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Encyclopedia > Tumor necrosis factor

In medicine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα, cachexin or cachectin) is an important cytokine involved in systemic inflammation and the acute phase response. Image File history File links Tumor necrosis factor drawn from 1TNF.PDB by User:Jfdwolff File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Medicine on the Web NLM (National Library of Medicine, contains resources for patients and healthcare professionals) Virtual Hospital (digital health sciences library by the University of Iowa) Online Medical Dictionary Collection of links to free medical resources Categories: Medicine | Health ... Cytokines are small protein molecules that are the core of communication between immune system cells, and even between these cells and cells belonging to other tissue types. ... Inflammation is the first response of the immune system to infection or irritation and may be referred to as the innate cascade. ... Acute phase proteins are a class of proteins that are synthetized in the liver in response to inflammation. ...

Contents


Structure

TNFα is a member of a group of other cytokines that all stimulate the acute phase reaction. It is a 185 amino acid glycoprotein peptide hormone, cleaved from a 212 amino acid-long propeptide. Some cells secrete shorter or longer isoforms. Genetically it links to chromosome 7p21. Cytokines are small protein molecules that are the core of communication between immune system cells, and even between these cells and cells belonging to other tissue types. ... Acute phase proteins are a class of proteins that are synthetized in the liver in response to inflammation. ... In chemistry, an amino acid is any molecule that contains both amino and carboxylic acid functional groups. ... A glycoprotein is a macromolecule composed of a protein and a carbohydrate (a sugar). ... Peptide hormones are a class of peptides that are secreted into the blood stream and have endocrine functions in living animals. ... Figure 1: Chromosome. ...


Physiology

TNFα is released by white blood cells, endothelium and several other tissues in the course of damage, e.g. by infection. Its release is stimulated by several other mediators, such as interleukin 1 and bacterial endotoxin. It has a number of actions on various organ systems, generally together with interleukins 1 and 6: White blood cells (also called leukocytes or immune cells) are a component of blood. ... The endothelium is the layer of thin, flat cells that lines the interior surface of blood vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall. ... Biological tissue is a group of cells that perform a similar function. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... Interleukins are a group of cytokines that are expressed by white blood cells (leukocytes, hence the -leukin) as a means of communication (inter-). The function of the immune system depends in a large part on interleukins, and rare deficiencies of a number of them have been described, all featuring autoimmune... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria is also the fictional name of a warring nation under Benzino Napaloni as dictator, in the 1940 film The Great Dictator... Endotoxin is part of the outer membrane of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria. ... Interleukins are a group of cytokines that are expressed by white blood cells (leukocytes, hence the -leukin) as a means of communication (inter-). The function of the immune system depends in a large part on interleukins, and rare deficiencies of a number of them have been described, all featuring autoimmune...

In the anatomy of mammals, the hypothalamus is a region of the brain located below the thalamus, forming the major portion of the ventral region of the diencephalon and functioning to regulate certain metabolic processes and other autonomic activities. ... The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) is a major part of the neuroendocrine system that controls reactions to stress and has important functions in regulating various body processes such as digestion, the immune system and energy usage. ... Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), also called corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) or corticoliberin, is a polypeptide hormone involved in the stress response. ... The appetite is the desire to eat food, felt as hunger. ... Illness can be a synonym for disease or it can be a persons perception of having poor health. ... Hyperthermia: Characterized on the left. ... The liver is an organ in vertebrates, including humans. ... Acute phase proteins are a class of proteins that are synthetized in the liver in response to inflammation. ... C-reactive protein (CRP) is a plasma protein, an acute phase protein produced by the liver. ... In medicine, insulin resistance denotes a decompensation of glucose homeostasis where the tissues appear to be less responsive to insulin. ...

Pharmacology

Inhibition of TNFα with a monoclonal antibody or a circulating receptor such as infliximab (Remicade®), etanercept (Enbrel®), or adalimumab (Humira®) are used in modern treatment of various autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease and psoriasis. Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are antibodies that are identical because they were produced by one type of immune cell, all clones of a single parent cell. ... In biochemistry, a receptor is a protein on the cell membrane or within the cytoplasm that binds to a specific factor (a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter, hormone, or other substance, and initiates the cellular response to the ligand. ... Infliximab (Remicade®) is a powerful drug used to treat auto-immune disorders like Crohns disease and rheumatoid arthritis. ... Etanercept (Enbrel®, co-marketed by Amgen and Wyeth) is a recombinant human soluble tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) receptor. ... Autoimmune diseases arise from an overactive immune response of the body against substances and tissues normally present in the body. ... Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, inflammatory autoimmune disorder that causes the immune system to attack the joints. ... Diagram of the Human Intestine Crohns disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the digestive tract and it can involve any part of it - from the mouth to the anus. ...


Such drugs may raise the risk of contracting tuberculosis or causing a latent infection to become active. Infliximab and adalimumab have label warnings which state that patients should be evaluated for latent TB infection and treatment should be initiated prior to starting therapy with these medications. Tuberculous lungs show up on an X-ray image Tuberculosis is an infection with the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which most commonly affects the lungs (pulmonary TB) but can also affect the central nervous system (meningitis), lymphatic system, circulatory system (miliary TB), genitourinary system, bones and joints. ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Tumor necrosis factor - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (312 words)
TNFα is a member of a group of other cytokines that all stimulate the acute phase reaction.
Inhibition of TNFα with a monoclonal antibody or a circulating receptor such as infliximab (Remicade®), etanercept (Enbrel®), or adalimumab (Humira®) are used in modern treatment of various autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease and psoriasis.
TNF or the effects of TNF are also inhibited by a number of natural compounds, including curcumin (an ingredient in turmeric) and catechins (in green tea).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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