FACTOID # 13: New York has America's lowest percentage of residents who are veterans.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Tudeh Party of Iran
Politics - Politics portal

Iran
Politics is a process by which collective decisions are made within groups. ...



This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Iran
Image File history File links Iran_flag_large. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Supreme Leader: Ali Khamenei
President: Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
Assembly of Experts
Guardian Council
Majlis
City and Village Councils
Expediency Council
Political parties
Elections
The post of Supreme Leader (Persian: ولی فقیه or رهبر, Rahbar, literally Leader) was created in the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran as the central political and religious authority of the nation. ... Ayatollah Ali Khamenei Ayatollah Seyyed Ali Hosseini Khamenei (Persian: آیت‌الله سید علی حسینی خامنه‌ای; born July 15, 1939) is the Supreme Leader of Iran. ... The President of Iran holds a very important office in Irans political establishment. ... Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, also written Ahmadinezhad, (Persian: محمود احمدی‌نژاد ; born October 28, 1956), is the sixth president of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... The Assembly of Experts of Iran (مجلس خبرگان in Persian), is a congress-like body for selecting the Supreme Leader and supervising his activities. ... The Guardian Council of the Constitution (شورای نگهبان قانون اساسی in Persian) is a high office within the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran which has the authority to interpret the constitution and to determine if the laws passed by the parliament are in line with the constitution of Iran. ... مجلس شورای اسلامی - The Majles; Irans Parliament. ... City and Village Councils (full title is: Provincial, City, District and Village Councils) are local councils which are elected by public vote in all cities and villages throughout Iran. ... The Expediency Discernment Council of the System (Persian: مجمع تشخیص مصلحت نظام), is an establishment in the Constitution of Islamic Republic of Iran to resolve differences or conflicts between the Majlis and the Council of Guardians, and also to serve as a consultative council to the Supreme Leader. ... Political parties in Iran lists political parties in Iran. ... Politics of Iran Categories: Election related stubs | Elections in Iran ...

The Tudeh Party of Iran (f. 1941) is an Iranian communist party. Its full name (Hezb-e Tudeh-ye Iran) translates to "Masses Party of Iran". It had close relations with the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Tudeh was a major political party in Iran, prior to the purges of the Khomeinist regime. For the movie, see 1941 (film) 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... In modern usage, a communist party is a political party which promotes communism, the sociopolitical philosophy based on Marxism. ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за = КПСС) was the name used by the successors of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party from 1952 to 1991, but the wording Communist Party was present in the partys name since 1918 when the Bolsheviks became the All... Ayatollah Khomeini founded the first modern Islamic republic Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini (آیت‌الله روح‌الله خمینی in Persian) (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was an Iranian Shia cleric and the political and spiritual leader of the 1979 revolution that overthrew Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the then Shah of Iran. ...

Contents


History

Birth of the Communist movement in Iran

The history of the communist movement in Iran dates back to the late 19th century, when Marxism first became introduced to the nation's intellectual and working classes as a result of the rapid growth of industry and the subsequent transformation of the country from feudalism into capitalism. Being close to Russia and Azerbaijan, northern Iran became the primary center of underground Marxist and social democrat political activity, and many such groups came into being over the years. Communism - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Capitalism Capitalism has been defined in various ways. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ...


The Communist Party of Iran was founded in June of 1920 in Bandar-e Anzali, in the province of Gilan, as a result of the first congress of Iranian social democrats. Heidar Amou Oghly, who was one of the leaders of the Constitutional Revolution of Iran, became the secretary-general of the new party. At the same time, Mirza Koochak Khan Jangali, another major leader of the Constitutional Revolution and also leader of the revolutionary Jangali (Foresters Movement), established the Soviet Republic of Gilan with the assistance of the Soviet Red Army. The Communist Party of Iran was an Iranian communist party. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ... Bandar-e Anzali (in Persian: بندر انزلی), known as Bandar-e Pahlavi (بندر پهلوی) before the Iranian Revolution, is a harbour town on the Caspian Sea, in the Iranian province of Gilan, close to Rasht. ... Guilan (گیلان in Persian) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran, during antique time known as part of Hyrcania, with a population of approximately 2 million and an area of 14,700 sq. ... The Persian Constitutional Revolution was a revolution in Iran against the despotic rule of the last Qajar Shah. ... Mirza Koochak Khan (or Mirza Kuchek Khan, or Mirza Kouchek Khan) is a national hero in modern Persian history. ... The Persian Socialist Soviet Republic (widely known as the Soviet Republic of Gilan ) was a short-lived Soviet republic in the province of Gilan that lasted from June of 1920 until September of 1921. ... Soviet redirects here. ... The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya), the armed forces first organised by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ...


The British, who were a dominant influence in the Qajar court of Tehran, sent agents to infiltrate the Foresters Movement in a carefully prepared plot which would ultimately result in the defeat of both the newly formed Soviet Republic of Gilan and the Communist Party, which came to be banned and persecuted by the central government. Communist and social democrat activity once again went underground. In the early 1920s the Qajar dynasty finally collapsed, and Reza Shah ascended to the throne in 1925, establishing the Pahlavi dynasty. The new Shah introduced many positive reforms, such as limiting the power of the Shi'a clergy, but also in turn established an authoritarian dictatorship. Mullahs in the royal presence. ... Map of Iran and surrounding lands, showing location of Tehran The towering Alborz mountains rising above modern Elahiyeh district and its green neighborhoods. ... Shah Reza Pahlavi Reza Pahlavi (Persian: رضا پهلوی), (March 16, 1877–July 26, 1944), called Reza Shah the Great after his death, was Shah of Persia (later Iran) from December 15, 1925 to September 16, 1941. ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Pahlavi dynasty was the ruling dynasty of Iran from 1925 to 1979, from which two Shahs were drawn. ... One of the worlds longest-lasting monarchies, the Iranian monarchy went through many transformations over the centuries, from the days of Persia to the creation of what is now modern day Iran. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... The term authoritarian is used to describe an organization or a state which enforces strong and sometimes oppressive measures against the population, generally without attempts at gaining the consent of the population. ...


Foundation of the Tudeh Party

The Allied invasion of 1941-42 resulted in the end of Reza Shah's reign and his forced exile to South Africa. Many political prisoners were subsequently released and under this new atmosphere, nationalist and socialist groups once again flourished. On 29 September 1941, the Tudeh Party was officially founded, electing Soleiman Mohsen Eskandari as chairman. In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ... The Persian Corridor is the name for a supply route through Iran into Soviet Azerbaijan by which British aid and American Lend-Lease supplies were transferred to the Soviet Union during World War II. Map of Iran & Borders with former Soviet Republics of Armenia, Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan // Background Note: The... For the movie, see 1941 (film) 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... This article is about the year. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... The color red and particularly the red flag are traditional symbols of Socialism. ...


In 1944, the party entered the 14th Majlis elections and eight of its candidates were elected. From this point on the party grew immensely and became a major force in Iranian politics. In 1949 the party was blamed for a failed assassination attempt against the Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and was banned. However, the party continued to function underground for a time before being able to operate in the open once again in the early 1950s. 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Majlis is an Arabic term used to describe various types of formal legislative assemblies in countries with linguistic or cultural connections to Islamic countries. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) is a common year starting on Saturday. ... Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi (Persian: محمدرضا شاه پهلوی) (October 26, 1919, Tehran – July 27, 1980, Cairo), styled His Imperial Majesty, Shahanshah (King of Kings), and Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans), was the last Shah of Iran. ... // Events and trends This map shows two essential global spheres during the Cold War in 1959. ...


In 1951 Mohammad Mossadegh was elected as prime minister and established a close partnership between his nationalist movement, the National Front of Iran, and the Tudeh Party. Mossadegh nationalized the oil industry and introduced many socialist reforms, sparking fears amongst the British and the Americans that Iran might be establishing closer ties with the Soviet Union. This culiminated in a joint British-American sponsored coup d'etat in 1953 against Mossadegh which saw the democratically elected prime minister forced from office and the end of democracy in Iran. Mohammad Reza Pahlavi thereafter assumed dictatorial powers and banned most political groups, including Mossadegh's National Front, which along with the Tudeh Party, continued to function underground. 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... Mohammed Mossadegh (Persian: محمد مصدق‎) (May 19, 1882 - March 4, 1967) was prime minister of Iran from 1951 to 1953. ... Sir Robert Walpole, the first Prime Minister A prime minister is a politician who serves as the head of the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... The National Front of Iran (Jebhe Melli) is a political opposition party founded by Mohammad Mossadegh and other Iranian nationalist leaders in the late 1940s. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... 1953 (MCMLIII) is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi (Persian: محمدرضا شاه پهلوی) (October 26, 1919, Tehran – July 27, 1980, Cairo), styled His Imperial Majesty, Shahanshah (King of Kings), and Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans), was the last Shah of Iran. ...


In 1955, many military personnel were discovered to have been active in the Tudeh Party and were arrested and eventually executed. Around this time many internal problems within the party surfaced and the party leadership were found to have been acting against the membership. As a result the Tudeh Party was unable to resist the attacks made against it by the Shah's government and the movement fell into decline. The Central Committee of the party was eventually reorganized by the late 1950s. 1955 (MCMLV in Roman) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 16th Central Committee meeting of the Communist Party of China Central Committee most commonly refers to the central executive unit of a communist party, whether ruling or non-ruling. ... // Events and trends This map shows two essential global spheres during the Cold War in 1959. ...


In 1965 the party faced a second division between the mainstream of the organization and the splinter faction which advocated violent struggle against the government by arming the tribes of southern Iran. This faction caused a great deal of damage and three years passed before the unity of the party was restored. 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link goes to calendar). ...


In 1966 several party members, including Ali Khavari and Parviz Hekmatjoo of the Central Committee, and Asef Razmdideh and Saber Mohammadzadeh, were arrested and sentenced to death. This sparked international outcry and hunger strikes in Europe which forced the government to reduce the sentences to life imprisonment. These events created much international sympathy for the worker's struggle in Iran and helped unify the party after the split. The Tudeh Party from this point on becomes established as one of the strongest underground movements and helps to pave the way for the forthcoming Iranian Revolution of 1978. 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link goes to calendar) // Events January January 1 - In a coup, Colonel Jean-Bédel Bokassa ousts president David Dacko and takes over the Central African Republic. ... Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII in Roman) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1978 calendar). ...


The Iranian Revolution

In the early 1970s the Iranian guerrilla movement began in northern Iran in the province of Mazandaran. The 1970s also witnessed the birth of widespread worker's strikes and demonstrations, and university campuses became a hotbed of revolutionary activity. The Tudeh Party drastically increased it's activities, recruiting many youth and organizing regional committees. The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ... Guerrilla War redirects here. ... Mazandaran (مازندران in Persian) is a province in northern Iran, bordering the Caspian Sea in the north. ...


After the revolution, many political prisoners were freed and the Tudeh Party and other leftist groups were able to participate in the presidential and parliamentary elections for the first time in many years. However, the majority of seats in the Majlis were won by the Islamic Republican Party of Ayatollah Beheshti and leftist and nationalist organizations were forced out of the loop. The newly elected President, Abolhassan Bani Sadr, who had originally been close with Khomeini, also became increasingly frustrated with the developments that had been taking place and opposed the domination of the clergy and the religious factions in Iranian politics. Mohammad Beheshti Ayatollah Seyyed Mohammad Hosseini Beheshti (محمد حسینی بهشتی in Persian), (October 24, 1928 - June 28, 1981) was an Iranian cleric, the secretary-general of the Islamic Republic party, and the head of the Islamic Republics judicial system. ... Abolhassan Banisadr (ابوالحسن بنی‌صدر in Persian) (born March 22, 1933) was the first elected President of Iran after the 1979 revolution. ... Ayatollah Khomeini founded the first modern Islamic republic Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini (آیت‌الله روح‌الله خمینی in Persian) (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was an Iranian Shia cleric and the political and spiritual leader of the 1979 revolution that overthrew Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the then Shah of Iran. ...


In 1981, the Majlis, dominated by the Islamic Republican Party, forced Bani Sadr out of office, which initiated a wave of protests and demonstrations from all segments of the populace. Bani Sadr later fled the country. Armed revolutionary committees loyal to Khomeini (which came to be known as the Pasdaran) arrested many thousands of youth and activists from both nationalist and leftist groups, many of whom were later tried by Ayatollah Sadegh Khalkhali, who was infamously known as the Hanging Judge, and executed. 1981 (MCMLXXXI in Roman) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps (Persian سپاه پاسداران انقلاب اسلامی - Sepah Pasdaran Enghaleb Islam-e), often shortened to Revolutionary Guards, or called by its Persian name Sepah, translated to English as Pasdaran, is a military organization of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... Ayatollah (Arabic: آية الله; Persian: آيت‌الله) is a high rank given to major Shia clerics. ... Ayatollah Sadegh Khalkhali (صادق خلخالی in Persian) (1927? - November 26, 2003) was a hardline Shia cleric of the early years of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ...


Attempting to take advantage of this situation, which saw many leftist groups (and rivals to the Tudeh) eliminated, the Tudeh Party leadership decided to take part in the new regime and to collaborate with the clerical establishment. This ultimately failed, and in 1982 the leadership were arrested and imprisoned, and later more than 5,000 members and supporters of the party were also arrested. The party was also banned around this time. 1982 (MCMLXXXII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


As a result of these purges the party gradually collapsed, with a great number of members leaving the country into exile, while many party leaders renounced communism and reconciled with the government of the Islamic Republic. Over the years thousands of political prisoners, including many members of the Tudeh, were sentenced to death and executed. An Islamic republic in its modern context has come to mean several things. ...


However, the party managed to survive and continues to operate as an underground political organization in Iran, with the new Central Committee, elected in 1992, based in exile. It is currently led by Ali Khavari. 1992 (MCMXCII in Roman) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ...


Legal status

Today, the party is mainly based in exile, though active members have remained in Iran since the Iranian Revolution. The party is officially banned and is not tolerated. Individuals who are found to be affiliated with communist or socialist groups risk imprisonment and possible execution. Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... The color red and particularly the red flag are traditional symbols of Socialism. ...


See also

Mirza Kuchek, the leader of the movement. ... The Persian Socialist Soviet Republic (widely known as the Soviet Republic of Gilan ) was a short-lived Soviet republic in the province of Gilan that lasted from June of 1920 until September of 1921. ... The Coordinating Committee of Communist Parties in Britain is a bureau within the CPB which meets with overseas communist parties that have memberships in Britain. ...

External link

  • Tudeh Party of Iran (English page)

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m