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Encyclopedia > Tundra

In physical geography, tundra is an area where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons. The term "tundra" comes from Kildin Sami tūndâr 'uplands, tundra, treeless mountain tract'. There are two types of tundra: Arctic tundra (which also occurs in Antarctica), and alpine tundra.[1] In tundra, the vegetation is composed of dwarf shrubs, sedges and grasses, mosses, and lichens. Scattered trees grow in some tundra. The ecotone (or ecological boundary region) between the tundra and the forest is known as the tree line or timberline. Tundra may refer to: Tundra - a treeless region near the poles of the Earth, or at high elevation. ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... Kildin Sami (also spelled Sámi or Saami; formerly Lappish) is a Sami language spoken by approximately 500 people in the Kola Peninsula in northwestern Russia. ... Arctic vegetation by definition has no trees. ... Genera See text The Family Cyperaceae, or the Sedge family, is a taxon of monocot flowering plants that superficially resemble grasses or rushes. ... Subfamilies There are 7 subfamilies: Subfamily Arundinoideae Subfamily Bambusoideae Subfamily Centothecoideae Subfamily Chloridoideae Subfamily Panicoideae Subfamily Pooideae Subfamily Stipoideae The true grasses are monocotyledonous plants (Class Liliopsida) in the Family Poaceae, also known as Gramineae. ... For other uses, see Moss (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Lichen (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ecotone (disambiguation). ... In this view of an alpine tree-line, the distant line looks particularly sharp. ...

Arctic tundra on Wrangel Island, Russia, a World Heritage Site
Arctic tundra on Wrangel Island, Russia, a World Heritage Site[2]

Contents

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (971x309, 50 KB) Wrangel Island tundra - US NOAA photo [1] File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tundra Wrangel Island ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (971x309, 50 KB) Wrangel Island tundra - US NOAA photo [1] File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tundra Wrangel Island ... This article is about the Russian island. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State...

Arctic tundra

Tundra in Greenland
Tundra in Greenland
Map of arctic tundra
Map of arctic tundra
Tundra coastal vegetation in Alaska, during the summer
Tundra coastal vegetation in Alaska, during the summer

Arctic tundra occurs in the far Northern Hemisphere, north of the taiga belt. The word "tundra" usually refers only to the areas where the subsoil is permafrost, or permanently frozen soil. (It may also refer to the treeless plain in general, so that northern Sápmi would be included.) Permafrost tundra includes vast areas of northern Russia and Canada [1]. The polar tundra is home to several peoples who are mostly nomadic reindeer herders, such as the Nganasan and Nenets in the permafrost area (and the Sami in Sápmi). Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3456 × 2304 pixel, file size: 5. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3456 × 2304 pixel, file size: 5. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Northern hemisphere highlighted in yellow. ... For other uses, see Taiga (disambiguation). ... In geology, permafrost or permafrost soil is soil at or below the freezing point of water (0°C or 32°F) for two or more years. ... Languages Sami, Norwegian, Swedish, Finnish, Russian Area - Population  - Sami  - Non-Sami - (Year) - (Year) Independence None¹ Time zone UTC +1 to +3 ¹/ Integrated parts of Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia respectively, but with varying degrees of autonomy for the Sami population. ... For the 2006 historical epic set in Kazakhstan, see Nomad (2006 film). ... The Nganasans are one of the indigenous peoples of Siberia. ... The Nenets people (Russian name: Ненцы - Nentsy (plural)) are an indigenous people in Russia. ... The Sami people (also Sámi, Saami, Lapps, sometimes also Laplanders) are the indigenous people of Sápmi, which today encompasses parts of northern Sweden, Norway, Finland and the Kola Peninsula of Russia. ... Languages Sami, Norwegian, Swedish, Finnish, Russian Area - Population  - Sami  - Non-Sami - (Year) - (Year) Independence None¹ Time zone UTC +1 to +3 ¹/ Integrated parts of Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia respectively, but with varying degrees of autonomy for the Sami population. ...


The Arctic tundra is a vast area of stark landscape, which is frozen for much of the year. The soil there is frozen from 25-90 cm (9.8-35.4 inches) down, and it is impossible for trees to grow. Instead, bare and sometimes rocky land can only support low growing plants such as moss, heath, and lichen. There are two main seasons, winter and summer, in the polar Tundra areas. During the winter it is very cold and dark, with the average temperature around -28 °C (-18.4°F), sometimes dipping as low as -50 °C (-58°F). However, extreme cold temperatures on the tundra do not drop as low as those experienced in taiga areas further south (for example, Russia's and Canada's lowest temperatures were recorded in locations south of the treeline). During the summer, temperatures rise somewhat, and the top layer of the permafrost melts, leaving the ground very soggy. The tundra is covered in marshes, lakes, bogs and streams during the warm months. Generally daytime temperatures during the summer rise to about 12°C (53.6°F) but can often drop to 3°C (37.4°F) or even below freezing. Arctic tundras are sometimes the subject of habitat conservation programs. In Canada and Russia, many of these areas are protected through a national Biodiversity Action Plan. For other uses, see Moss (disambiguation). ... Heath comes from Old English hæð tract of wasteland, from Proto-Germanic *khaiþijo (cognate with Old Irish ciad; see also heather, heathen) refers to a wild meadow or open, unploughed country, see Heath (habitat). ... For other uses, see Lichen (disambiguation). ... Habitat (which is Latin for it inhabits) is the place where a particular species live and grow. ... The conservation movement is a political and social movement that seeks to protect natural resources including plant and animal species as well as their habitat for the future. ... Diademed Sifaka, an endangered primate of Madagascar Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) is a an internationally recognized programme addressing threatened species or habitats, which is designed to protect and restore biological systems. ...



The tundra is a very windy area, with winds often blowing upwards at 48–97 km/h (30-60 miles an hour). However, in terms of precipitation, it is desert-like, with only about 15–25 cm (6–10 inches) falling per year (the summer is typically the season of maximum precipitation). During the summer, the permafrost thaws just enough to let plants grow and reproduce, but because the ground below this is frozen, the water cannot sink any lower, and so the water forms the lakes and marshes found during the summer months. Although precipitation is light, evaporation is also relatively minimal.


The biodiversity of the tundras is low: 1,700 species of vascular plants and only 48 land mammals can be found, although thousands of insects and birds migrate there each year for the marshes. There are also a few fish species such as the flat fish. There are few species with large populations. Notable animals in the Arctic tundra include caribou (reindeer), musk ox, arctic hare, arctic fox, snowy owl, lemmings, and polar bears (only the extreme north) [3]. Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of taxonomic life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... Binomial name Rangifer tarandus The reindeer, known as caribou in North America, is an Arctic-dwelling deer (Rangifer tarandus). ... Caribou redirects here. ... Binomial name Ovibos moschatus (Zimmermann, 1780) The Musk ox (Ovibos moschatus) is a bovine noted for its thick coat and for the strong odor of the male. ... Binomial name Lepus timidus Linnaeus, 1758 The Mountain Hare (Lepus timidus) is a hare, which is largely adapted to polar and mountainous habitats. ... This article is about the animal. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Synonyms Strix scandiaca Linnaeus, 1758 Nyctea scandiaca Stephens, 1826 The Snowy Owl (Bubo scandiacus) is a large owl of the typical owl family Strigidae. ... This article is about the rodent. ... This article is about the animal. ...


Due to the harsh climate of the Arctic tundra, regions of this kind have seen little human activity, even though they are sometimes rich in natural resources such as oil and uranium. In recent times this has begun to change in Alaska, Russia, and some other parts of the world. Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... General Name, symbol, number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, period, block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Standard atomic weight 238. ... Official language(s) None[1] Spoken language(s) English 85. ...


A severe threat to the tundras, specifically to the permafrost, is global warming. Permafrost is essentially a frozen bog - in the summer, only its surface layer melts. The melting of the permafrost in a given area on human time scales (decades or centuries) could radically change which species can survive there[4]. Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... Lütt-Witt Moor, a bog in Henstedt-Ulzburg in northern Germany. ...


Another concern is that about one third of the world's soil-bound carbon is in taiga and tundra areas. When the permafrost melts, it releases carbon in the form of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas. The effect has been observed in Alaska. In the 1970s the tundra was a carbon sink, but today, it is a carbon source[5]. For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Taiga (disambiguation). ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ...


Antarctic tundra

Tundra on the Péninsule Rallier du Baty, Kerguelen Islands
Tundra on the Péninsule Rallier du Baty, Kerguelen Islands

Antarctic tundra occurs on Antarctica and on several Antarctic and subantarctic islands, including South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands and the Kerguelen Islands. Antarctica is mostly too cold and dry to support vegetation, and most of the continent is covered by ice fields. However, some portions of the continent, particularly the Antarctic Peninsula, have areas of rocky soil that support plant life. The flora presently consists of around 300-400 lichens, 100 mosses, 25 liverworts, and around 700 terrestrial and aquatic algae species, which live on the areas of exposed rock and soil around the shore of the continent. Antarctica's two flowering plant species, the Antarctic hair grass (Deschampsia Antarctica) and Antarctic pearlwort (Colobanthus quitensis), are found on the northern and western parts of the Antarctic Peninsula[6] In contrast with the Arctic tundra, the Antarctic tundra lacks a large mammal fauna, mostly due to its physical isolation from the other continents. Sea mammals and sea birds, including seals and penguins, inhabit areas near the shore, and some small mammals, like rabbits and cats, have been introduced by humans to some of the subantarctic islands. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2850x1987, 486 KB) fr: Péninsule Rallier du Baty(îles Kerguelen) en: Rallier du Baty peninsula(Kerguelen Islands) scan de photo : B.navez - Kerguelen - 1983 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2850x1987, 486 KB) fr: Péninsule Rallier du Baty(îles Kerguelen) en: Rallier du Baty peninsula(Kerguelen Islands) scan de photo : B.navez - Kerguelen - 1983 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other... The Rallier du Baty peninsula An old Kerguelen cabbage on the péninsule Rallier du Baty The Péninsule Rallier du Baty is a peninsula of Grand Terre, the main island of the Kerguelen archipelago. ... Motto Leo Terram Propriam Protegat(Latin) Let the Lion protect his own land or May the Lion protect his own land Anthem God Save the Queen Capital Grytviken (King Edward Point) Official languages English Government British overseas territory  -  Head of State Queen Elizabeth II  -  Commissioner Alan Huckle Area  -  Total 3... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Antarctic Peninsula map Booth Island and Mount Scott flank the narrow Lemaire Channel on the west side of the Antarctic Peninsula. ... Orders Jungermanniopsida Metzgeriales (simple thalloids) Haplomitriales (Calobryales) Jungermanniales (leafy liverworts) Marchantiopsida Sphaerocarpales (bottle liverworts) Marchantiales (complex thalloids) Monocleales Liverworts are a division of plants commonly called hepatics, Marchantiophyta or liverworts. ... Binomial name Deschampsia antarctica Due to a recent warming trend, more seeds are germinating, creating a large number of seedlings and plants. ... the pearlwort is a kind of dog only found in the ancient lands of Africa and Rhymes. ... Families Odobenidae Otariidae Phocidae Pinnipeds (fin-feet, lit. ... Modern genera Aptenodytes Eudyptes Eudyptula Megadyptes Pygoscelis Spheniscus For prehistoric genera, see Systematics Some penguins are curious. ... For other uses, see Rabbit (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis lybica invalid junior synonym The cat (or domestic cat, house cat) is a small carnivorous mammal. ...


The flora and fauna of Antarctica and the Antarctic Islands (south of 60° south latitude) are protected by the Antarctic Treaty.[7] For the Antarctic Treaty from the Gundam anime, see Antarctic Treaty (Gundam) The Antarctic Treaty and related agreements, collectively called the Antarctic Treaty System or ATS, regulate the international relations with respect to Antarctica, Earths only uninhabited continent. ...


Tundra also occurs on Tierra del Fuego and southern Argentina.[8] Notable plant and lichen species of this tundra include Neuropogon aurantiaco, Azorella lycopodioides, Marsippospermum reichei, Nardophyllum bryoides, and Bolax gummifera. Tierra del Fuego Cerro Sombrero Village, Chile. ... Species About 70, including: Azorella caespitosa Azorella compacta Azorella diapensioides Azorella filamentosa Azorella fuegiana Azorella gummifera Azorella lycopodioides Azorella pedunculata Azorella selago Azorella trifurcata Azorella yareta Azorella is a genus of about 70 species of flowering plants in the family Apiaceae, native to South America, New Zealand and the islands...


Alpine tundra

Hikers traversing the Franconia Ridge in the White Mountains of New Hampshire, much of which is in the alpine zone.
Hikers traversing the Franconia Ridge in the White Mountains of New Hampshire, much of which is in the alpine zone.

Alpine tundra is an ecozone that does not contain trees because it has high altitude. Alpine tundra occurs at high enough altitude at any latitude on Earth. Alpine tundra also lacks trees, but the lower part does not have permafrost, and alpine soils are generally better drained than permafrost soils. Alpine tundra transitions to subalpine forests below the tree line; stunted forests occurring at the forest-tundra ecotone are known as Krummholz. Alpine tundra occurs in an alpine zone. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 648 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Hikers traversing the Franconia Ridge. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 648 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Hikers traversing the Franconia Ridge. ... Looking south on the Franconia Ridge Trail. ... Official language(s) English Capital Concord Largest city Manchester Area  Ranked 46th  - Total 9,350 sq mi (24,217 km²)  - Width 68 miles (110 km)  - Length 190 miles (305 km)  - % water 4. ... An ecozone or biogeographic realm is the largest scale biogeographic division of the earths surface based on the historic and evolutionary distribution patterns of plants and animals. ... Altitude is the elevation of an object from a known level or datum. ... This article is about the geographical term. ... In geology, permafrost or permafrost soil is soil at or below the freezing point of water (0°C or 32°F) for two or more years. ... In geology, permafrost or permafrost soil is soil at or below the freezing point of water (0°C or 32°F) for two or more years. ... In this view of an alpine tree-line, the distant line looks particularly sharp. ... For other uses, see Ecotone (disambiguation). ... In this view of an alpine tree-line, the distant line looks particularly sharp. ...


Alpine tundra does not map directly to specific World Wide Fund for Nature ecoregions. Portions of Montane grasslands and shrublands ecoregions include alpine tundra. The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization for the conservation, research and restoration of the natural environment, formerly named the World Wildlife Fund, which remains its official name in the United States and Canada. ... Montane grasslands and shrublands is a biome defined by the World Wildlife Fund. ...


Because alpine tundra is located in various widely-separated regions of the Earth, there is no animal species found in all areas of alpine tundra. Some animals of alpine tundra environments include the Kea parrot, marmot, Mountain goats, chinchilla, and pika. Binomial name Nestor notabilis Gould, 1856 The Kea (Nestor notabilis) is a highly unusual species of parrot found in forested and alpine regions of the South Island of New Zealand. ... Species See text. ... Rocky Mountain Goat and Mountain Goats redirect here. ... For other uses, see Chinchilla (disambiguation). ... Type Species Ochotona minor Link, 1795 (= Lepus dauuricus Pallas, 1776) Species See text The name pika (archaically spelled pica) is used for any member of the Ochotonidae, a family within the order of lagomorphs, which also includes the Leporidae (rabbits and hares). ...


Large sections of the Tibetan Plateau include alpine tundra. Tibet Autonomous Region, Qinghai Province and Sichuan Province of China lie on the Tibetan Plateau. ...


See also: Tree line In this view of an alpine tree-line, the distant line looks particularly sharp. ...


Climatic classification

See also: Alpine climate

Tundra climates ordinarily fit the Köppen climate classification ET, signifying a local climate in which at least one month has an average temperature high enough to melt snow (0°C or 32°F), but no month with an average temperature in excess of (10°C/50°F). The cold limit generally meets the EF climates of permanent ice and snows; the warm-summer limit generally corresponds with the poleward or altitudinal limit of trees, where they grade into the subarctic climates designated Dfd and Dwd (extreme winters as in parts of Siberia), Dfc typical in Alaska, Canada, European Russia, and Western Siberia (cold winters with months of freezing), or even Cfc (no month colder than -3°C as in parts of Iceland and southernmost South America). Tundra climates as a rule are hostile to woody vegetation even where the winters are comparatively mild by polar standards, as in Iceland. For the climate of the mountains named the Alps, see climate) for a region above the tree-line. ... The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. ... An ice cap is a dome-shaped ice mass that covers less than 50,000 km² of land area (usually covering a highland area). ... Regions having a subarctic climate (also called boreal climate) are characterized by long, usually very cold winters, and brief, warm summers. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... Official language(s) None[1] Spoken language(s) English 85. ... European Russia can be considered the western areas of Russia, where most of the population is centred. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Siberia. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


Despite the potential diversity of climates in the ET category involving precipitation, extreme temperatures, and relative wet and dry seasons, this category is rarely subdivided. Rainfall and snowfall are generally slight due to the limited capacity of the chilly atmosphere to hold water vapor, but as a rule potential evapotranspiration is extremely low, allowing soggy terrain of swamps and bogs even in places that get precipitation typical of deserts of lower and middle latitudes. Scarcity of lushness (by polar standards) of native vegetation of tundra regions depends more upon the severity of the temperatures than upon the scarcity or copiousness of precipitation. Potential evapotranspiration, PET, is a measure of atmospheric demand for water vapour from evaporation and transpiration. ... This article is about arid terrain. ...


References

  1. ^ a b The Tundra Biome. The World's Biomes. Retrieved on 2006-03-05.
  2. ^ Natural System of Wrangel Island Reserve. UNESCO. Retrieved on 2007-07-21.
  3. ^ Tundra. Blue Planet Biomes. Retrieved on 2006-03-05.
  4. ^ Climate Change Impacts:A Changing World?. Impacts of Climate Change. Retrieved on 2006-03-05.
  5. ^ W. C. Oechel et al (11 February 1993). "Recent change of Arctic tundra ecosystems from a net carbon dioxide sink to a source". Nature 361: 520-523. 
  6. ^ Terrestrial Plants. British Antarctic Survey: About Antarctica. Retrieved on 2006-03-05.
  7. ^ Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty. British Antarctic Survey: About Antarctica. Retrieved on 2006-03-05.
  8. ^ Brancaleoni, Lisa; Jorge Strelin, Renato Gerdol (2003). "Relationships between geomorphology and vegetation in subantarctic Andean tundra of Tierra del Fuego". Polar biology 26 (6): 404-410. 

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the day. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the day. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the day. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the day. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the day. ...

See also

A List of tundra ecoregions from the WWF includes: See also Tundra External links Arctic tundra biome information from the WWF Alpine tundra information from the WWF The Arctic biome at Classroom of the Future Category: ... The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization for the conservation, research and restoration of the natural environment, formerly named the World Wildlife Fund, which remains its official name in the United States and Canada. ... A fellfield or fell field comprises the environment of a slope, usually alpine or tundra, where the dynamics of frost (freeze and thaw cycles) and of wind give rise to characteristic plant forms in scree interstices. ... Steppe Tundra - an open landcape with climatic conditions unable to support a dense forest population but a perfect climate for small shrubbery such as arid grass and cottonwood. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Terrestrial biomes
Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests · Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests · Tropical and subtropical coniferous forests · Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests · Temperate coniferous forests · Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and shrub · Boreal forests/taiga · Mangrove · Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands · Temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands · Flooded grasslands and savannas · Montane grasslands and shrublands · Deserts and xeric shrublands · Tundra
Ecozones
Afrotropic · Antarctic · Australasia · Indomalaya · Nearctic · Neotropic · Oceania · Palearctic

  Results from FactBites:
 
Alpine Biome (1148 words)
Of the North American, Scandinavian and Russian tundras, the Scandinavian tundra is the warmest, with winter temperatures averaging 18°F (-8°C) The tundra is basically like a desert when it comes to precipitation.
As the tundra melts, the plant mass decomposes and returns carbon dioxide to the atmosphere.
It is a very fragile environment and the plants and animals that have made their home on the tundra biome have made some incredible adaptations to the long, cold winters and the short but abundant summers.
Tundra - MSN Encarta (643 words)
Tundra, arctic plains encompassing most of the earth's terrain north of the coniferous forest belt, dominated by cotton grass, heath, lichen, moss, sedge, and willow.
The arctic tundra, in particular, is influenced by permafrost, a layer of permanently frozen subsoil in the ground.
The tundra wildlife is vulnerable to habitat destruction, to overhunting, and to extinction through loss of any of the animal or plant species that make up the fragile, highly interdependent tundra community of life.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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