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Encyclopedia > Tudorbethan architecture
Ascott House, Buckinghamshire. A "simple cottage" designed circa 1876 by George Devey. An early example of Tudorbethan
Ascott House, Buckinghamshire. A "simple cottage" designed circa 1876 by George Devey. An early example of Tudorbethan

The Tudorbethan style first manifested itself in domestic architecture in the United Kingdom in the mid to late 19th century. It later became an influence in some other countries, especially the British colonies such as New Zealand where the architect Francis Petre adapted the style for the local climate. The earliest examples of the style originate with the works of such eminent architects as Norman Shaw and George Devey, in what at the time was thought of as a neo-Tudor design. The term "Tudorbethan" is modelled on John Betjeman's 1933 coinage of the "Jacobethan" style, which he used to describe the grand mixed revival style of ca 1835–1885 that had been called things like "Free English Renaissance". "Tudorbethan" took it a step farther, eliminated the hexagonal or many-faceted towers and mock battlements of Jacobethan, and applied the more domestic styles of "Merrie England" that were cosier and quaint. Ascott House photographed by uploader This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Ascott House photographed by uploader This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The centre of the entrance front. ... Buckinghamshire (abbreviated Bucks) is a county in South East England. ... // Scope and intentions According to the very earliest surviving work on the subject, Vitruvius De Architectura, good buildings should have Beauty (Venustas), Firmness (Firmitas) and Utility (Utilitas); architecture can be said to be a balance and coordination among these three elements, with none overpowering the others. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from the revision dated 2005-05-04, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... Richard Norman Shaw (1831 - 1913) was a successful Victorian architect. ... George Devey was born in London in 1820, the second son of Frederick and Ann Devey. ... Sir John Betjeman (28 August 1906 – 19 May 1984) was a British poet and writer on architecture. ... Jacobethan is a Revival style derived from the English Renaissance (1550 - 1625), with elements Elizabethan and Jacobean. ... The term Merry England, or in more jocular, half-timbered spelling Merrie England, refers to a semi-mythological, idyllic, and pastoral way of life that the inhabitants of England allegedly enjoyed at some poorly-defined point between the Middle Ages and the onset of the Industrial Revolution. ...

Contents


Identifying Tudorbethan

The emphasis was on the simple, rustic and the less impressive aspects of Tudor architecture, imitating in this way the medieval cottages or country houses. Though the style follows these more modest characteristics, items such as steeply pitched roofs, half-timbering often infilled with herringbone brickwork, tall mullioned windows, high chimneys, jettied (overhanging) first floors above pillared porches, dormer windows supported by consoles, and even at times thatched roofs, gave Tudorbethan its more striking effects. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... 19th century Cottages in the small hamlet of Crafton, Buckinghamshire A cottage is a small house of any period. ... In Britain (and also in Ireland) the term country house generally refers to a large house which was built on an agricultural estate as the private residence of the landowner. ... This article is about angles in geometry. ... A roof tiled in imitation of thatch at Croyde, north Devon, England Rooftops in Vietnam A roof is the top covering of a building that prevents the ingress of weather into the building interior. ... Timber framing is the modern term for the traditional half-timbered construction in which timber provides a visible skeletal frame that supports the whole building. ... When laying bricks, the manner in which the bricks overlap is called the bond. ... Brickwork is produced when a bricklayer uses bricks and mortar to build up structures such as walls, bridges and chimneys. ... Double-hung vinyl replacement window with a decorative grille resembling mullions sandwiched between the panes of the insulated glass. ... Highly decorative Window in a Japanese Onsen in Hakone A window is an opening in an otherwise solid, opaque surface through which light and air can pass. ... A chimney is a system for venting hot gases and smoke from a boiler, stove, furnace or fireplace to the outside atmosphere. ... Alternate meanings: See Jetty (web server) Alternate meanings: See Jetty (river, dock and maritime structures) A double jettied timber framed building. ... A porch is an architectural feature relating to a floor-like platform structure attached to the front or back entrance of a residence. ... Console may be: An organ term for the area of an organ including the keys, stops, and foot pedals manipulated by the organist. ... Thatching is the art or craft of covering a roof with vegetative materials such as straw, reed or sedge. ...


Evolution

The Tudorbethan style was a reaction to the ornate Victorian Gothic revival of the second half of the 19th century. Rejecting mass production that was beginning to be introduced by industry at that time, the Arts and Crafts movement, closely related to Tudorbethan, drew on simple design inherent in aspects of its more ancient styles, Tudor, Elizabethan and Jacobean. The term Victorian architecture can refer to one of a number of architectural styles during the Victorian era: Neoclassicism Gothic Revival Italianate Second Empire Neo-Grec Romanesque Revival (Includes Richardsonian Revival) Renaissance Revival Queen Anne Jacobethan architecture (the precusor to the Queen Anne style) British Arts and Crafts movement painted... Victoria Tower at the Palace of Westminster, London: Gothic details provided by A.W.N. Pugin The Gothic revival was a European architectural movement with origins in mid-18th century England. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Arts and Crafts movement was a reformist movement, at first inspired by the writings of John Ruskin, that was at its height between approximately 1880–1910. ... The Tudor style, a term applied to the Perpendicular style, was originally that of the English architecture and decorative arts produced under the Tudor dynasty that ruled England from 1485 to 1603, characterized as an amalgam of Late Gothic style formalized by more concern for regularity and symmetry, with round... The Elizabethan Era is the period associated with the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558 - 1603) and is often considered to be a golden age in English history. ... Jacobean - an early phase of English Renaissance architecture and decoration. ...

Cragside designed by Norman Shaw in what he called a "Free Tudor" style
Cragside designed by Norman Shaw in what he called a "Free Tudor" style

The Tudor style made one of its first appearances in Britain at Cragside, a hilltop mansion of eclectic architectural styles, but incorporating certain Tudor features; Cragside was designed by the architect Norman Shaw. However Shaw also designed at approximately the same time Leyswood near Withham, in Sussex a large mansion around a courtyard, complete with mock battlements, towers, half timbered upper facades and tall chimneys— all features quite readily associated with Tudor architecture; in Shaw's hands this less fantastical style achieved immediate maturity. Confusingly, it was then promptly named "Queen Anne style" when in reality it combined a revival of Elizabethan and Jacobean design details including mullioned and oriel windows. Later the style began to incorporate the classicising pre-Georgian features that are generally understood to represent "Queen Anne" in Britain. The term "Queen Anne" for this style of architecture tends to be more commonly used in the USA than in Britain, in the USA it evolved into a form of architecture not instantly recognisable as that constructed in either the Tudor, or Queen Anne period. In Britain the style remained closer to its Tudor roots. Photo of Cragside from valley bottom, taken by me. ... Photo of Cragside from valley bottom, taken by me. ... Cragside is a country house near Rothbury in Northumberland, England. ... Richard Norman Shaw (1831 - 1913) was a successful Victorian architect. ... Cragside is a country house near Rothbury in Northumberland, England. ... Richard Norman Shaw (1831 - 1913) was a successful Victorian architect. ... Sussex is a traditional county in southern England, divided for administrative purposes into West Sussex and East Sussex and the city of Brighton and Hove. ... The Buttermans, the historic home of John Newman, the butter king, is one of several Queen Anne mansions in Elgin, Illinois The Queen Anne style of British and American architecture reached its greatest popularity in the last quarter of the 19th century, manifesting itself in a number of different ways... Anne ( 6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714 ) became Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702. ...


Half-timbering

From the 1880s onwards Tudorbethan concentrated more on the simple but quaintly picturesque Elizabethan cottage, rather than the brick and battlemented splendours of Hampton Court or Compton Wynyates. Large and small houses alike with half timbering in their upper storeys and gables were completed with tall ornamental chimneys, in what was originally a simple cottage style. It was here that the influences of the arts and crafts movement became apparent. Though the concept of the sublime had roots in the connoisseurship of Antiquity, the picturesque was a new category in the incipient Romantic sensibility of the 18th century. ... The clock tower straddles the entrance between the inner and outer courts Hampton Court Palace is a former royal place on the north bank of the River Thames in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames about 12 miles (19 km) southwest and upstream of Central London, nowadays open to... Compton Wynyates, Warwickshire, circa 1925 Compton Wynyates is a country house in Warwickshire, England. ... The Arts and Crafts movement was a reformist movement, at first inspired by the writings of John Ruskin, that was at its height between approximately 1880–1910. ...


However, Tudorbethan cannot really be likened to the timber-framed structures of the originals in which the frame supported the whole weight of the house. Their modern counterparts consist more likely of bricks or blocks of various materials with a look-alike frame added on the outside which is really then deprived of its functional and structural weight-bearing role. An example of this is this "simple cottage" style is Ascott House in Buckinghamshire. This was designed by Devey for the Rothschild family who were among the earliest patrons and promoters of this style. Timber framing is the modern term for the traditional half-timbered construction in which timber provides a visible skeletal frame that supports the whole building. ... This page is about bricks used for construction. ... Rothschild is a German and Jewish (Ashkenazic) surname. ...

Built circa 1870 two semi-detached cottages at Mentmore masquerade as one Tudor style house.
Built circa 1870 two semi-detached cottages at Mentmore masquerade as one Tudor style house.

Some more enlightened landlords at this time became more aware of the needs for proper sanitation and housing for their employees, and some estate villages were rebuilt to resemble what was thought to be an idyllic Elizabethan village, often grouped around a village green and pond, Mentmore in Buckinghamshire is an example of this. The Tudor revival though now concentrated on the picturesque. Cottages at Mentmore circa 1950 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Cottages at Mentmore circa 1950 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... 1870 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Semi-detached housing (usually abbreviated to semi, as in three-bedroom semi) consists of pairs of houses built side by side as units sharing a party wall and usually in such a way that each houses layout is a mirror image of its twin. ... Mentmore Village Green. ... Estate may have a number of meanings: Estate is a term used in common law to signify the total of a persons property, entitlements and obligations. ... The traditional village green A village green is an common open area which is a part of a settlement. ... Mentmore Village Green. ... Buckinghamshire (abbreviated Bucks) is a county in South East England. ...


A very well-known example of the idealised half-timbered style is Liberty's department store in London, which was built in the style of a vast half-timbered Tudor mansion, the store specialised, among other goods, in fabrics and furnishings by the leading designers of the arts and crafts movement. Arthur Lasenby Liberty (August 13, 1843 _ May 11, 1917) was born in Chesham, Buckinghamshire, England. ... The clock tower of the Palace of Westminster, which contains Big Ben London is the capital city of the United Kingdom and of England. ...


20th century Tudorbethan

Lutyens' houses, here quite conventional in 1899, were to evolve still further from their Tudorbethan roots.
Lutyens' houses, here quite conventional in 1899, were to evolve still further from their Tudorbethan roots.

In the early part of the century, one of the exponents who developed the style further was Edwin Lutyens (1864–1944). At The Deanery in Berkshire, 1899, (right), where the client was the editor of the influential magazine Country Life, details like the openwork brick balustrade, the many-paned oriel window and facetted staircase tower, the shadowed windows under the eaves, or the prominent clustered chimneys were conventional Tudorbethan borrowings, some of which Lutyens was to remake in his own style, that already predominates in the dark recessed entryway, the confident massing, and his signature semi-circular terrace steps. This is Tudorbethan at its best, free in groundplan, stripped of cuteness, yet warmly vernacular in effect, familiar though new, eminently livable. Deanery Garden House Brookies own picture File links The following pages link to this file: Edwin Lutyens Categories: GFDL images ... Deanery Garden House Brookies own picture File links The following pages link to this file: Edwin Lutyens Categories: GFDL images ... Sir Edwin Landseer Lutyens OM (March 29, 1869 - January 1, 1944), a British architect, designed many English country houses and was instrumental in the layout and building of New Delhi. ... Sir Edwin Landseer Lutyens OM (March 29, 1869 - January 1, 1944), was arguably the greatest British architect of the 20th century (some have said the greatest since Wren, others, simply, the greatest). ... Country Life can refer to: Country Life (magazine) Country Life (album) - by Roxy Music This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Oriel College (in full: The House of Blessed Mary the Virgin in Oxford commonly called Oriel College, of the Foundation of Edward the Second of famous memory, sometime King of England) is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. ...


Later came Mackey Hugh Baillie Scott (1865–1945) and Blair Imrie who made their names as Tudorbethans. Lutyens though took the style away from what is generally understood as Tudorbethan creating a further highly personalised style of his own. His buildings coupled with their often accompanying gardens by Gertrude Jekyll, while in a style thought of as "olde world" would not be recognisable to inhabitants of the 16th century. Mackay Hugh Baillie Scott (October 23, 1865–February 10, 1945 ) was a British architect and artist He was born at Beards Hill, St. ... Gertrude Jekyll (1843-1932) was an influential British garden designer, writer, and artist who created over 400 gardens in the UK, Europe and the USA. She also contributed over 1,000 articles to Country Life, The Garden and other magazines. ...


Following World War I many London outer suburbs had developments of houses in the style, all reflecting the taste for nostalgia for rural values. It was also copied in many areas of the world, including the United States and Canada. World War I was primarily a European conflict with many facets: immense human sacrifice, stalemate trench warfare, and the use of new, devastating weapons - tanks, aircraft, machineguns, and poison gas. ... The clock tower of the Palace of Westminster, which contains Big Ben London is the capital city of the United Kingdom and of England. ...


In the first half of the 20th-century, increasingly minimal "Tudor" references for "instant" atmosphere in speculative construction cheapened the style, which was finaly epitomized in John Betjeman's angry war-time poem "Slough", where "bald young clerks" gather: Sir John Betjeman (28 August 1906 – 19 May 1984) was a British poet and writer on architecture. ...

And talk of sport and makes of cars
In various bogus-Tudor bars
And daren't look up and see the stars".

Interiors

The interiors of the Tudor style building have evolved considerably along with the style, often becoming truer to the replicated era than were the first examples of the revival style. At Ascott House, Devey's great masterpiece constructed throughout the last twenty years of the 19th century, the only internal concessions to the Tudor age are the low ceilings necessitated through the external Tudor theme. There are certainly no beamed ceilings, low narrow doorways or inglenook fireplaces heating small rooms: the large airy rooms are in fact more redolent of the 18th century than the 16th. Cragside is slightly more true to its theme, although the rooms are very large, some contain Tudor style panelling, and the dining room contains are monumental inglenook, but this is more in the style of Italian renaissance meets Camelot than Tudor. While in the cottages at Mentmore the interiors are no different to those of any lower middle-class Victorian small household. A beam of light is a light ray. ... A ceiling is the lower surface of a horizontal slab covering a room or internal space. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Panelling is a wallcovering constructed from interlocking wooden components. ... By Region: Italian Renaissance Northern Renaissance *French Renaissance *German Renaissance *English Renaissance The Italian Renaissance began the opening phase of the Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement from the 14th to the 16th century. ... Camelot is the name of the stronghold of the legendary King Arthur, from which he fought many of the battles that made up his life. ... Mentmore Village Green. ... The middle class refers to people neither at the top nor bottom of a social hierarchy. ...


In some of the larger Tudor style houses the Tudor great hall would be suggested by the reception hall, often furnished as a sitting or dining room. Large wooden staircases of several flights were often prominently positioned, based on Jacobean prototypes. It is this mingling of styles that has led to the term Jacobethan which resulted in houses such as Harlaxton Manor which bore little if any resemblance to a building from either period. A great hall was the main room of a royal palace, a noblemans castle or a large manor house in the Middle Ages, and in the country houses of the 16th and early 17th centuries. ... Stairs, staircase, stairway, flight of stairs are all names for a construction designed to bridge a large vertical distance by dividing it into smaller vertical distances, called steps. ... Jacobethan is a Revival style derived from the English Renaissance (1550 - 1625), with elements Elizabethan and Jacobean. ... Harlaxton is Anthony Salvins masterpiece. ...


More often it is in the Tudor style houses of the late 20th century that a greater devotion to the Tudor period is found, albeit coupled with modern-day comforts. Artificially aged and blackened beams are attached to ceilings and walls purely for decoration, while artificial flames leap from wrought iron fire-dogs in an inglenook often a third of the size of the room in which they are situated. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the...


21st-century Tudorbethan

Tudorbethan is not popular with modernist architects and is frequently reviled as pastiche or indeed non-architecture. However it is much more popular than modern styles with much of the British public, and this split can be seen as evidence of the estrangement of the architectural establishment from public taste. Architect at his drawing board, 1893 An architect, also known as a building designer, is a person involved in the planning, designing and oversight of a buildings construction, whose role is to guide decisions affecting those building aspects that are of aesthetic, cultural or social concern. ... The word pastiche describes a literary or other artistic genre. ...


In the early 21st century United Kingdom, new Tudorbethan housing still predominates, as "Colonial" dominates in the US, although this often perfunctory in execution. Even traditionalists who approve of the use of historical styles in contemporary architecture regret that most Tudorbethan architecture these days is adulterated with other styles and therefore flawed. However they would argue that the intellectual intimidation of those who demand traditional styles from the architectural establishment, and the resultant marginalisation of architects who are interested in them, is itself one of the principal causes of the tendency towards banality which is derided by modernists. Even though the architectural establishment has been attempting to suppress the popular preference for traditional styles for several generations, it has had little success to date, and there is little reason to suppose that it will be more successful in the future. This standoff is not conducive to the construction of quality housing because commercial housebuilders are obliged to respond to public taste that is often conditioned by a romantic backward-looking cottage style idealism, and therefore houses are completed largely without the participation of high calibre architects.


Mock Tudor

Particularly popular was the term Mock Tudor in 20th century high-end tract housing developments in this style. Exteriors are a combination of stucco and stained wood intended to emulate the appearance of a half timbered structure. Such buildings are characterized also by the use of steeply pitched roofs, and in higher quality developments these may be covered with slate roofing. Colours are typically ivory or sand colors for the stucco and dark brown for the wood trim. Interior surface treatments and trim would also be appropriate to this style A typical development would use various styles other than this in order to produce a visual variety in a neighborhood (although the interior layouts would often follow only a few plans, regardless of the style applied). Stucco is a material made of an aggregate, a binder, and water which is applied to a surface in a paste-like consistency when wet and when dry becomes hard. ... Timber framing is the modern term for the traditional half-timbered construction in which timber provides a visible skeletal frame that supports the whole building. ... Alternate meanings in Slate (disambiguation) Slate Slate is a fine-grained homogeneous sedimentary rock composed of clay or volcanic ash which has been metamorphosed (foliated) in layers (bedded deposits). ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Tudorbethan architecture - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1742 words)
The Tudorbethan style was a reaction to the ornate Victorian Gothic revival of the second half of the 19th century.
The term "Queen Anne" for this style of architecture tends to be more commonly used in the USA than in Britain, in the USA it evolved into a form of architecture not instantly recognisable as that constructed in either the Tudor, or Queen Anne period.
Tudorbethan is not popular with modernist architects and is frequently reviled as pastiche or indeed non-architecture.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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