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Encyclopedia > Tumulus

A tumulus (plural tumuli, from the Latin word for mound or small hill, from the root tum- "to bulge, swell" also found in tumor) is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves. Tumuli are also known as barrows, burial mounds, or kurgans, and can be found throughout much of the world. A tumulus composed largely or entirely of stones is usually referred to as a cairn. Tumor or tumour literally means swelling, and is sometimes still used with that meaning. ... Look up mound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland Technically, soil forms the pedosphere: the interface between the lithosphere (rocky part of the planet) and the biosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere. ... This balancing rock, Steamboat Rock stands in Garden of the Gods park in Colorado Springs, CO The rocky side of a mountain creek near Orosí, Costa Rica. ... Ancient unreadable gravestones mark the position of graves in the parish churchyard at Bourton-on-the-Water, Gloucestershire, England A grave is a place where the body of a dead animal, generally human, is buried, often after a funeral. ... Sarmatian Kurgan 4th c. ... Antarctica Oceania Africa Asia Europe North America South America Middle East Caribbean Central Asia East Asia North Asia South Asia Southeast Asia SW. Asia Australasia Melanesia Micronesia Polynesia Central America Latin America Northern America Americas C. Africa E. Africa N. Africa Southern Africa W. Africa C. Europe E. Europe N... For the magazine see Cairn Magazine. ...


The method of inhumation may involve a cist, a mortuary enclosure, a mortuary house or a chamber tomb. Examples of barrows include Duggleby Howe and Maeshowe. A cist (IPA ) is a small stone-built coffin-like box used to hold the bodies of the dead (notably during the Bronze Age in Britain and occasionally in Native American burials). ... A mortuary enclosure is a term given in archaeology and anthropology to an area, surrounded by a wood, stone or earthwork barrier, in which dead bodies are placed for excarnation and to await secondary and/or collective burial. ... In archaeology and anthropology a mortuary house is any purpose-built structure, often resembling a normal dwelling in many ways, in which a dead body is buried. ... A chamber tomb is a tomb for burial used in many different cultures. ... Duggleby Howe (also known as Howe Hill, Duggleby) is one of the largest round barrows in Britain, located on the southern side of the Great Wold Valley in East Yorkshire, and is one of four such monuments in this area, known collectively as the Great barrows of East Yorkshire. ... Maeshowe Maeshowe Entrance Maeshowe (or Maes Howe) is a Neolithic chambered cairn and passage grave situated on Mainland Orkney, Scotland. ...

The Royal mounds of Gamla Uppsala from the 5th and the 6th centuries. Originally, the site had 2000 to 3000 tumuli, but owing to quarrying and agriculture only 250 remain.
The Royal mounds of Gamla Uppsala from the 5th and the 6th centuries. Originally, the site had 2000 to 3000 tumuli, but owing to quarrying and agriculture only 250 remain.

Contents

Download high resolution version (837x368, 68 KB)Gamla Uppsala From Swedish Wikipedia[1] (no copyright tag there, either) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (837x368, 68 KB)Gamla Uppsala From Swedish Wikipedia[1] (no copyright tag there, either) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Gamla Uppsala is an area rich in archaeological remains seen from the grave field whose larger mounds (left part) are close to the royal mounds. ... Gamla Uppsala is an area rich in archaeological remains seen from the grave field whose larger mounds (left part) are close to the royal mounds. ...

Sites

Austria

  • Großmugl
  • Niederhollabrunn (in Niederösterreich)
  • Niederfellabrunn
  • Unterzögersdorf
  • Obermalebern
  • Oberhofen am Irrsee

Großmugl is a community of Korneuburg in Austria. ... Niederhollabrunn is a town in the district of Korneuburg in the Austrian state of Lower Austria. ... Lower Austria (Niederösterreich) is one of the nine federal states or Bundesländer in Austria. ...

Britain

In Britain, early references to tumuli were made by William Camden, John Aubrey, and William Stukeley. During the 19th century in England the excavation of tumuli was a popular pastime amongst the educated and wealthy middle classes, who became known as "barrow-diggers". This leisure activity played a key role in laying the foundations for the scientific study of the past in Britain but also resulted in untold damage to the sites. Barrows were popularly used to bury the dead from the late Neolithic until the end of the Bronze Age, 2900-800BC. Square barrows were occasionally used in the Iron Age (800BC-43AD) in the east of England. The traditional round barrow experienced a brief resurgence after the Anglo-Saxon invasion, as Scandinavian burial practice became popular 500-600AD. These later barrows were often built near older Bronze Age barrows. William Camden William Camden (May 2, 1551 - November 9, 1623) was an English antiquarian and historian. ... John Aubrey. ... William Stukeley (November 7, 1687–March 3, 1765) was an English antiquary who pioneered the archaeological investigation of Stonehenge and Avebury. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II... A hobby is a spare-time recreational pursuit. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II... The famous parade helmet found at Sutton Hoo, probably belonging toRaedwald of East Anglia circa 625. ...


Bulgaria

Memorial of the Battle of Varna of 1444 carved into an ancient Thracian burial mound. The sign in front is for Władysław III of Poland
Memorial of the Battle of Varna of 1444 carved into an ancient Thracian burial mound. The sign in front is for Władysław III of Poland

Hundreds of Thracian burial mounds are found throughout Bulgaria, including the Kazanlak and Sveshtari tombs, UNESCO World Heritage sites. Located near the ancient Thracian capital cities of Seuthopolis (of the Odrysian kingdom) and Daosdava or Helis (of the Getae), perhaps they represented royal burials. Other tombs contained offerings such as the Panagyurishte and Rogozen treasures. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 924 KB) Summary Memorial of the battle of Varna, which took place on 10 November 1444 near Varna, Bulgaria. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 924 KB) Summary Memorial of the battle of Varna, which took place on 10 November 1444 near Varna, Bulgaria. ... Combatants Hungary, Poland and others Ottoman Empire Commanders Władysław III of Poland † Janos Hunyadi Murad II Strength ~ 20,000-30,000 ~ 60,000[1][2] Casualties ~ 11,000 ~ 8,000 The Battle of Varna took place on November 10, 1444 near Varna in eastern Bulgaria. ... Thracian peltast, fifth to fourth century BC. Thracian Roman era heros (Sabazius) stele. ... Władysław III of Varna. ... The Thracians were an Indo-European people, inhabitants of Thrace and adjacent lands (present-day Bulgaria, Romania, northeastern Greece, European Turkey and northwestern asiatic Turkey, eastern Serbia and parts of Republic of Macedonia). ... The Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak is a vaulted brickwork beehive (tholos) tomb near the town of Kazanlak in central Bulgaria. ... The Thracian Tomb of Sveshtari is situated 2,5 km southwest of the village of Sveshtari, which is located 42 km northeast of Razgrad, in the northeast of Bulgaria. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ... Seuthopolis (near Kazanluk) was an ancient city founded by the Thracian king Seuthes the III. It was a small city, built on the site of an earlier settlement. ... The Odrysian kingdom was a union of Thracian tribes that endured between the 5th century BC and the 3rd century BC. It consisted of present-day Bulgaria, spreading from Romania to northern Greece and Turkey. ... The Getae (Γέται, singular Γέτης; Getae) was the name given by the Greeks to several Thracian tribes that occupied the regions south of the Lower Danube, in what is today northern Bulgaria, and north of the Lower Danube, in the Muntenian plain (todays southern Romania), and especially near modern Dobruja. ... The Panagyuriste gold treasure The Panagyurishte gold treasure (Bulgarian: Панагюрско златно съкровище) is a spectacular perfectly made Thracian treasure, one of the most famous treasures in the world. ... A goblet of the Rogozen treasure A phial of the Rogozen treasure The Rogozen treasure (Bulgarian: Рогозенско съкровище), called the find of the century, was discovered by chance in 1985 by a tractor driver digging a trench in his garden. ...


Canada

The 7,500-year-old, rock-covered burial mound of a Maritime Archaic boy at L'Anse Amour, Newfoundland and Labrador.

Human settlement in L'anse Amour dates back at least 7,500 years as evidenced by the burial mound of a Maritime Archaic boy here. His body was wrapped in a shroud of bark or hide and placed face down with his head pointed to the west. The site was first excavated in the 1970s. Download high resolution version (1527x812, 423 KB)The 7,500-year-old, rock-covered burial mound of a Maritime Archaic boy in LAnse Amour, Newfoundland and Labrador File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (1527x812, 423 KB)The 7,500-year-old, rock-covered burial mound of a Maritime Archaic boy in LAnse Amour, Newfoundland and Labrador File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The7,500-year-old, rock-covered burial mound of a Maritime Archaic boy at LAnse Amour, Newfoundland and Labrador. ...


The Augustine Mound is an important Mi'kmaq burial site in New Brunswick. The Mikmaq The Mikmaq (; (also spelled Míkmaq, Migmaq, Micmac or MicMac) are a First Nations people, indigenous to northeastern New England, Canadas Atlantic Provinces, and the Gaspé Peninsula of Quebec. ...


Czechia

During the early Middle Ages, Slavic tribesmen inhabiting what is now the Czech Republic used to bury their dead under barrows. This practice has been widespread in southern and eastern Bohemia and some neighboring regions, like Upper Austria and Lusatia, which at that time have been also populated with Slavic people. However, there are no known Slavic barrows in central part of the country (around Prague), neither they are found in Moravia. This has led some of the archaeologists to speculations about at least three distinct waves of Slavic settlers, which have colonized Czech lands separately from each other, each wave bringing its customs with it (including burial rituals). The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Upper Austria (Ober sterreich) is one of the nine federal states or Bundesl nder of Austria. ... Lusatia (German Lausitz, Upper Sorbian Łužica, Lower Sorbian Łužyca, Polish Łużyce, Czech Lužice) is a historical region between the Bóbr and Kwisa rivers and the Elbe river in the eastern German states of Saxony and Brandenburg, south-western Poland (Lower Silesian Voivodeship) and the northern... Nickname: Motto: Praga Caput Rei publicae Location within the Czech Republic Coordinates: , Country Czech Republic Region Capital City of Prague Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Pavel Bém Area  - City 496 km²  (191. ... Flag of Moravia Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava; German: ; Hungarian: ; Polish: ) is a historical region in the east of the Czech RepublicCzechia. ...


At places where barrows have been constructed, they are usually found in groups (10 to 100 together), often forming several clearly distinct lines going from the west to the east. Only a few of them have been studied scientifically so far; in them, both burials by fire (with burnt ashes) and unburnt skeletons have been found, even on the same site. It seems that builders of the barrows have at some time switched from burials by fire to burying of unburnt corpses; however, the reason for such change is unknown. The barrows date too far back in history (700 AD to 800 AD) to contain any Christian influences - it is almost certain that all people buried in them were pagans. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A Christian () is a person who... Pagans may mean: Paganism, a belief in natural religion. ...


As Czech barrows usually served for burials of poor villagers, only a few objects are found in them except for cheap pottery. Only one Slavic barrow is known to have contained gold.


Most of the Czech burial barrows have been damaged or destroyed by intense agriculture in the densely populated region. Those which remain are usually located in forests, especially at hilltops in remote places. Therefore there is no general knowledge about burial barrows in the Czech population.


The best Slavic barrow sites can be found near to Vitín, a small village close to České Budějovice. There are two groups of barrows close to Vitín, each containing about 80 barrows ordered in lines. Some of the barrows are as much as 2 meters high. Vitín is a small village in southern Bohemia, having around 250 inhabitants. ... Coordinates: , Country Czech Republic Region South Bohemian District ÄŒeské BudÄ›jovice Founded 1055 Government  - Mayor Juraj Thoma (ODS) Area  - City 55. ...


There are also some prehistoric burial barrows in Czechia, built by unknown people. Unlike Slavic barrows, they can be found all across the country, though they are scarce. Distinguishing them from Slavic ones is not an easy task for the unskilled eye. Prehistory (Greek words προ = before and ιστορία = history) is the period of human history prior to the advent of writing (which marks the beginning of recorded history). ...


Germany

Name Place Region Bundesland Type Date Era
Auleben(Auleben grave-hill field) Auleben Nordhausen Thuringia Grave-hill field ca. 1500 - 1200 BCE Bronze Age, Young Stone Age
Benther Berg(Benther mound) Badenstedt Region Hannover Lower Saxony Hilly-grave ca. 1800 - 1100 BCE Nordic Old Bronze Age
Pöckinger Gemeindegebiet(Pöcking local community area) Pöcking Region München Bavaria grave-hill field ca. 750 - 500 BCE Hallstatt Age
Kreuzlinger Forst/Mühltal Gauting Region München Bavaria Hilly-grave ca. 2000 - 1500 BCE Bronze Age
Germanengrab (Itzehoe)(Germans Grave (Itzehoe)) Itzehoe Kreis Steinburg Schleswig-Holstein Hilly-grave ca. 1500 - 1300 BCE Bronze Age
Giesen (village) Giesen (village) Landkreis Hildesheim Lower Saxonia Hilly-grave ca. 1600 - 1200 BCE Bronze Age
Glauberg Glauburg Wetteraukreis Hesse Kings graves 5. Century BCE Early Celtic Age
Gräberhügelfeld von Bonstorf(Grave-hill field of Bonstorf) Bonstorf Landkreis Celle Lower Saxony grave-hill field ca. 1500 - 1200 BCE Bronze Age, Young Stone Age
Lahnberge Marburg Landkreis Marburg-Biedenkopf Hesse >200 Hilly-graves ca. 1600 - 5th Century BCE Middle Bronze Age (Hügelgräber Culture), Late Bronze Age (Urnfeld Culture), Iron Age (Hallstatt Culture)
Hohmichele Hundersingen Landkreis Sigmaringen Baden-Württemberg Kings graves ca. 600 - 450 BCE Hallstatt Age
Grave-hill of Hochdorf Hochdorf an der Enz Landkreis Ludwigsburg Baden-Württemberg Hilly-grave 5. Century BCE Hallstatt Age
Grabauer Gräberfeld(Grave fields) Grabau (Stormarn) Kreis Stormarn Schleswig-Holstein 9 grave-hills 6500 - 5500 BCE Young Stone Age
Beckdorf Beckdorf Landkreis Stade Lower Saxony Hilly-grave
Heidelberg Wiera Schwalm-Eder-Kreis Hesse Hill-grave Bronze Age
Lehbühl Schlaitdorf Landkreis Esslingen Baden-Württemberg Hill-grave ca. 600 - 400 BCE Hallstatt Age
Willhofer Berg (Wilhof mountain) Willhof Landkreis Schwandorf Bavaria Hilly-grave ca. 1516 BCE Middle Bronze Age, early La Tene Age
Mellingstedt Lemsahl-Mellingstedt Hamburg-Wandsbek Hamburg Hilly-grave Bronze Age
Daxberg Daxberg (Mömbris) Landkreis Aschaffenburg Bavaria Hilly-grave field ca. 2000 - 800 BCE Iron Age
Daxberg Daxberg (Erkheim) Landkreis Unterallgäu Bavaria Hilly-grave field 8. Century BCE Iron Age
Höltinghausen Höltinghausen Landkreis Cloppenburg Lower Saxony Hilly-grave field
Hohenfelde Hohenfelde (Mecklenburg) Landkreis Bad Doberan Mecklenburg-Vorpommern 7 Hilly-graves ca. 1700 BCE Bronze Age
Plankenheide Nettetal Kreis Viersen North Rhine-Westphalia Hill-grave
Kranzberger Forst Kranzberg Landkreis Freising Bavaria 19 Hilly-graves Bronze Age
Neu Quitzenow Neu Quitzenow Landkreis Güstrow Mecklenburg-Vorpommern 2 Hilly-graves ca. 1800 - 600 BCE
Maaschwitz Maaschwitz Muldentalkreis Saxony Hilly-graves
Königsgrab von Seddin Seddin Landkreis Prignitz Brandenburg Kings graves 8. Century BCE Bronze Age
Pestruper Gräberfeld (Pestrup Grave fields) Wildeshausen Landkreis Oldenburg Lower Saxony ~ 500 grave-hills ca. 900 - 200 BCE Bronze Age
Plaggenschale Plaggenschale Landkreis Osnabrück Lower Saxony
Mansenberge Groß Berßen Landkreis Emsland Lower Saxony Great stone grave 2000 BCE Megalith Culture
Magdalenenberg Villingen Schwarzwald-Baar-Kreis Baden-Württemberg Kings grave ca. 616 BCE Hallstatt Age
Tumulus von Nennig Nennig Landkreis Merzig-Wadern Saarland Grave-hill Bronze Age
Wagengrab von Bell (Wagon grave of Bell) Bell (Hunsrück) Rhein-Hunsrück-Kreis Rhineland-Palatinate Wagon-grave 500 BCE Hallstatt Age
Winckelbarg Landkreis Stade Lower Saxony
Naturschutzgebiet Schweinert(Schweinert Nature reserve) Falkenberg Landkreis Elbe-Elster Brandenburg The Great Hill-Grave Field of Middle Europe (642 Hills) ca. 1000 BCE
Breitenfeld Neuhausen ob Eck Landkreis Tuttlingen Baden-Württemberg 21 grave-hills ca. 700 BCE - 450 CE Hallstatt Age

Roland statue in Nordhausen Twinning The city is twinned with Bet Shemesh in Israel Charleville-Mézières in France Bochum Ostrów Wielkopolski in Poland Nordhausen is a city of about 45,000 people at the southern border of the Harz mountains, in the state of Thuringia, Germany. ... The Free State of Thuringia (German: Freistaat Thüringen) is located in central Germany and is considered one of the smaller of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states), with an area of 16,200 km² and 2. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... With an area of 47,618 km and nearly eight million inhabitants, Lower Saxony (German Niedersachsen) lies in north-western Germany and is second in area and fourth in population among the countrys sixteen Bundesl nder (federal states). ... Starnberg is a Kreis (district) in the southern part of Bavaria, Germany. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... Gauting is a municipality in the district of Starnberg, in Bavaria, Germany with a population of approx. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Itzehoe [] is a town in Germany, in the Bundesland of Schleswig-Holstein, the capital of the district of Steinburg. ... Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 Bundesländer in Germany. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... The Glauberg is a hill near the village of Glauburg in the Wetteraukreis, some 30 km. ... Glauburg is a municipality in the Wetteraukreis, in Hesse, Germany. ... The Wetteraukreis is a Kreis (district) in the middle of Hesse, Germany. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE7 Capital Wiesbaden Largest city Frankfurt Minister-President Roland Koch (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 5 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  21,100 km² (8,147 sq mi) Population 6,077,000 (08/2006)[1]  - Density... With an area of 47,618 km and nearly eight million inhabitants, Lower Saxony (German Niedersachsen) lies in north-western Germany and is second in area and fourth in population among the countrys sixteen Bundesl nder (federal states). ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Marburg is a city in Hesse, Germany, on the Lahn river. ... Marburg-Biedenkopf is a Kreis (district) in the west of Hesse, Germany. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE7 Capital Wiesbaden Largest city Frankfurt Minister-President Roland Koch (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 5 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  21,100 km² (8,147 sq mi) Population 6,077,000 (08/2006)[1]  - Density... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use) consisted of techniques for smelting copper and tin from naturally occurring outcroppings of ore, and then alloying those metals in order to cast bronze. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use) consisted of techniques for smelting copper and tin from naturally occurring outcroppings of ore, and then alloying those metals in order to cast bronze. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... The Hallstatt culture was the predominant Central European culture during the local Bronze Age, and introduced the Iron Age. ... Sigmaringen is a district (Kreis) in the south of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE1 Capital Stuttgart Prime Minister Günther Oettinger (CDU) Governing parties CDU / FDP Votes in Bundesrat 6 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  35,752 km² (13,804 sq mi) Population 10,741,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 300... Ludwigsburg is a district (Kreis) in the middle of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE1 Capital Stuttgart Prime Minister Günther Oettinger (CDU) Governing parties CDU / FDP Votes in Bundesrat 6 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  35,752 km² (13,804 sq mi) Population 10,741,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 300... Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 Bundesländer in Germany. ... Beckdorf is a municipality in the district of Stade, Lower Saxony, Germany. ... Beckdorf is a municipality in the district of Stade, Lower Saxony, Germany. ... With an area of 47,618 km and nearly eight million inhabitants, Lower Saxony (German Niedersachsen) lies in north-western Germany and is second in area and fourth in population among the countrys sixteen Bundesl nder (federal states). ... Schwalmstadt is the Schwalm-Eder districts biggest town, and is found in northern Hesse, Germany. ... Schwalmstadt is the Schwalm-Eder districts biggest town, and is found in northern Hesse, Germany. ... Schwalm-Eder is a Kreis (district) in the north of Hesse, Germany. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE7 Capital Wiesbaden Largest city Frankfurt Minister-President Roland Koch (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 5 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  21,100 km² (8,147 sq mi) Population 6,077,000 (08/2006)[1]  - Density... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Schlaitdorf is a town in the district of Esslingen in Baden-Württemberg in Germany. ... Schlaitdorf is a town in the district of Esslingen in Baden-Württemberg in Germany. ... Esslingen is a district (Kreis) in the centre of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE1 Capital Stuttgart Prime Minister Günther Oettinger (CDU) Governing parties CDU / FDP Votes in Bundesrat 6 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  35,752 km² (13,804 sq mi) Population 10,741,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 300... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use) consisted of techniques for smelting copper and tin from naturally occurring outcroppings of ore, and then alloying those metals in order to cast bronze. ... Hamburg-Wandsbek (Map) is the largest of seven districts that make up the city of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Germany), covering 147,5 km² with 406,802 inhabitants as of 2005. ... Location Coordinates Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE6 First Mayor Ole von Beust (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  755 km² (292 sq mi) Population 1,754,317 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 2,324 /km² (6,018... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... With an area of 47,618 km and nearly eight million inhabitants, Lower Saxony (German Niedersachsen) lies in north-western Germany and is second in area and fourth in population among the countrys sixteen Bundesl nder (federal states). ... Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (German: Mecklenburg-Vorpommern) is a Bundesland (federal state) in northern Germany. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Nettetal is a municipality in the district of Viersen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Coat of arms Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DEA Capital Düsseldorf Prime Minister Jürgen Rüttgers (CDU) Governing parties CDU / FDP Votes in Bundesrat 6 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  34,084 km² (13,160 sq mi) Population 18,033,000... Kranzberg is a town in the district of Freising in Bavaria in Germany. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (German: Mecklenburg-Vorpommern) is a Bundesland (federal state) in northern Germany. ... Zschadraß is a municipality in the Muldentalkreis district in Saxony, Germany. ... The Muldentalkreis is a district in the Free State of Saxony, Germany. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DED Capital Dresden Minister-President Georg Milbradt (CDU) Governing parties CDU / SPD Votes in Bundesrat 4 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  18,416 km² (7,110 sq mi) Population 4,252,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 231 /km...   (Lower Sorbian: Bramborska; Upper Sorbian: Braniborska) is one of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states). ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Wildeshausen is the capital of the Oldenburg district in north western Germany, located by the river Hunte. ... With an area of 47,618 km and nearly eight million inhabitants, Lower Saxony (German Niedersachsen) lies in north-western Germany and is second in area and fourth in population among the countrys sixteen Bundesl nder (federal states). ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Merzen is a municipality in the district of Osnabrück, in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... With an area of 47,618 km and nearly eight million inhabitants, Lower Saxony (German Niedersachsen) lies in north-western Germany and is second in area and fourth in population among the countrys sixteen Bundesl nder (federal states). ... Groß Berßen is a municipality in the Emsland district, in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... Groß Berßen is a municipality in the Emsland district, in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... With an area of 47,618 km and nearly eight million inhabitants, Lower Saxony (German Niedersachsen) lies in north-western Germany and is second in area and fourth in population among the countrys sixteen Bundesl nder (federal states). ... Villingen-Schwenningen is the largest city of the Schwarzwald-Baar district located in the middle of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... Schwarzwald-Baar is a district (Kreis) in the middle of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE1 Capital Stuttgart Prime Minister Günther Oettinger (CDU) Governing parties CDU / FDP Votes in Bundesrat 6 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  35,752 km² (13,804 sq mi) Population 10,741,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 300... Nennig is a town in the Saarland, Germany. ... Nennig is a town in the Saarland, Germany. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DEC Capital Saarbrücken Minister-President Peter Müller (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  2,569 km² (992 sq mi) Population 1,044,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 406 /km... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Rhein-Hunsrück is a district (Kreis) in the middle of Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. ... The Rhenish Palatinate (Rheinpfalz, sometimes Lower Palatinate or Niederpfalz) occupies rather more than a quarter of the German Bundesland (federal state) of Rhineland-Palatinate (Rheinland-Pfalz) and contains the towns of Ludwigshafen, Kaiserslautern, Neustadt an der Weinstrasse, Pirmasens, Landau and Speyer. ... With an area of 47,618 km and nearly eight million inhabitants, Lower Saxony (German Niedersachsen) lies in north-western Germany and is second in area and fourth in population among the countrys sixteen Bundesl nder (federal states). ...   (Lower Sorbian: Bramborska; Upper Sorbian: Braniborska) is one of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states). ... Breitenfeld is a town in the Landkreis of Altmarkkreis Salzwedel in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. ... Neuhausen ob Eck is a town in the district of Tuttlingen in Baden-Württemberg in Germany. ... Tuttlingen is a county (Kreis) in the south of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE1 Capital Stuttgart Prime Minister Günther Oettinger (CDU) Governing parties CDU / FDP Votes in Bundesrat 6 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  35,752 km² (13,804 sq mi) Population 10,741,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 300...

Hungary

There are many tumuli in the Great Hungarian Plain, the highest is near of the settlement of Békésszentandrás, in Békés county.(see the picture of "Gödény-halom") The Pannonian plain is a large plain in central/south-eastern Europe that remained when the Pliocene Pannonian Sea (see below) dried out. ... Location of Békés county in Hungary Békésszentandrás is a village in Békés county, in the Southern Great Plain region of south-east Hungary. ... For the historical county see Békés (former county) Békés County (Hungarian: Békés megye; Romanian: judeÅ£ul BichiÅŸ; Slovak: BékeÅ¡ská župa) is an administrative division (county or megye) in south-eastern Hungary, on the border with Romania. ...


Italy

Some big tumulus tombs can be found especially in the Etruscan culture. Smaller barrows are dated to the Villanova period (9th - 8th centrury BC) but the biggest were used in the following centuries (from the 7th century afterwards) by the etruscan aristocracy.


The Etruscan tumuli were normally family tombs that were used for many generation of the same noble family, and the deceased were buried with many precious objects that had to be the "grave goods" or the furnishings for these "houses" in the Afterlife. Many tombs also hold paintings, that in many cases represent the funeral or scenes of real life. The most important graveyards (necropolises) with tumulus tombs are Veio, Cerveteri, Vetulonia, Populonia. Many isolated big barrows can be found in the whole etruscan territory (mostly in Central Italy).


Israel

Jerusalem Tumulus #2 in 2004.
Jerusalem Tumulus #2 in 2004.

Near the western city limits of modern Jerusalem in Israel, 19 tumuli have been documented (Amiran, 1958). Though first noticed in the 1870s by early surveyors, the first one to be formally documented was Tumulus #2 in 1923 by William Foxwell Albright, and the most recent one (Tumulus #4) was excavated by Gabriel Barkay in 1983. Since 21 kings reigned in Jerusalem during the Israelite monarchy from David to Zedekiah (who was conquered and humiliated by the Chaldean king, Nebuchadnezzar), it is not unreasonable to suspect that these mounds were the locations of ceremonies to mourn/honor them after they had already received proper burial in the royal tombs (probably located in the heart of the city where they could be continuously guarded). See 2 Chronicles 16:14, 21:19 (which states that King Jehoram was not given this honor), 32:33, the book of Jeremiah 34:5 (a conditional promise for Zedekiah that he did not earn), and Biblical archaeology. Gabriel Barkay popularized this theory after studying tumuli near Salamis in Cyprus. Image File history File links Jerusalem Tumulus #2; Jan-29-2005 Funhistory 04:28, 12 Feb 2005 (UTC) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Jerusalem Tumulus #2; Jan-29-2005 Funhistory 04:28, 12 Feb 2005 (UTC) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... William Foxwell Albright (May 24, 1891 - September 19/20, 1971) was an evangelical Methodist archaelogist, biblical authority, linguist and expert on ceramics. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... “The Twelve Tribes” redirects here. ... David and Goliath, by Caravaggio, c. ... Tzidkiyahu (‎, Şidhqiyyāhû; Greek: ζεδεκιας, Zedekias; traditional English: Zedekiah; Arabic: صدقيا, Şidqiyyā) was the last king of Judah. ... For other uses, see Chaldean. ... Nebuchadnezzar (or Nebudchadrezzar) II (ca. ... (Redirected from 2 Chronicles) The Book of Chronicles is a book in the Hebrew Bible (also see Old Testament). ... Jehoram of Judah was the king of Judah, and the son of Jehoshaphat (2 Kings 8:16). ... The Book of Jeremiah, or Jeremiah (יִרְמְיָהוּ Yirməyāhū in Hebrew), is part of the Hebrew Bible, Judaisms Tanakh, and later became a part of Christianitys Old Testament. ... Tzidkiyahu (‎, Şidhqiyyāhû; Greek: ζεδεκιας, Zedekias; traditional English: Zedekiah; Arabic: صدقيا, Şidqiyyā) was the last king of Judah. ... Biblical archaeology involves the recovery and scientific investigation of the material remains of past cultures that can illuminate the periods and descriptions in the Bible. ...

  • More than half of these ancient Israeli structures have now been threatened or obliterated by modern construction projects, including Tumulus #4, which was excavated hastily in a salvage operation. The most noteworthy finds from this dig were two LMLK seal impressions and two other handles with associated Concentric Circle incisions, all of which suggests this tumulus belonged to either King Hezekiah (Barkay, 2003, p. 68) or his son Manasseh (Grena, 2004, p. 326).
  • When comparing the number of these tumuli to the total number of Israelite kings (northern and southern), note that Saul never ruled in Jerusalem, and Athaliah was never crowned. She took the throne by force (2Kings 11:1-3), and would certainly not have been honored with a tumulus ceremony following her brutal assassination.
  • The northern kings did not reign over the southern kingdom, and they would certainly not have been honored with a tumulus ceremony in Jerusalem; if any ceremonies were held for them, they would have transpired in the north (near Bethel, Tirzah, or Samaria).
  • The association of these tumuli with the Judean kings who ruled Jerusalem does not substantiate Biblical history since it is mere speculation. No inscriptions naming any specific Judean king have been excavated from a tumulus.

LMLK seals were stamped on the handles of large storage jars in and around Jerusalem during the reign of King Hezekiah (circa 700 BC) based on several complete jars found in situ buried under a destruction layer caused by Sennacherib at Lachish. ... Hezekiah (or Ezekias) (Hebrew: חזקיה or חזקיהו, God has strengthened) was the 13th king of indepedent Judah and the son of King Ahaz and Abijah (2 Chronicles 29:1), who was a daughter of a man (who was not the prophet) named Zechariah. ... Manasseh of Judah was the king of Judah and only son and successor of Hezekiah. ... Saul (שאול המלך) (or Shaul) (Hebrew: שָׁאוּל, Standard Tiberian  ; asked for or borrowed) is a figure identified in the Books of Samuel and Quran as having been the first king of the ancient Kingdom of Israel. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Athaliah (Hebrew Atalyahu (עתליה), God is exalted) was the queen of Judah during the reign of King Jehoram, and later became sole ruler of Judah for five years. ... The Books of Kings (Hebrew: Sefer Melachim ספר מלכים) is a part of Judaisms Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Bethel (Hebrew בֵּית־אֵל, Standard Hebrew Bet El, Beyt El, Tiberian Hebrew Bêṯ-ʼĒl) is a Biblical city in ancient Israel, about 10 miles north of Jerusalem in Samaria (Northern West Bank). ... Tirzah (Arabic and Hebrew origin) was a town in the Samarian highlands northeast of Shechem; it has been identified with Tell el-Farah (North). ... It has been suggested that Sebastia, Middle East be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ...

Japan

Noge-Ōtsuka Kofun tumulus, Tokyo, early 5th century.
Noge-Ōtsuka Kofun tumulus, Tokyo, early 5th century.

In Japan, powerful leaders built tumuli known as kofun. The Kofun period of Japanese history takes its name from these burial mounds. The largest is over 400 meters in length. In addition to other shapes, kofun include a keyhole shape. Image File history File links Noge-Ōtsuka Kofun tumulus (野毛大塚古墳) in Setagaya-ku, Tokyo, Japan. ... Image File history File links Noge-Ōtsuka Kofun tumulus (野毛大塚古墳) in Setagaya-ku, Tokyo, Japan. ... Daisenryo Kofun, the tomb of Emperor Nintoku, Sakai, 5th century. ... Tokyo ), the common English name for the Tokyo Metropolis ), is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and, unique among the prefectures, provides certain municipal services characteristic of a city. ... Daisenryo Kofun, the tomb of Emperor Nintoku, Sakai, 5th century. ...

Korea

Burial mounds of the Silla kings in Korea.
Burial mounds of the Silla kings in Korea.

The first burial mounds in Korea were dolmens which contained the material culture of the first millennium CE, such as bronze-ware, pottery, and other symbols of the elite of society. http://www. ... http://www. ... T shaped Hunebed D27 in Borger-Odoorn, Netherlands, recent. ...


The most famous tumulii in Korea, dating around 300 AD, are those left behind by the Korean Baekje, Goguryeo(Kogyuro/Koguryo), Silla, and Gaya states and are clustered around ancient capital cities in modern-day Pyongyang, Seoul, Jian, and Gwangju. The Goguryeo tombs, shaped like pyramids, are famous for the well-preserved wall murals like the ones at Anak Tomb No.3 which depict the culture and artistry of the people. The base of the tomb of King Gwanggaeto is 85 meters on each side, half of the size of the Great Pyramids.[1] Goguryeo Silla tombs are most noted for the fabulous offerings that have been excavated such as delicate golden crowns and glassware and beads that probably made their way to Korea via the Silk Road. Baekje (October 18 BC – August AD 660) was a kingdom in the southwest of the Korean Peninsula. ... Goguryeo was an ancient kingdom located in southern Manchuria (present-day Northeast China), southern Russian Maritime province, and the northern and central parts of the Korean peninsula. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Silla (also spelled Shilla, traditional dates 57 BCE - 935 CE) was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. ... Gaya was a confederacy of chiefdoms that existed in the Nakdong River valley of Korea during the Three Kingdoms era. ... Not to be confused with PyeongChang. ... Seoul (서울)   [] is the capital of South Korea and is located on the Han River in the countrys northwest. ... For the novel of the same name, see Eric Van Lustbader. ... This article is about Gwangju Metropolitan City in South Korea. ... The Anak Tomb No. ... King Gwanggaeto the Great of Goguryeo (374-413, r. ... The Silk Road Silk Route redirects here. ...


Korean tombs exhibit many styles borrowed by and from the Chinese, such as the styles of how the tombs were built and the use of the four guardian beasts, such as Ssu Ling. Additionally, many indigenous Korean artifacts and culture were transmitted, along with Chinese culture, to the tomb builders of early Japan, such as horsetrappings, bronze mirrors, paintings and iron-ware. The Si Ling (四霛/四灵) are four guardian beasts from Chinese mythology, also known as the Shishin (四神) or Shijin in the Japanese tradition of onmyodo. ...


China

Tumulus structures date back to Neolithic times in China. Examples includs the 65-foot-tall neolithic tomb mound at the Sidun site of the Liangzhu culture [1], and the mound tombs of the Hongshan culture [2]. More recent examples include the stone tumuli of the Western Xia dynasty [3]. The Liangzhu jade culture (3400-2250 BC) was the last Neolithic jade culture in the Yangtze River Delta of China and was spaced over a period of about 1300 years. ... The Hongshan culture (红山文化) was a Neolithic culture in northeastern China. ... Location of Western Xia in 1142 Capital Xingqing Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1038-1048 Emperor Jingzong  - 1226-1227 Emperor Modi History  - Established 1038  - Surrendered to the Mongol Empire 1227 Population  - peak est. ...


Macedonia(Greek)

Some of the world's most prominent Tumuli, the Macedonian tombs and a cist-grave at Vergina, tomb of Philip II (359-336 B.C) of Macedonia and father of Alexander the Great (336-323). Speculation that the other grave found there is that of Alexander IV is controversial. His corpse was allegedly buried in Memphis during the turmoil of the Diadochi after his death in 323 BC[citation needed]. Location of Aigéai/Vergina in Greece. ... Philip II of Macedon: victory medal (niketerion) struck in Tarsus, 2nd c. ... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1][2] Megas Alexandros; July 20 356 BC – June 10 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, was an Ancient Greek king of Macedon (336–323 BC). ... Alexander IV may refer to either of the following; Pope Alexander IV King Alexander IV of Macedon, the son of Alexander the Great Category: ...


Aigai is the ancient capital of Macedonia[citation needed], homeland of Phillip II. During the 19th century, the tomb of Philip II was discovered in Vergina, northern Greece. The Monumental Palace is lavishly decorated with painted stuccoes and mosaics accompanying a burial ground with as many as 300 tumuli. Some tumuli date from the 11th century B.C. However, the most renowned is the royal tomb of Philip II, father of Alexander the Great, who manage to unite by force many Greek cities, architect of the Hellenistic expansion. Aegea is a back-formation from Aegean, the sea that was named for an eponymous Aegeus in early levels of Greek mythology. ...


This city lies on the northern slopes of the Pierian Mountains; Aigai has been identified as the capital of the Kingdom of Lower Macedonia[citation needed]. The site was inhabited continuously form the Bronze Age. By the 11th – 8th century BC it was a densely populated and rich centre. The 7th-6th centuries BC saw the premium point of its prosperity and popularity; this continued into the 5th century BC. Traditional sanctuaries were established, as were the seats of the Macedonian Kings. Royal tombs were known in antiquity to be opulent.

Burial of Oleg of Novgorod in a tumulus in 912. Painting by Viktor Vasnetsov.

Excavations were first undertaken at this site by 19th century. Archaeologists L. Heuzy of France and K. Rhomaios of Greece began but were stalled by the First and Second World Wars and excavations were not resumed until approximately 1952[citation needed]. In the 1960s M. Andronicos was director of the excavations and the cemetery of the tumuli was investigated. The Palace of Philip II was excavated by a team from Thessaloniki University along with part of the necropolis being investigated by the Ministry of Culture. 1977 was the pivotal date that M. Andronicos brought to the attention of the world, the royal tombs in the Great Tumulus of Vergina, (ΜεγάΛα) tomb. Unfortunately, the townspeople of Vergina have put a halt to any more excavations for the time being, under the auspices of preserving their beautiful surroundings and heritage[citation needed]. Image File history File links Viktor Vasnetsov. ... Image File history File links Viktor Vasnetsov. ... Fyodor Bruni. ... Self-portrait 1873 Viktor Mikhailovich Vasnetsov (Виктор Михайлович Васнецов) (May 15 (N.S.), 1848—1926) was a Russian artist who specialized in mythological and historical subjects. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Turkey

On the Anatolian peninsula, there are several sites where one can find the biggest specimens of these artificial mounds throughout the world. Three of these sites are especially important. Bin Tepeler (and other Lydian mounds of the Aegean inland), Phrygian mounds in Gordium (Central Anatolia) and the famous Commagene tumulus on the Mount Nemrut (Southeastern Anatolia). Anatolian can refer to: Someone or something from Anatolia The Anatolian Shepherd Dog This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Lydian was an Indo-European language, one of the Anatolian languages, that was spoken in the city-state of Lydia in Anatolia, present day Turkey. ... In antiquity, Phrygia (Greek: ) was a kingdom in the west central part of the Anatolian Highland, part of modern Turkey. ... Gordium was the capital of ancient Phrygia, modern Yassihüyük. ... Roman province of Commagene, 120 CE Commagene (Greek Kομμαγηνη Kommagênê) was a small sometime kingdom, located in modern south-central Turkey, with its capital at Samosata (modern Samsat, near the Euphrates). ... Landscape view of the mountain Nemrut or Nemrud (Turkish: Nemrut DaÄŸ or Nemrut Dağı, Armenian: Õ¶Õ¥Õ´Ö€Õ¸Ö‚Õ©) is a 2,134 meters (7000 ft. ...


Bin Tepeler and other Lydian tumulus sites

This is the most important of the enumerated sites with the number of specimens it has and with the dimensions of certain among them. It is in the Aegean inland of Turkey. The site is called "Bin Tepeler" (a thousand mounds in Turkish) and it is in the northwest of Salihli district of Manisa province. The site is very close to the southern shoreline of Lake Marmara (Lake Gyges or Gygaea). Bin Tepeler is a Lydian necropolis which dates back to 7th and 6th centuries B.C. These mounds are called "the pyramids of Anatolia" as there is even a giant specimen among them which attains 355 meters in diameter, 1115 meters in perimeter and 69 meters of height. According to the accounts drawn up by Herodotus, this giant tumulus belongs to the famous Lydian King Alyattes II who ruled between 619-560 B.C. There is also another mound belonging to King Gyges. The Gyges mound was excavated but the burial chamber hasn't been found yet. In this site, there are 75 tumuli dating back to Lydian period which belong to the nobility. A large number of smaller artificial mounds can also be observed in the site. There are other Lydian tumuli sites around Eşme district of Uşak province. Certain mounds in these sites had been plundered by raiders in the late 1960s and the Lydian treasures found in their burial chambers had been smuggled to United States which later had to cede them to Turkish authorities after a series of negotiations. These artifacts are now exhibited in the Archaeological Museum of Uşak. Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Salihli is a town and a district of Manisa Province in the Aegean region of Turkey. ... Manisa Province is a Province in western Turkey. ... Lydian was an Indo-European language, one of the Anatolian languages, that was spoken in the city-state of Lydia in Anatolia, present day Turkey. ... For the record label, see Necropolis Records. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Alyattes II, king of Lydia (619_560 BC), the real founder of the Lydian empire, was the son of Sadyattes, of the house of the Mermnadae. ... Gyges, was the founder of the third or Mermnad dynasty of Lydian kings and reigned from 687 to 652 BC (according to H Gelzer. ... EÅŸme is a district of UÅŸak Province of Turkey. ... Shows the Location of the Province UÅŸak UÅŸak (from UÅŸÅŸak meaning lovers; alternative transliteration: Ushak) is a province in western Turkey. ...


Gordium and Phrygian tumuli

Gordium is the capital of the Phrygian Kingdom. Its ruins are in the immediate vicinity of Polatlı district of the Turkish capital Ankara. In this site, there are approximately 80-90 tumuli which date back to Phrygian, Persian and Hellenistic periods. Only 35 tumuli were excavated so far. The mounds had been built between 8th century B.C. and 3rd or 2nd century B.C. The biggest tumulus in the site is believed to belong to the famous Phrygian King Midas. This mound had been excavated in 1957 and several bronze artifacts were collected from the wooden burial chamber. Among these artifacts, "omphalos bowls" and famous "Phrygian fibulae" (hooked needles which were used by the Phryigians to bond the clothes they wore) are especially important. Gordium was the capital of ancient Phrygia, modern Yassihüyük. ... In antiquity, Phrygia (Greek: ) was a kingdom in the west central part of the Anatolian Highland, part of modern Turkey. ... Polatlı is a district of Ankara Province of Turkey. ... Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Ä°stanbul. ... Persian art is conscious of a great past, and monumental in many respects. ... The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... In Greek mythology, Midas (in Greek, Μιδας, often referred as King Midas) is popularly remembered for his ability to turn everything he touched into gold: the Midas touch. Midas was king[1] of Pessinus, a city of Phrygia, who as a child was adopted by the king Gordias and Cybele, goddess... Assorted ancient Bronze castings found as part of a cache, probably intended for recycling. ... For other uses see fibula (disambiguation) The fibula or calf bone is a bone placed on the lateral side of the tibia, with which it is connected above and below. ...


Commagene Tumulus on Mount Nemrut

The Mount Nemrut is 86 km in the east of Adıyaman province of Turkey. It is very close to Kahta district of the same province. The mountain has, at its peak, 3050 meters of height above the sea level. A tumulus which dates back to the 1st century B.C. is situated at the peak of the mountain. This artificial mound has 150 meters of diameter and a height of 50 meters which was originally 55 meters. It belongs to the Commagene King Antiochus I Theos of Commagene who ruled between 69-40 B.C. The most interesting thing about the tumulus is that it is made of broken stone pieces which renders the excavation attempts almost impossible. The tumulus is surrounded by ceremonial terraces in the east, west and north. The east and west terraces have tremendous statues (reaching 8 to 10 meters of height) and bas reliefs of gods and goddesses from the Commagene pantheon where divine figures used to embody the Persian and Roman perceptions together. Landscape view of the mountain Nemrut or Nemrud (Turkish: Nemrut DaÄŸ or Nemrut Dağı, Armenian: Õ¶Õ¥Õ´Ö€Õ¸Ö‚Õ©) is a 2,134 meters (7000 ft. ... Adıyaman is a city in Turkey, capital of the Adıyaman Province. ... Kahta is a district of Adıyaman Province of Turkey. ... Roman province of Commagene, 120 CE Commagene (Greek Kομμαγηνη Kommagênê) was a small sometime kingdom, located in modern south-central Turkey, with its capital at Samosata (modern Samsat, near the Euphrates). ... Antiochus I Theos Dikaios Epiphanes Philorhomaios Philhellen (69–40 BC), was the most important king of the small Armenian kingdom of Commagene, which was situated in a region that is now in south-eastern Turkey and currently inhabited largely by ethnic Kurds. ... A pantheon (from Greek Πάνθειον, temple of all gods, from πᾶν, all + θεός, god) is a set of all the gods of a particular religion or mythology, such as the gods of Hinduism, Norse, Egyptian, Shintoism, Greek, vodun, Yoruba Mythology and Roman mythology. ... The beliefs and practices of the culturally and linguistically related group of ancient peoples who inhabited the Iranian Plateau and its borderlands, as well as areas of Central Asia from the Black Sea to Khotan (modern Ho-tien, China), form Persian mythology. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ...


Scandinavia

Ohthere's mound in Vendel, Sweden from the early 6th century.

Burial mounds were in use until the 11th century in Scandinavia. In their undamaged state they appear as small, man-made hillocks, though many examples have been damaged by ploughing or deliberately damaged so that little visible evidence remains. Ohtheres mound File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Ohtheres mound File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This is about the Swedish king Ohthere. ... Ohtheres mound Vendel is a parish in the Swedish province of Uppland. ... For the constellation known as The Plough see Ursa Major. ...


By burning the deceased, it was believed that the person was transferred to Valhalla by the consuming force of the fire. The fire could reach temperatures of 1500 °C. The remains were covered with cobblestones and then a layer of gravel and sand and finally a thin layer of turf. “Valhall” redirects here. ...

Thus he (Odin) established by law that all dead men should be burned, and their belongings laid with them upon the pile, and the ashes be cast into the sea or buried in the earth. Thus, said he, every one will come to Valhalla with the riches he had with him upon the pile; and he would also enjoy whatever he himself had buried in the earth. For men of consequence a mound should be raised to their memory, and for all other warriors who had been distinguished for manhood a standing stone; which custom remained long after Odin's time. [...] It was their faith that the higher the smoke arose in the air, the higher he would be raised whose pile it was; and the richer he would be, the more property that was consumed with him For other meanings of Odin, Woden or Wotan see Odin (disambiguation), Woden (disambiguation), Wotan (disambiguation). ...

King Björn's barrow in Håga.
King Björn's barrow in Håga.

As the old Scandinavians worshiped their ancestors, the mounds were also places of worship. The Ynglinga saga was originally written in Old Norse by the Icelandic poet Snorri Sturluson about 1225. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 96 KB)my own pic for wikipedia use File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 96 KB)my own pic for wikipedia use File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


Of note is King Björn's barrow in Håga (Old Norse name: Haug) near Uppsala. This location has a very strong connection with Björn at Haugi. First, the Nordic Bronze Age barrow gave its name to the location Håga ("the barrow"), which became part of the cognomen of the king, at Haugi ("at the barrow"), and interestingly, the mound was later named after the king. Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ... Uppsala (older spelling Upsala) is a city in central Sweden, located about 70 km north of Stockholm. ... King Björns barrow in HÃ¥ga (Old Norse name: Haug)near Uppsala. ... Map of the Nordic Bronze Age culture, ca 1200 BC The Nordic Bronze Age (also Northern Bronze Age) is the name given by Oscar Montelius (1843-1921) to a period and a Bronze Age culture in Scandinavian pre-history, ca 1800 BC - 600 BC, with sites that reached as far...


In Norse mythology, the draugr was an undead creature that haunted burial mounds. Norse, Viking or Scandinavian mythology comprises the indigenous pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian peoples, including those who settled on Iceland, where most of the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ... A draugr (original Old Norse plural draugar, as used here, not draugrs), draug or draugen (Norwegian meaning the draug) is a corporeal undead from Norse mythology. ...


Ukraine, Russia and Central Asia

Main article: Kurgan

The word kurgan is of Turkic origin borrowed from Russian language. In Ukraine and Russia, there are royal kurgans of Varangian chieftains, such as the Black Grave in Ukrainian Chernihiv (excavated in the 19th century), Oleg's Grave in Russian Staraya Ladoga, and vast, intricate Rurik's Hill near Russian Rurikovo gorodische. Other important kurgans are found in Ukraine and South Russia and are associated with much more ancient steppe peoples, notably the Scythians (e.g.,Chortomlyk, Pazyryk) and Proto-Indo-Europeans (e.g., Ipatovo) The steppe cultures found in Ukraine and South Russia naturally continue into Central Asia, in particular Kazakhstan. Sarmatian Kurgan 4th c. ... Sarmatian Kurgan 4th c. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... Russian ( , transliteration: , ) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia and the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages. ... The Varangians (Russian: Variags, Варяги) were Scandinavians who travelled eastwards, mainly from Jutland and Sweden. ... A 19th century drawing depicting the mound. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Chernihiv highlighted. ... Fyodor Bruni. ... The fortress of Ladoga was built in stone in the 12th century and rebuilt 400 years later. ... Rurik or Riurik (Russian: , Old East Norse Rørik, meaning famous ruler) (ca 830 – ca 879) was a Varangian who gained control of Ladoga in 862 and built the Holmgard settlement (Ryurikovo Gorodishche) in Novgorod. ... Velikiy Novgorod (Russian: ) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the M10(E95) federal highway connecting Moscow and St. ... A steppe in Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, a steppe (Russian: - , Ukrainian: - , Kazakh: - ), pronounced in English as , is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally considered as being dominated by tall grasses... Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ... Horseman, Pazyryk felt artifact, c. ... The Proto-Indo-Europeans are the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language, a prehistoric people of the Chalcolithic and early Bronze Age. ... Ipatovo kurgan refers to kurgan 2 of the Ipatovo barrow cemetery 3, a cemetery of kurgan burial mounds, located near Ipatovo, some 120 km north-east of Stavropol, Stavropol Krai, Russia. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ...


United States

Main article: Mound Builders

Mound building was a central feature of the public architecture of many Native American cultures from Chile to Minnesota. Thousands of mounds in the USA have been destroyed as a result of farming, pot-hunting, amateur and professional archaeology, road-building and construction. Surviving mounds are still found in river valleys, especially along the Mississippi, Tennessee and Ohio Rivers. Effigy mounds were used for burial, to support residential and religious structures, to represent a shared cosmology, and to unite and demarcate community. Common forms include conical mounds, ridge-top mounds, platform mounds, and animal effigy mounds, but there are many variations. Mound building in the USA is believed to date back to at least 1200 BC in the Southeast (see Poverty Point), and recent research shows that it may predate that as well. The Adena and Mississippian cultures are principally known for their mounds. The largest mound site north of Mexico is Cahokia, a vast World Heritage Site located just east of St. Louis, Missouri. The most visually impressive mound site (due to the area being free of trees) is in Moundville, Alabama. The largest conical burial mound can be found in Moundsville, West Virginia. This article is about mound-building birds. ... Section of the dome of Florence Cathedral. ... An independent origin and development of writing is counted among the many achievements and innovations of pre-Columbian American cultures. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... A riverboat passing under the Henley Street Bridge on the Tennessee River. ... Cincinnati, Ohio is a well known city along the Ohio River, historically known for its riverboats. ... An effigy mound is a raised pile of dirt in the shape of an animal. ... Cosmology, from the Greek: κοσμολογία (cosmologia, κόσμος (cosmos) order + λογια (logia) discourse) is the study of the Universe in its totality, and by extension, humanitys place in it. ... A Platform Mound is any earthwork intended to support a structure or activity. ... The effigy of John Gower in Southwark Cathedral, London. ... An aerial view reveals the circular pattern of ancient Indian earthworks at Poverty Point. ... An Adena pipe excavated from the Criel Mound The Adena culture was a Pre-Columbian Native American culture that existed from c. ... The Mississippian culture was a mound-building Native American culture that flourished in the Midwestern, Eastern, and Southeastern United States from approximately 900 to 1500 CE, varying regionally. ... Cahokia is the site of an ancient Native American city near Collinsville, Illinois, across the Mississippi River from St. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Moundville is a town located in Hale County, Alabama. ... Moundsville is a city in Marshall County, West Virginia, along the Ohio River. ...

Serpent Mound – an ancient Native American ceremonial structure in Ohio.

Other sites in the U.S.A. include Indian Mounds Park, Wisconsin, Indian Mounds Park (Saint Paul, Minnesota), and Indian Mound Park, Alabama. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 889 KB)Serpent mound - a Native American burial ground Image copyleft: Image taken by me, released under GFDL, Pollinator 06:45, 23 February 2006 (UTC) Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 889 KB)Serpent mound - a Native American burial ground Image copyleft: Image taken by me, released under GFDL, Pollinator 06:45, 23 February 2006 (UTC) Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of... The Serpent Mound is a 1,330 feet long and three feet high effigy mound located on a plateau in the Brush Creek Valley of Adams County, Ohio. ... Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States, including parts of Alaska. ... // The Effigy Mounds Park in 1995 before recent efforts to clear the parks underbrush. ... Entrance Sign Park Plaque Indian Mounds Park is a public park in Saint Paul, Minnesota. ... Other sites in the U.S. of similar history may be found at Indian Mounds Park Indian Mound Park, also known as Shell Mound Park or Indian Shell Mound Park, is a park and bird refuge located on the northern shore of Dauphin Island, a barrier island of Mobile County...

Tumulus burial accounts

The funeral of Patroclus is described in book 23 of the Iliad. Patroclus is burned on a pyre, and his bones are collected into a golden urn in two layers of fat. The barrow is built on the location of the pyre. Achilles then sponsors funeral games, consisting of a chariot race, boxing, wrestling, running, a duel between two champions to the first blood, discus throwing, archery and spear throwing. title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ... Chariot racing was one of the most popular ancient Greek and Roman sports. ...


Beowulf is taken to Hronesness, where he burned on a funeral pyre. During cremation, the Geats lament the death of their lord, the widow's lament being mentioned in particular. singing dirges as they circumambulate the barrow. Afterwards, a mound is built on top of a hill, overlooking the sea, and filled with treasure. A band of twelve of the best warriors ride around the barrow, singing dirges in praise of their lord.


Parallels have also been drawn to the account of Attila's burial in Jordanes' Getica.[4] Jordanes tells that as Attila's body was lying in state, the best horsemen of the Huns circled it, as in circus games. For other uses, see Attila (disambiguation). ... The Origin and Deeds of the Goths (Latin: De origine actibusque Getarum), commonly referred to as Getica, was written by Jordanes, probably in Constantinople, and was published in AD 551. ...


An Old Irish Life of Columcille reports that every funeral procession "halted at a mound called Eala, whereupon the corpse was laid, and the mourners marched thrice solemnly round the spot." Saint Columba (7 December 521 - 9 June 597), the Latinized version of the Irish name Colmcille (Old Irish Columb Cille) meaning Dove of the church, was the most outstanding among the group of Dark Ages Irish missionary monks who reintroduced Christianity to Scotland and the north of England. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Tumulus

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Avebury Henge and Village Avebury is the site of a large henge and several stone circles in the English county of Wiltshire at grid reference SU103699, surrounding the village of Avebury (its geographical location is 51°25′43″N, 1°51′15″W). ... A long barrow is a prehistoric monument dating to the Neolithic period. ... Seven Barrows, situated just North of Lambourn, Berkshire, England, is a site of a Bronze Age cemetery. ... Waylands Smithy is a Neolithic long barrow and chamber tomb site located near the Uffington White Horse and Uffington Castle in the English county of Oxfordshire. ... View of the outside of West Kennet Long Barrow View of the inside of West Kennet Long Barrow The West Kennet Long Barrow is a Neolithic tomb or barrow, situated on a prominent chalk ridge, near Silbury Hill, one-and-a-half miles south of Avebury in Wiltshire. ... East Cambridgeshire is a local government district in Cambridgeshire, England. ...

Types of barrows

Archaeologists often classify tumuli according to their location, form, and date of construction. Some British types are listed below: This July 2007 does not cite any references or sources. ...

  • Bank barrow
  • Bell barrow
  • Bowl barrow
  • D-shaped barrow A round barrow with a purposely flat edge at one side often defined by stone slabs
  • Fancy barrow A generic term for any Bronze Age barrows more elaborate than a simple hemispherical shape.
  • Long barrow
  • Oval barrow A type of Neolithic long barrow consisting of an elliptical, rather than rectangular or trapezoidal mound.
  • Platform barrow The least common of the recognised types of round barrow, consisting of a flat, wide circular mound, which may be surrounded by a ditch. They occur widely across southern England with a marked concentration in East and West Sussex.
  • Pond barrow a barrow consisting of a shallow circular depression, surrounded by a bank running around the rim of the depression. Bronze age
  • Ring barrow a bank which encircles a number of burials.
  • Round barrow a circular feature created by the Bronze Age peoples of Britain and also the later Romans, Vikings and Saxons. Divided into sub classes such as saucer and bell barrow. The Six Hills are a rare Roman example.
  • Saucer barrow circular Bronze Age barrow featuring a low, wide mound surrounded by a ditch which may be accompanied by an external bank.
  • Square barrow A burial site, usually of Iron Age date, consisting of a small, square, ditched enclosure surrounding a central burial, which may also have been covered by a mound

A bank barrow, sometimes referred to as a barrow-bank, ridge barrow, or ridge mound, is a type of tumulus first identified by O.G.S. Crawford in 1938. ... A bell barrow, sometimes referred to as a Wessex type barrow, campanulate form barrow, or a bermed barrow is a type of tumulus identified as such by both John Aubrey and William Stukeley. ... A bowl barrow, sometimes referred to as a cairn circle, cairn ring, howe, kerb cairn, turnp or rotunda grave is a type of tumulus first identified by John Thurman. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... A long barrow is a prehistoric monument dating to the Neolithic period. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Sussex is a historic county in South East England corresponding roughly in area to the ancient Kingdom of Sussex. ... A pond barrow is a burial mound, circular in shape, well formed, and with an embanked rim made of the earth taken from the depression made in the ground. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Round barrows are one of the most common types of archaeological monuments. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... The name Viking is a loan from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse seafaring warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, Europe and the British Isles from the late 8th century to the 11th century, the period of European history referred to as the Viking Age. ... For other uses, see Saxon (disambiguation). ... The Six Hills, April 2004 The Six Hills are a collection of Roman barrows situated alongside the Great North Road in Stevenage, Hertfordshire UK. They are classed as a Scheduled Ancient Monument and are protected by law. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ...

List of notable barrow diggers

Thomas Bateman (1821 - 1861) was an English antiquary and barrow-digger. ... William Copeland Borlase MA, FSA, MP (1848 - March 31, 1899) born at Castle Horneck, near Penzance in Cornwall, was a well known antiquarian and member of Parliament for the St. ... Richard Colt Hoare (9 December 1758 - 7 May 1838) was an English antiquarian and archaeologist of the early nineteenth century. ... William Cunnington (1754–31 December 1810) was a pioneering English antiquarian and archaeologist of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century. ... Canon William Greenwell (23 March 1820–27 January 1918) was an English archaeologist. ... John Robert Mortimer (1825-1911) was an English corn-merchant and archaeologist who lived in Driffield, Yorkshire and was responsible for the excavation of many barrows in that area, including Duggleby Howe. ... Augustus Henry Lane Fox Pitt Rivers (14th April, 1827– 4 May 1900) was an English army officer, ethnologist, and archaeologist. ... R.F. John Thurman was a British Scouting notable, and awardee of the Bronze Wolf in 1959. ...

References

  1. ^ Owen, B., China: Lungshan Horizon, 2006
  2. ^ Petersen, C., "Crafting" Hongshan Communities?, 2006
  3. ^ CRIENGLISH.COM: Western Xia Tombs
  4. ^ Frederick Klaeber, Attila's and Beowulf's funeral, PMLA (1927); Martin Puhvel, The Ride around Beowulf's Barrow, Folklore (1983).
  • Albright, William F. (1923). "Interesting finds in tumuli near Jerusalem". Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 10 (April): 1-3. 
  • Amiran, Ruth (1958). "The tumuli west of Jerusalem, Survey and Excavations, 1953". Israel Exploration Journal 8 (4): 205-27. 
  • Barkay, Gabriel (2003). "Mounds of mystery: where the kings of Judah were lamented". Biblical Archaeology Review 29 (3): 32-9, 66, 68. 
  • Grena, G.M. (2004). LMLK--A Mystery Belonging to the King vol. 1. Redondo Beach, California: 4000 Years of Writing History. ISBN 0-9748786-0-X. 
  • Grinsell, L.V., 1936, The Ancient Burial-mounds of England. London: Methuen.
  • Nelson, Sarah Milledge (1993). The Archaeology of Korea. ISBN 0-521-40783-4. 

External links

  • English Heritage Monument Class Descriptions
  • Congletons barrows and burial mounds

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