FACTOID # 9: The bookmobile capital of America is Kentucky.
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
People who viewed "Tularemia" also viewed:


FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:



(* = Graphable)



Encyclopedia > Tularemia
Classification & external resources
ICD-10 A21
ICD-9 021
DiseasesDB 13454
eMedicine med/2326  emerg/591 ped/2327

Tularemia (also known as "rabbit fever") is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis. The disease is endemic in North America, and parts of Europe and Asia. The primary vectors are ticks and deer flies, but the disease can also be spread through other arthropods. Rodents, rabbits, hares and ticks often serve as reservoir hosts. The disease is named after Tulare County, California. The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following codes are used with International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Species Francisella is a genus of pathogenic bacteria. ... In epidemiology, an infection is said to be endemic in a population when that infection is maintained in the population without the need for external inputs. ... Traditionally in medicine, a vector is an organism that does not cause disease itself but which spreads infection by conveying pathogens from one host to another. ... Families Ixodidae - Hard ticks Argasidae - Soft ticks Nuttalliellidae Wikispecies has information related to: Ixodoidea Tick is the common name for the small arachnids that, along with mites, constitute the order Acarina. ... Species Chrysops carbonarius Chrysops niger Chrysops vittatus Deer flies () are insects of the Tabanidae family that can be pests of cattle, horses, and humans. ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - Trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - Spiders, Scorpions, etc. ... Suborders Sciuromorpha Castorimorpha Myomorpha Anomaluromorpha Hystricomorpha Rodentia is an order of mammals also known as rodents. ... Natural reservoir or nidus, refers to the long-term host of the pathogen of an infectious disease. ... Tulare County is a county located in U.S. state of Californias Central Valley, south of Fresno. ...

In the United States, although records show that tularemia was never particularly common, incidence rates have further dropped to below 0.1 per 100,000, meaning the disease is extremely rare in the US today.[1] The incidence of disease is defined as the number of new cases of disease occurring in a population during a defined time interval. ...


Mechanism of infection

Francisella tularensis is one of the most infective bacteria known; fewer than ten organisms can cause disease leading to severe illness. Humans are most often infected by tick bite or through handling an infected animal. Ingesting infected water, soil, or food can also cause infection. Tularemia can be acquired by inhalation; hunters are at a higher risk for this disease because of the potential of inhaling the bacteria during the skinning process. Tularemia is not spread directly from person to person. Species Francisella is a genus of pathogenic bacteria. ...

Francisella tularensis is an intracellular bacterium, meaning that it is able to live as a parasite within host cells. It primarily infects macrophages, a type of white blood cell. It is thus able to evade the immune system. The course of disease involves spread of the organism to multiple organ systems, including the lungs, liver, spleen, and lymphatic system. The course of disease is similar regardless of the route of exposure. Mortality in untreated (pre-antibiotic-era) patients has been as high as 50% in the pneumoniac and typhoidal forms of the disease, which however account for less than 10% of cases.[2] Overall mortality was 7% for untreated cases, and the disease responds well to antibiotics with a fatality rate of about 2%. The exact cause of death is unclear, but it is thought be a combination of multiple organ system failures. Macrophages (Greek: big eaters) are cells found in tissues that are responsible for phagocytosis of pathogens, dead cells and cellular debris. ...

Incubation period

A patient with tularemia will most often develop flu-like symptoms between 1-14 days after infection (most likely 3-5 days.) If the patient was infected through an insect or tick bite, an eschar may develop at the bite site. An eschar is a scab of dead tissue covering a thermal burn, gangrene, ulcer, etc. ...


The drug of choice is Streptomycin. Tularemia can also be treated with gentamicin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol or fluoroquinolone antibiotics. Streptomycin is an antibiotic drug, the first of a class of drugs called aminoglycosides to be discovered, and was the first antibiotic remedy for tuberculosis. ... Gentamicin (also gentamycin) is an aminoglycoside antibiotic, and can treat many types of bacterial infections, particularly Gram-negative infection. ... Tetracycline (INN) (IPA: ) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by the streptomyces bacterium, indicated for use against many bacterial infections. ... Chloramphenicol is a bacteriostatic antibiotic originally derived from the bacterium Streptomyces venezuelae, isolated by David Gottlieb, and introduced into clinical practice in 1949. ... Quinolones and fluoroquinolones form a group of broad-spectrum antibiotics. ... An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. ...

Practical research into using Tularemia as a bioweapon took place at Camp Detrick in the 1950s. It was viewed as an attractive agent because: Biological warfare, also known as germ warfare, is the use of any organism (bacteria, virus or other disease_causing organism) or toxin found in nature, as a weapon of war. ... Fort Detrick is a United States Army Medical Command installation located in Frederick, Maryland, USA. Its 1,200 acres support a multi-governmental community that conducts biomedical research and development, medical materiel management, global medical communications and the study of foreign plant pathogens. ...

  • it is easy to aerosolize
  • it is highly infective; fewer than 10 bacteria are required to infect
  • it is non-persistent and easy to decontaminate (unlike anthrax)
  • it is highly incapacitating to infected persons
  • it has low-lethality, which is useful where enemy soldiers are in proximity to non-combatants, eg civilians

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention regard F. tularensis as a viable bioweapons agent for use by terrorists. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ...

No vaccine is available to the general public.[3] The best way to prevent tularemia infection is to wear rubber gloves when handling or skinning rodents (or rabbits, rabbits are not rodents), avoid ingesting uncooked wild game and untreated water sources, and wearing long-sleeved clothes and using an insect repellant to prevent tick bites. A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ...

In summer 2000, an outbreak of tularemia in Martha's Vineyard resulted in one fatality, and brought the interest of the CDC as a potential investigative ground for aerosolized Francisella tularensis. Over the following summers, Martha's Vineyard was identified as the only place in the world where documented cases of tularemia resulted from lawn mowing. The research may prove valuable in preventing bioterrorism. Map of Marthas Vineyard. ... Bioterrorism is terrorism using germ warfare, an intentional human release of a naturally-occurring or human-modified toxin or biological agent. ...

In 2004, three researchers at Boston University Medical Center were accidentally infected with F. tularensis, after apparently failing to follow safety procedures.[4]

In 2005, small amounts of F. tularensis were detected in the Mall area of Washington, DC the morning after an anti-war demonstration on Sept. 24, 2005. Biohazard sensors were triggered at six locations surrounding the Mall. To this date, no cases of tularemia infection have been reported as a result.[5]

In 2007, a lab of Boston University's Center for Advanced Biomedical Research, where F. tularensis were being kept for research, was evacuated after smoke set off alarms. An investigation has later determined that an electrical problem was the culprit, and no bacterial contamination was found.

Biological Warfare

By the late 1950's the US biological warfare program was focused mostly on tularemia as a biological agent. The Schu S4 strain was standardized as Agent UL for use in the M143 bursting spherical bomblet. It was a lethal biological with an anticipated fatality rate of 40 - 60 percent. The rate-of-action was around three days, with a duration-of-action of 1 to 3 weeks (treated) and 2 - 3 months (untreated) with frequent relapses. UL was streptamycin resistant. The aerobiological stability of UL was a major concern, being sensitive to sun light, and losing virulence over time after release. For the use of biological agents by terrorists, see bioterrorism. ...

The United States later changed the military symbol for UL to TT (wet-type) and ZZ (dry-type) in an effort to retain security on the identity of military biologicals. When the 425 strain was standardized as agent JT (an incapacitant rather than lethal agent), the Schu S4 strain's symbol was changed again to SR.

External links


  1. ^ http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5109a1.htm
  2. ^ http://www.cidrap.umn.edu/cidrap/content/bt/tularemia/biofacts/tularemiafactsheet.html#_Overview_1
  3. ^ http://www.niaid.nih.gov/factsheets/tularemia.htm
  4. ^ http://www.boston.com/news/local/articles/2005/03/29/city_tells_bu_to_bolster_safety_of_its_medical_labs/
  5. ^ http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/10/01/AR2005100101209.html
  • Tularemia, NIAID Fact Sheet, April 2005. Retrieved on 2007-01-07.

  Results from FactBites:
CDC Tularemia | Key Facts About Tularemia (573 words)
Tularemia is a potentially serious illness that occurs naturally in the United States.
Tularemia is not known to be spread from person to person.
The bacteria that cause tularemia occur widely in nature and could be isolated and grown in quantity in a laboratory, although manufacturing an effective aerosol weapon would require considerable sophistication.
CIGNA - Tularemia (1518 words)
Tularemia has the potential to affect various organ systems of the body including the central nervous system, heart, and liver resulting in inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord (meningitis), inflammation of the lining of the heart (endocarditis), and inflammation of the liver (hepatitis).
Tularemia may be found in all parts of Europe and Asia with greater frequency in Siberia and Scandinavian countries.
Tularemia must be differentiated from other, more common causes of fever, chronic fatigue, weakness, and other nonspecific flu-like symptoms, and should be highly suspected in individuals in endemic regions who may have been exposed to infected animals.
  More results at FactBites »



Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m