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Encyclopedia > Tukaram

Sant Tukaram (तुकाराम) (c.1608-c.1650), also Shri Tukaram, and colloquially referred to as "Tuka" (तुका), was a seventeenth century Marathi poet Sant of India, related to the Bhakti movement of Maharashtra. Tukaram, was a devotee of Vitthal (a form of Lord Krishna), the supreme God in Vaishnavism. He is especially revered by the Varkari community. (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Marathi is one of the widely spoken languages of India, and has a long literary history. ... Sant Mat translates from Hindi into English as The Religion of the Saints. ... Bhakti movements are Hindu religious movements in which the main spiritual practice is the fostering of loving devotion to God, called bhakti. ... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA:  , English: ) is Indias third largest state in terms of area and second largest in terms of population after Uttar Pradesh. ... Vitthal is the same as Vithoba ... This article is about the Hindu deity. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Temple dedicated to the worship of Vishnu as Venkateswara. ... The Varkari tradition is a part of the bhakti spiritual tradition of Hinduism, particularly in the Indian states of Maharashtra And Northern Karnataka. ...


Tukaram is widely recognized as the climactic point of the Bhagawat tradition which began with Namdev,[1] Namdev, Nam Dev, or Saint Namdev (1270-1350) born to a low-caste tailor named Damasheti and his wife, Gonabi in the village of Naras-Vamani, in the district of Maharashtra, India. ...

Contents

His Life

Most of the information on the sants of Maharashtra comes from the biographies written by Mahipati in the 1700s, called Bhaktivijaya and Bhaktililamrit. Scholars assign various dates to Tukaram's birth; the most frequently assigned dates are 1568, 1577, 1608 and 1598 AD. There is lesser dispute that he died in 1650 AD. He was born in Dehu, very close to modern Pune city in Maharashtra. His father was a small trader or peddler and he was barely literate all his life. His family were successful grain sellers . Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Dehu is a place of Sant Tukaram - well known saint in Maharashtra. ... , Pune (Marathi: पुणे; pronunciation: ) is a city located in the western Indian state of Maharashtra. ...


Tukaram lost his first wife, Rakhumabai, during a famine. Though it is alleged by some that she died of starvation, that is unlikely because Tukaram came from a wealthy landlord and money-lender family. His second wife was Jijabai (also called Avali). He had three sons, named Santu or Mahadev, Vithoba and Narayana. Narayana was considerably younger than Mahadev and Vithoba, and was a great bhakta like his father.


After his father died, Tukaram waived loans that poor owed to him. He is said to have destroyed the loan records. Tukaram followed a high spiritual standard in his kirtans (discourses mixed with spiritual poetry). Tukaram's spirituality was not mythical but grounded in the reality of day-to-day existence. It was focussed on the actual behaviour of a person and his inner mental peace. His teachings were simple and effective. He constantly emphasized that orthodox religion, like the study of the Vedas, was just a formality; the real expression of religion was love and affection in actual life. His teaching encompassed a wide array of issues and even highlighted the importance of nature and the ecosystem in our lives.


Tukaram wrote in a special verse form called the abhanga, a run on couplet with three and a half feet with the first three rhyming. In the use of this poetic device he was unrivalled, and others have practically left it alone after him in a tacit acknowledgment that nothing more can be done with it. As was the tradition, he also added his signature, Tuka Mhane (तुका म्हणे) or "Tuka Says", at the end of each verse. Abhang is form of devotional poetry sung in praise of the Hindu god Krishna, also known as Vithala and Vithoba. ...


Typical of the Varkari sampradaya, samaj seva (service to the community) and hari sankirtan (group worship through music) were the Way. Tukaram made it his call to work for a group enlightenment rather than just for himself.


Basic Tenets of His Message

The Mantra Gita, a translation of the Bhagavad Gita in the abhanga form is ascribed to Tukaram. It is an interpretation of the Gita from a Bhakti perspective. Another work ascribe to him is the Ghata, a collection of 4,500 abhangas. [1] Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ... Abhang is form of devotional poetry sung in praise of the Hindu god Krishna, also known as Vithala and Vithoba. ... Bhakti - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...

  • Make God the Center of your life. Walk the Path of Love. Serve mankind, and thus see God in all.
  • Cast away your clothes of traditions that you have inherited, for often those can restrain you from growing in the Love of God.
  • Tukaram did not favour elaborate rituals, displays of asceticism or preoccupation with austerities. He would say, "even dogs come in saffron colour and bears have matted fur. If living in caves is being spiritual then rats who inhabit caves must be doing sadhana (or, spiritual practice)."
  • He was opposed to the acquiring of siddhis (or spiritual attainments) as these were obstructions to authentic sadhana.
  • Faith in Nature was crucial to sadhana. He believed that He who facilitates the milk from the breast for the infant and the One who permits the bursting of foliage from the branches will certainly take care of me.
  • Most important of all was the Privilege of being a Bhakta and to exercise in life, nama japa. He would say that even God does not know the value of His Name. Even God is not aware of the power of His Name. How can He be? The lotus cannot smell its own fragrance, only the bee can. The cow knows not the sweetness of its milk, only the calf can. The oyster knows not the value of its pearl, only the jeweler can.

A Sadhana is a ritualistic meditation practice from Hindu and Buddhist spiritual traditions which is followed in order to achieve a form of spiritual purification or enlightenment. ... Not to be confused with the African-descended Siddi people of India (though sometimes spelt in the same way). ...

Final days

There is disagreement about Tukaram's final day. Some say that he informed his wife early in the day about going to Vaikuntha (the Divine Abode). His wife laughed at him. He went up the hillock and waited for Vithoba. By that time, news had spread around Dehu and people had gathered around the hillock, waiting for the Divine event. From eyewitness accounts, a large vehicle emerged from the skies and Vithoba emerged from the flying plane. Eyewitnesses rushed to Tukaram's home and informed his wife that Tukaram was on his way to Vaikuntha, the Abode of God. His wife ran toward the hills, only to see him take off in the Viman (Flying plane). To this day, devotees gather at the hillock and sing his praises. However, Starr forwards the opinion that he was probably murdered because of his successful reformist activity that had rocked the establishment and by getting rid of his body, they were able to spread the rumour that he had gone to heaven in a heavenly chariot.[2] Vaikunta is the abode of Lord Vishnu, one of the Trimurti Hindu Gods. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Vaikunta is the abode of Lord Vishnu, one of the Trimurti Hindu Gods. ...


See also

Hinduism is going through a phase of regeneration and reform through the vehicle of several contemporary movements, collectively termed as Hindu reform movements. ... // Hinduism is religion founded 5,000 years ago with traditions dating back 10,000 years. ... Sant Mat translates from Hindi into English as The Religion of the Saints. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b Ayyappapanicker, K. and Akademi, S. (1997). Medieval Indian Literature, an Anthology. Sahitya Akademi, 364. 
  2. ^ Starr, Chester G. A History of the Ancient World, pp.305, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-195-06629-6

References

  • Ayyappapanicker, K.; Akademi, Sahitya (1997). Medieval Indian Literature: An Anthology. Sahitya Akademi. ISBN 8-126-00365-0. 
  • Starr, Chester R. (1960). A History of the World. Rand McNally. 
  • Ranade, Ramchandra D. (1994). Tukaram. New York: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-2092-2. 

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Manas: Religions: Tukaram (636 words)
Tukaram’s father had inherited the position of mahajan, or collector of revenue from traders, from his father, and Tukaram in turn was the mahajan of his village Dehu.
In so doing, Tukaram incurred the wrath of the Brahmins: not only had he dared to impinge upon the prereogatives of the Brahmins, who believed themselves to be the only true custodians, interpreters, and spokesmen of religion, he compounded the offence by writing in Marathi rather than Sanskrit.
Though Tukaram’s place in the history of the development of Marathi is deemed to be inestimable, and he has been credited with being the single most influential figure in the history of Marathi literature, the body of scholarship on Tukaram outside Marathi is rather small, and translations of his work are woefully inadequate.
Sant Tukaram (542 words)
The story of Tukaram (Pagnis) a poet-saint of the village of Dehu in the seventeenth century who holds villagers spellbound with his songs of devotion - although his wife Jijai (Gauri) scolds him for impracticality and tells him he should be a better provider for their children.
Tukaram is also beset by Salomalo, a jealous priest who passes off Tukaram's songs as his and launches a variety of plots against Tukaram.
Sant Tukaram made in the Marathi language is one of the highest achievements of the early sound period of Indian Cinema.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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