthanoid) series comprises the 15 elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, from lanthanum to lutetium[1]. All lanthanides are f-block elements, corresponding to the filling of the 4f electron shell, except for lutetium which is a d-block lanthanide. ... The actinide (or actinoid) series encompasses the 15 chemical elements that lie between actinium and lawrencium on the periodic table, with atomic numbers 89 - 103[1]. The actinide series derives its name from the first element in the series, actinium. ... This article is in need of attention. ... This article is about metallic materials. ... Metalloid is a term used in chemistry when classifying the chemical elements. ... Together with the metals and metalloids, a nonmetal is one of three categories of chemical elements as distinguished by ionization and bonding properties. ... This article is about the chemical series. ... This article is about the chemical series. ...

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C&EN: IT'S ELEMENTAL: THE PERIODIC TABLE - TUNGSTEN (0 words)
When a tungsten filament is heated in a vacuum, the electrons near the surface become energetic enough to be emitted into the surrounding space.
My personal introduction to tungsten as a structural material was at Kennametal, a producer of tungsten carbide metal-cutting tools, where I took an internship in my senior year while studying chemistry at a small liberal arts college in Latrobe, Pa. The position involved sample preparation for X-ray fluorescence.
Although we may not realize it, tungsten continues to be a part of our lives because it is still used in lighting and electrical contacts; in electronics, including cell phones and pagers; in cutting tools and engine components; in radiation shielding; and now in sporting goods such as golf balls and shot.
REMBAR Tungsten Technical Info (1923 words)
Tungsten's high density is used in conjunction with copper, nickel, iron, and cobalt to form heavy metal.
Since tungsten rod has a high degree of strength at elevated temperatures, it is utilized structurally to hold or support high temperature sources such as filaments and heaters for lamp and electronic uses.
Tungsten rod that is specially processed and manufactured for welding rod applications is used extensively in such processes as inert-gas-shielded arc welding and atomic hydrogen arc welding.
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