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Encyclopedia > Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis
Classification and external resources
Chest X-ray of a patient suffering from tuberculosis
ICD-10 A15.-A19.
ICD-9 010-018
OMIM 607948
DiseasesDB 8515
MedlinePlus 000077 000624
eMedicine med/2324  emerg/618 radio/411
MeSH C01.252.410.040.552.846

Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis most commonly attacks the lungs (as pulmonary TB) but can also affect the central nervous system, the lymphatic system, the circulatory system, the genitourinary system, bones, joints and even the skin. Other mycobacteria such as Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium africanum, Mycobacterium canetti, and Mycobacterium microti can also cause tuberculosis, but these species do not usually infect healthy adults.[1] Image File history File links Tuberculosis-x-ray-1. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // A00-A79 - Bacterial infections, and other intestinal infectious diseases, and STDs (A00-A09) Intestinal infectious diseases (A00) Cholera (A01) Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers (A010) Typhoid fever (A02) Other Salmonella infections (A03) Shigellosis (A04) Other bacterial intestinal infections (A040) Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection (A045) Campylobacter enteritis (A046) Enteritis due to Yersinia... // A00-A79 - Bacterial infections, and other intestinal infectious diseases, and STDs (A00-A09) Intestinal infectious diseases (A00) Cholera (A01) Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers (A010) Typhoid fever (A02) Other Salmonella infections (A03) Shigellosis (A04) Other bacterial intestinal infections (A040) Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection (A045) Campylobacter enteritis (A046) Enteritis due to Yersinia... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ... Species See text. ... Binomial name Zopf 1883 Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the bacterium that causes most cases of tuberculosis. ... For the village in Tibet, see Lung, Tibet. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... The lymphatic system is a complex network of lymphoid organs, lymph nodes, lymph ducts, lymphatic tissues, lymph capillaries and lymph vessels that produce and transport lymph fluid from tissues to the circulatory system. ... For transport in plants, see Vascular tissue. ... In anatomy, the genitourinary system is the organ system of all the reproductive organs and the urinary system. ... This article is about the skeletal organs. ... For other uses, see Joint (disambiguation). ... This article is about the organ. ... Binomial name Mycobacterium bovis Karlson & Lessel 1970 Mycobacterium bovis is a slow-growing (16 to 20 hour generation time), aerobic bacterium and the causative agent of tuberculosis in cattle. ... Binomial name Mycobacterium africanum Castets et al. ... Binomial name D van Soolingen, et al. ... Binomial name Mycobacterium microti Reed 1957, ATCC 19422 Mycobacterium microti Member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) Also known as the Vole bacillus Etymology: microtus is a genus that includes the vole. ...


One-third of the world's current population has been infected by TB, and new infections occur at a rate of one per second.[2] Not everyone infected develops the full-blown disease; asymptomatic, latent infection is most common. However, one in ten latent infections will progress to active disease, which, if left untreated, kills more than half of its victims. Map of countries by population — China and India, the only two countries to have a population greater than one billion, together possess more than a third of the worlds population. ... In medicine, a disease is asymptomatic when it is at a stage where the patient does not experience symptoms. ...


In 2004, mortality and morbidity statistics included 14.6 million chronic active cases, 8.9 million new cases, and 1.6 million deaths, mostly in developing countries.[2] In addition, a rising number of people in the developed world are contracting tuberculosis because their immune systems are compromised by immunosuppressive drugs, substance abuse, or HIV/AIDS. A developing country is a country with low average income compared to the world average. ... World map indicating Human Development Index (as of 2004). ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... For a list of immunosuppressive drugs, see the transplant rejection page. ... Also see Alcoholism and Drug addiction. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ...


The rise in HIV infections and the neglect of TB control programs have enabled a resurgence of tuberculosis.[3] The emergence of drug-resistant strains has also contributed to this new epidemic with, from 2000 to 2004, 20% of TB cases being resistant to standard treatments and 2% resistant to second-line drugs.[4] TB incidence varies widely, even in neighboring countries, apparently because of differences in health care systems.[5] The World Health Organization declared TB a global health emergency in 1993, and the Stop TB Partnership developed a Global Plan to Stop Tuberculosis that aims to save 14 million lives between 2006 and 2015.[6] Antibiotic resistance is the ability of a microorganism to withstand the effects of an antibiotic. ... The standard short course treatment for tuberculosis (TB) is isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol for two months, then isoniazid and rifampicin alone for a further four months. ... WHO redirects here. ... The Stop TB Partnership promotes The Global Plan to Stop TB, which calls for a total of $56 billion between 2006 and 2015 to treat 50 million tuberculosis patients and save 14 million lives during that period. ...

Contents

Other names

In the past, tuberculosis was called consumption, because it seemed to consume people from within, with a bloody cough, fever, pallor, and long relentless wasting. Other names included phthisis (Greek for consumption) and phthisis pulmonalis; scrofula (in adults), affecting the lymphatic system and resulting in swollen neck glands; tabes mesenterica, TB of the abdomen and lupus vulgaris, TB of the skin; wasting disease; white plague, because sufferers appear markedly pale; king's evil, because it was believed that a king's touch would heal scrofula; and Pott's disease, or gibbus of the spine and joints.[7][8] Miliary tuberculosis – now commonly known as disseminated TB– occurs when the infection invades the circulatory system resulting in lesions which have the appearance of millet seeds on X-ray.[7][9] Hemoptysis (US English) or haemoptysis (International English) is the expectoration (coughing up) of blood or of blood-stained sputum from the bronchi, larynx, trachea, or lungs (e. ... Pallor is a reduced amount of oxyhemoglobin in skin or mucous membrane, a pale color which can be caused by illness, emotional shock or stress, avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight, anaemia or genetics. ... King Henry IV of France touching a number of sufferers of scrofula who are gathered about him in a circle. ... Lupus vulgaris are cutaneous tuberculosis skin lesions with nodular appearance, most often on the face around nose and ears. ... Tuberculosis of the spine in an Egyptian mummy Potts disease is a presentation of extrapulmonary tuberculosis that affects the spine, a kind of tuberculous arthritis of the intervertebral joints. ... For other uses, see Millet (disambiguation). ...


Symptoms

Further information: Tuberculosis classification

When the disease becomes active, 75% of the cases are pulmonary TB. Symptoms include chest pain, coughing up blood, and a productive, prolonged cough for more than three weeks. Systemic symptoms include fever, chills, night sweats, appetite loss, weight loss, pallor, and often a tendency to fatigue very easily. [2] The current clinical classification system for tuberculosis (TB) is based on the pathogenesis of the disease. ... The heart and lungs (from an older edition of Grays Anatomy) The lung is an organ belonging to the respiratory system and interfacing to the circulatory system of air-breathing vertebrates. ... Hemoptysis (US English) or haemoptysis (International English) is the expectoration (coughing up) of blood or of blood-stained sputum from the bronchi, larynx, trachea, or lungs (e. ... Night sweats may be a symptom of: Tuberculosis HIV Hodgkins disease Brucellosis Subacute endocarditis Chronic pneumonia Pulmonary histoplasmosis See also Sleep Hyperhydrosis Sign (medicine) Categories: Stub ... Anorexia (deriving from the Greek α(ν)- (a(n)-, a prefix that denotes absence) + όρεξη (orexe) = appetite) is the decreased sensation of appetite. ...


In the other 25% of active cases, the infection moves from the lungs, causing other kinds of TB more common in immunosuppressed persons and young children. Extrapulmonary infection sites include the pleura, the central nervous system in meningitis, the lymphatic system in scrofula of the neck, the genitourinary system in urogenital tuberculosis, and bones and joints in Pott's disease of the spine. An especially serious form is disseminated TB, more commonly known as miliary tuberculosis. Although extrapulmonary TB is not contagious, it may co-exist with pulmonary TB, which is contagious.[10] Immunosuppression is the medical suppression of the immune system. ... In anatomy, the pleural cavity is the potential space between the lungs and the chest wall. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... Meningitis is the inflammation of the protective membranes covering the central nervous system, known collectively as the meninges. ... The lymphatic system is a complex network of lymphoid organs, lymph nodes, lymph ducts, lymphatic tissues, lymph capillaries and lymph vessels that produce and transport lymph fluid from tissues to the circulatory system. ... King Henry IV of France touching a number of sufferers of scrofula who are gathered about him in a circle. ... In anatomy, the genitourinary system is the organ system of all the reproductive organs and the urinary system. ... Tuberculosis of the spine in an Egyptian mummy Potts disease is a presentation of extrapulmonary tuberculosis that affects the spine, a kind of tuberculous arthritis of the intervertebral joints. ...


Bacterial species

Scanning electron micrograph of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

The primary cause of TB , Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. TB), is an aerobic bacterium that divides every 16 to 20 hours, an extremely slow rate compared with other bacteria, which usually divide in less than an hour.[11] (For example, one of the fastest-growing bacteria is a strain of E. coli that can divide roughly every 20 minutes.) Since MTB has a cell wall but lacks a phospholipid outer membrane, it is classified as a Gram-positive bacterium. However, if a Gram stain is performed, MTB either stains very weakly Gram-positive or does not retain dye due to the high lipid & mycolic acid content of its cell wall.[12] MTB is a small rod-like bacillus that can withstand weak disinfectants and survive in a dry state for weeks. In nature, the bacterium can grow only within the cells of a host organism, but M. tuberculosis can be cultured in vitro.[13] Binomial name Zopf 1883 Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the bacterium that causes most cases of tuberculosis. ... Image File history File links Mycobacterium_tuberculosis. ... Image File history File links Mycobacterium_tuberculosis. ... Binomial name Zopf 1883 Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the bacterium that causes most cases of tuberculosis. ... Binomial name Zopf 1883 Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the bacterium that causes most cases of tuberculosis. ... Aerobic and anaerobic bacteria can be identified by growning them in liquid culture: 1: Obligate aerobic bacteria gather at the top of the test tube in order to absorb maximal amount of oxygen. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... See also Entamoeba coli. ... Phospholipid Two schematic representations of a phospholipid. ... Bacteria, despite their apparent simplicity contain a well developed cell structure which is responsible for many of their unique biological properties. ... The current clinical classification system for tuberculosis (TB) is based on the pathogenesis of the disease. ... Gram-positive bacteria are those that are stained dark blue or violet by gram staining, in contrast to gram-negative bacteria, which are not affected by the stain. ... Gram staining is a method for staining samples of bacteria that differentiates between the two main types of bacterial cell wall. ... Species Bacillus anthracis Bacillus cereus Bacillus coagulans Bacillus globigii Bacillus licheniformis Bacillus natto Bacillus subtilis Bacillus sphaericus Bacillus thuringiensis etc. ... This is an article about antimicrobial agents. ... An endospore is a dormant, tough, non-reproductive structure produced by a small number of bacteria from the Firmicute family. ... In vitro (Latin: within the glass) refers to the technique of performing a given experiment in a test tube, or, generally, in a controlled environment outside a living organism. ...


Using histological stains on expectorate samples from phlegm (also called sputum), scientists can identify MTB under a regular microscope. Since MTB retains certain stains after being treated with acidic solution, it is classified as an acid-fast bacillus (AFB).[12] The most common staining technique, the Ziehl-Neelsen stain, dyes AFBs a bright red that stands out clearly against a blue background. Other ways to visualize AFBs include an auramine-rhodamine stain and fluorescent microscopy. A thin section of lung tissue stained with hematoxylin and eosin. ... Phlegm (pronounced ) is sticky fluid secreted by the typhoid membranes of animals. ... A bacillus is a rod-shaped bacterium: an acid-fast bacillus (or AFB) is a rod-shaped bacterium which, when stained with certain compounds, retains that stain despite treatment with an acidic solution. ... The Ziehl-Neelsen stain, also known as the acid-fast stain, was first described by two german doctors; Franz Ziehl (1859 to 1926), a bacteriologist and Friedrich Neelsen (1854 to 1894), a pathologist. ... The auramine-rhodamine stain is a histological technique used to see acid-fast bacilli, notably Mycobacteria. ... A Fluorescence Microscope is a light microscope used to study properties of organic or inorganic substances using the phenomena of fluorescence and phosphorescence instead of, or in addition to, reflection and absorption. ...


The M. tuberculosis complex includes 3 other TB-causing mycobacteria: M. bovis, M. africanum and M. microti. The first two only very rarely cause disease in immunocompetent people. On the other hand, although M. microti is not usually pathogenic, it is possible that the prevalence of M. microti infections has been underestimated.[14] Species See text. ... Binomial name Mycobacterium bovis Karlson & Lessel 1970 Mycobacterium bovis is a slow-growing (16 to 20 hour generation time), aerobic bacterium and the causative agent of tuberculosis in cattle. ... Binomial name Mycobacterium africanum Castets et al. ... Binomial name Mycobacterium microti Reed 1957, ATCC 19422 Mycobacterium microti Member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) Also known as the Vole bacillus Etymology: microtus is a genus that includes the vole. ... persons with functioning immune system This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... A pathogen (from Greek pathos, suffering/emotion, and gene, to give birth to), infectious agent, or more commonly germ, is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ... In epidemiology, the prevalence of a disease in a statistical population is defined as the total number of cases of the disease in the population at a given time, or the total number of cases in the population, divided by the number of individuals in the population. ...


Other known pathogenic mycobacteria include Mycobacterium leprae, Mycobacterium avium and M. kansasii. The last two are part of the nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) group. Nontuberculous mycobacteria cause neither TB nor leprosy, but they do cause pulmonary diseases resembling TB.[15] Species See text. ... Binomial name Mycobacterium leprae Hansen, 1874 Mycobacterium leprae, also known as Hansen’s bacillus, is the bacterium that causes leprosy (Hansens disease). ... Mycobacterium avium complex refers to infection by two species of bacteria, Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare. ... Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), or atypical mycobacteria or mycobacteria other than tuberculosis (MOTT), are mycobacteria which do not cause tuberculosis or Hansens disease (leprosy). ... For the malady found in the Hebrew Bible, see Tzaraath. ...


Evolution

During its evolution, M. tuberculosis has lost numerous coding and non-coding regions in its genome, losses that can be used to distinguish between strains of the bacteria. The implication is that M. tuberculosis strains differ geographically, so their genetic differences can be used to track the origins and movement of each strain.[16] This article is about evolution in biology. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ...


Transmission

Further information: Transmission (medicine)

When people suffering from active pulmonary TB cough, sneeze, speak, kiss, or spit, they expel infectious aerosol droplets 0.5 to 5 µm in diameter. A single sneeze, for instance, can release up to 40,000 droplets.[17] Each one of these droplets may transmit the disease, since the infectious dose of tuberculosis is very low and the inhalation of just a single bacterium can cause a new infection.[18] In medicine, transmission is the passing of a disease from an infected individual or group to a previously uninfected individual or group. ... Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM), aerosols or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas. ... A micrometre (American spelling: micrometer, symbol µm) is an SI unit of length. ...

Tuberculosis is spread by aerosols created by coughing or sneezing.

People with prolonged, frequent, or intense contact are at particularly high risk of becoming infected, with an estimated 22% infection rate. A person with active but untreated tuberculosis can infect 10–15 other people per year.[2] Others at risk include people in areas where TB is common, people who inject drugs using unsanitary needles, residents and employees of high-risk congregate settings, medically under-served and low-income populations, high-risk racial or ethnic minority populations, children exposed to adults in high-risk categories, patients immunocompromised by conditions such as HIV/AIDS, people who take immunosuppressant drugs, and health care workers serving these high-risk clients.[19] Aerosol, is a term derived from the fact that matter floating in air is a suspension (a mixture in which solid or liquid or combined solid-liquid particles are suspended in a fluid). ... Immunosuppression is the medical suppression of the immune system. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ...


Transmission can only occur from people with active—not latent—TB. The probability of transmission from one person to another depends upon the number of infectious droplets expelled by a carrier, the effectiveness of ventilation, the duration of exposure, and the virulence of the M. tuberculosis strain.[10] The chain of transmission can therefore be broken by isolating patients with active disease and starting effective anti-tuberculous therapy. After two weeks of such treatment, people with non-resistant active TB generally cease to be contagious.[20] Virulence refers to the degree of pathogenicity of a microbe, or in other words the relative ability of a microbe to cause disease. ... In biology, Strain can be used two ways. ... Antibiotic resistance is the ability of a microorganism to withstand the effects of an antibiotic. ...


Pathogenesis

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (stained red) in sputum

About 90% of those infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis have asymptomatic, latent TB infection (sometimes called LTBI), with only a 10% lifetime chance that a latent infection will progress to TB disease. However, if untreated, the death rate for these active TB cases is more than 50%.[21] Image File history File links TB_in_sputum. ... Image File history File links TB_in_sputum. ... Binomial name Zopf 1883 Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the bacterium that causes most cases of tuberculosis. ... In medicine, a disease is asymptomatic when it is at a stage where the patient does not experience symptoms. ...


TB infection begins when the mycobacteria reach the pulmonary alveoli, where they invade and replicate within alveolar macrophages.[22] The primary site of infection in the lungs is called the Ghon focus. Bacteria are picked up by dendritic cells, which do not allow replication, although these cells can transport the bacilli to local (mediastinal) lymph nodes. Further spread is through the bloodstream to the more distant tissues and organs where secondary TB lesions can develop in lung apices, peripheral lymph nodes, kidneys, brain, and bone.[23] All parts of the body can be affected by the disease, though it rarely affects the heart, skeletal muscles, pancreas and thyroid.[24] Alveolus redirects here. ... Macrophages (Greek: big eaters) are cells found in tissues that are responsible for phagocytosis of pathogens, dead cells and cellular debris. ... Visible cavities in later stage tuberculosis; Ghon focuses are smaller. ... Dendritic cells (DC) are immune cells and form part of the mammal immune system. ... A tranverse section of the thorax showing the mediastinum. ... Lymph nodes are components of the lymphatic system. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... A top-down view of skeletal muscle Skeletal muscle is a type of striated muscle, usually attached to the skeleton. ... The pancreas is a gland organ in the digestive and endocrine systems of vertebrates. ...


Tuberculosis is classified as one of the granulomatous inflammatory conditions. Macrophages, T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes and fibroblasts are among the cells that aggregate to form a granuloma, with lymphocytes surrounding the infected macrophages. The granuloma functions not only to prevent dissemination of the mycobacteria, but also provides a local environment for communication of cells of the immune system. Within the granuloma, T lymphocytes (CD4+) secrete cytokines such as interferon gamma, which activates macrophages to destroy the bacteria with which they are infected.[25] T lymphocytes (CD8+) can also directly kill infected cells.[22] H&E section of non-caseasting granuloma seen in the colon of a patient with Crohns disease In medicine (anatomical pathology), a granuloma is a group of epithelioid macrophages surrounded by a lymphocyte cuff. ... A macrophage of a mouse stretching its arms to engulf two particles, possibly pathogens Macrophages (Greek: big eaters, from makros large + phagein eat) are cells within the tissues that originate from specific white blood cells called monocytes. ... T cells are a subset of lymphocytes that play a large role in the immune response. ... B cells are lymphocytes that play a large role in the humoral immune response (as opposed to the cell-mediated immune response). ... NIH/3T3 Fibroblasts A fibroblast is a type of cell that synthesizes and maintains the extracellular matrix of many animal tissues. ... H&E section of non-caseasting granuloma seen in the colon of a patient with Crohns disease In medicine (anatomical pathology), a granuloma is a group of epithelioid macrophages surrounded by a lymphocyte cuff. ... A lymphocyte is a type of white blood cell involved in the human bodys immune system. ... Cytokines are small protein molecules that are the core of communication between immune system cells, and even between immune system cells and cells belonging to other tissue types. ... Interferon-gamma or IFN-g is a dimerized soluble cytokine which is a Type II Interferon. ...


Importantly, bacteria are not always eliminated within the granuloma, but can become dormant, resulting in a latent infection. Another feature of the granulomas of human tuberculosis is the development of cell death, also called necrosis, in the center of tubercles. To the naked eye this has the texture of soft white cheese and was termed caseous necrosis.[26] Necrosis (in Greek Νεκρός = Dead) is the name given to accidental death of cells and living tissue. ... In anatomy, a tubercle is a round nodule, small eminence, or warty outgrowth found on bones, skin or within the lungs in tuberculosis // Within the human body there are numerous sites where tubercles develop. ... Caseous (or cream cheese) necrosis appears as a soft and white proteinaceous dead cell mass. ... Necrosis (in Greek Νεκρός = Dead) is the name given to accidental death of cells and living tissue. ...


If TB bacteria gain entry to the bloodstream from an area of damaged tissue they spread through the body and set up many foci of infection, all appearing as tiny white tubercles in the tissues. This severe form of TB disease is most common in infants and the elderly and is called miliary tuberculosis. Patients with this disseminated TB have a fatality rate of approximately 20%, even with intensive treatment.[27]


In many patients the infection waxes and wanes. Tissue destruction and necrosis are balanced by healing and fibrosis.[26] Affected tissue is replaced by scarring and cavities filled with cheese-like white necrotic material. During active disease, some of these cavities are joined to the air passages bronchi and this material can be coughed up. It contains living bacteria and can therefore pass on infection. Treatment with appropriate antibiotics kills bacteria and allows healing to take place. Upon cure, affected areas are eventually replaced by scar tissue.[26] Fibrosis is the formation or development of excess fibrous connective tissue in an organ or tissue as a reparative or reactive process, as opposed to a formation of fibrous tissue as a normal constituent of an organ or tissue. ... A bronchus (plural bronchi, adjective bronchial) is a caliber of airways in the the respiratory tract that conducts air into the lungs. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ...


Diagnosis

For more details on this topic, see Tuberculosis diagnosis.

Tuberculosis can be a difficult disease to diagnose, due mainly to the difficulty in culturing this slow-growing organism in the laboratory (4-12 weeks for blood culture). A complete medical evaluation for TB must include a medical history, a chest X-ray, and a physical examination. Tuberculosis radiology is used in the diagnosis of TB. It may also include a tuberculin skin test, a serological test, microbiological smears and cultures. The interpretation of the tuberculin skin test depends upon the person's risk factors for infection and progression to TB disease, such as exposure to other cases of TB or immunosuppression.[10] A complete medical evaluation for tuberculosis (TB) must includes a medical history, a physical examination and a chest X-ray. ... Image File history File links Mantoux_tuberculin_skin_test. ... Image File history File links Mantoux_tuberculin_skin_test. ... The Mantoux skin test consists of an intradermal injection of exactly one tenth of a milliliter (mL) of PPD tuberculin. ... Radiology is used in the diagnosis of tuberculosis. ... The Mantoux skin test consists of an intradermal injection of exactly one tenth of a milliliter (mL) of PPD tuberculin. ... Serology is a medical blood test to detect the presence of antibodies against a microorganism. ...


Currently, latent infection is diagnosed in a non-immunized person by a tuberculin skin test, which yields a delayed hypersensitivity type response to purified protein derivatives of M. tuberculosis. Those immunized for TB or with past-cleared infection will respond with delayed hypersensitivity parallel to those currently in a state of infection and thus the test must be used with caution, particularly with regard to persons from countries where TB immunization is common.[28] New TB tests are being developed that offer the hope of cheap, fast and more accurate TB testing. These use polymerase chain reaction detection of bacterial DNA and antibody assays to detect the release of interferon gamma in response to mycobacteria.[29] Rapid and inexpensive diagnosis will be particularly valuable in the developing world. The Mantoux skin test consists of an intradermal injection of exactly one tenth of a milliliter (mL) of PPD tuberculin. ... “PCR” redirects here. ... Interferon-gamma or IFN-g is a dimerized soluble cytokine which is a Type II Interferon. ...


Progression

Progression from TB infection to TB disease occurs when the TB bacilli overcome the immune system defenses and begin to multiply. In primary TB disease—1 to 5% of cases—this occurs soon after infection. However, in the majority of cases, a latent infection occurs that has no obvious symptoms. These dormant bacilli can produce tuberculosis in 2 to 23% of these latent cases, often many years after infection.[30] The risk of reactivation increases with immunosuppression, such as that caused by infection with HIV. In patients co-infected with M. tuberculosis and HIV, the risk of reactivation increases to 10% per year.[21]


Other conditions that increase risk include drug injection, mainly due to the lifestyle of IV drug users; recent TB infection or a history of inadequately treated TB; chest X-ray suggestive of previous TB, showing fibrotic lesions and nodules; diabetes mellitus; silicosis; prolonged corticosteroid therapy and other immunosuppressive therapy; head and neck cancers; hematologic and reticuloendothelial diseases, such as leukemia and Hodgkin's disease; end-stage kidney disease; intestinal bypass or gastrectomy; chronic malabsorption syndromes; or low body weight.[10] // This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For the disease characterized by excretion of large amounts of very dilute urine, see diabetes insipidus. ... Silicosis (also known as Grinders disease) is a form of pneumoconiosis caused by inhalation of crystalline silica dust, and is marked by inflammation and scarring in forms of nodular lesions in the upper lobes of the lungs. ... In physiology, corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex. ... Hematology (American English) or haematology (British English) is the branch of biology (physiology), pathology, clinical laboratory, internal medicine, and pediatrics that is concerned with the study of blood, the blood-forming organs, and blood diseases. ... The reticuloendothelial system (RES), part of the immune system, consists of the phagocytic cells located in reticular connective tissue, primarily monocytes and macrophages. ... Leukemia or leukaemia (Greek leukos λευκός, white; aima αίμα, blood) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow and is characterized by an abnormal proliferation (production by multiplication) of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes). ... Diagram of the stomach, showing the different regions. ... Malabsorption is the state of impaired absorption of nutrients in the small intestine. ...


Twin studies in the 1950's showed that the course of TB infection was highly dependent on the genetics of the patient. At that time, it was rare that one identical twin would die and the other live.[31] Twin studies are one of a family of designs in behavior genetics which aid the study of individual differences by highlighting the role of environmental and genetic causes on behavior. ...


Some drugs, including rheumatoid arthritis drugs that work by blocking tumor necrosis factor-alpha (an inflammation-causing cytokine), raise the risk of activating a latent infection due to the importance of this cytokine in the immune defense against TB.[32] Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is traditionally considered a chronic, inflammatory autoimmune disorder that causes the immune system to attack the joints. ... In medicine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα, cachexin or cachectin) is an important cytokine involved in systemic inflammation and the acute phase response. ... Cytokines are a category of less-widely-known signalling proteins and glycoproteins that, like hormones and neurotransmitters, are used extensively in cellular communication. ...


Treatment

For more details on this topic, see Tuberculosis treatment.

Treatment for TB uses antibiotics to kill the bacteria. The two antibiotics most commonly used are rifampicin and isoniazid. However, instead of the short course of antibiotics typically used to cure other bacterial infections, TB requires much longer periods of treatment (around 6 to 12 months) to entirely eliminate mycobacteria from the body.[10] Latent TB treatment usually uses a single antibiotic, while active TB disease is best treated with combinations of several antibiotics, to reduce the risk of the bacteria developing antibiotic resistance.[33] People with these latent infections are treated to prevent them from progressing to active TB disease later in life. However, treatment using Rifampin and Pyrazinamide is not risk-free. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) notified healthcare professionals of revised recommendations against the use of rifampin plus pyrazinamide for treatment of latent tuberculosis infection, due to high rates of hospitalization and death from liver injury associated with the combined use of these drugs.[34] The standard short course treatment for tuberculosis (TB) is isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol for two months, then isoniazid and rifampicin alone for a further four months. ... An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. ... Rifampicin (INN) (IPA: ) or rifampin (USAN) is a bacteriocidal antibiotic drug of the rifamycin group. ... Isoniazid (also called isonicotinyl hydrazine or isonicotinic acid hydrazide); abbreviated INH or just H. Isoniazid is a first-line antituberculous medication used in the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis. ... Antibiotic resistance is the ability of a microorganism to withstand the effects of an antibiotic. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ...


Drug resistant tuberculosis is transmitted in the same way as regular TB. Primary resistance occurs in persons who are infected with a resistant strain of TB. A patient with fully-susceptible TB develops secondary resistance (acquired resistance) during TB therapy because of inadequate treatment, not taking the prescribed regimen appropriately, or using low quality medication.[33] Drug-resistant TB is a public health issue in many developing countries, as treatment is longer and requires more expensive drugs. Multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) is defined as resistance to the two most effective first line TB drugs: rifampicin and isoniazid. Extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) is also resistant to three or more of the six classes of second-line drugs.[4] Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is defined as TB that is resistant at least to isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RMP). ... Rifampicin (INN) (IPA: ) or rifampin (USAN) is a bacteriocidal antibiotic drug of the rifamycin group. ... Isoniazid (also called isonicotinyl hydrazine or isonicotinic acid hydrazide); abbreviated INH or just H. Isoniazid is a first-line antituberculous medication used in the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis. ... Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) is defined as multi-drug resistant tuberculosis or MDR-TB that is resistant to quinolones and also to any one of kanamycin, capreomycin, or amikacin. ...


In ancient times, available treatments focused more on dietary parameters. Pliny the Elder described several methods in his Natural History: "wolf's liver taken in thin wine, the lard of a sow that has been fed upon grass, or the flesh of a she-ass taken in broth".[35] While these particular remedies haven't been tested scientifically, it has been demonstrated that malnourished mice receiving a 2% protein diet suffer far higher mortality from tuberculosis than those receiving 20% protein receiving the same infectious challenge dose, and the progressively fatal course of the illness could be reversed by restoring the mice to the normal diet.[36] Moreover, statistics for immigrants in South London reveal an 8.5 fold increased risk of tuberculosis in (primarily Hindu Asian) lacto vegetarians, who frequently suffer protein malnutrition, compared to those of similar cultural backgrounds who ate meat and fish daily.[37] Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Naturalis Historia, 1669 edition, title page. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Asian may refer to: Asian people - The people from Asia. ... A lacto vegetarian diet is a vegetarian diet that includes dairy products such as milk, cheese, yogurt, butter, cream, and kefir. ...


Prevention

TB prevention and control takes two parallel approaches. In the first, people with TB and their contacts are identified and then treated. Identification of infections often involves testing high-risk groups for TB. In the second approach, children are vaccinated to protect them from TB. Unfortunately, no vaccine is available that provides reliable protection for adults. However, in tropical areas where the incidence of atypical mycobacteria is high, exposure to nontuberculous mycobacteria gives some protection against TB.[38] A vial of the vaccine against influenza. ... A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ... Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), or atypical mycobacteria or mycobacteria other than tuberculosis (MOTT), are mycobacteria which do not cause tuberculosis or Hansens disease (leprosy). ...


Vaccines

Many countries use BCG vaccine as part of their TB control programs, especially for infants. This was the first vaccine for TB and developed at the Pasteur Institute in France between 1905 and 1921.[39] However, mass vaccination with BCG did not start until after World War II.[40] The protective efficacy of BCG for preventing serious forms of TB (e.g. meningitis) in children is greater than 80%; its protective efficacy for preventing pulmonary TB in adolescents and adults is variable, ranging from 0 to 80%.[41] An apparatus (4-5 cm length, with nine short needles) used for BCG vaccination in Japan. ... The Pasteur Institute (French: Institut Pasteur) is a French non-profit private foundation dedicated to the study of biology, microorganisms, diseases and vaccines. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Meningitis is the inflammation of the protective membranes covering the central nervous system, known collectively as the meninges. ...


In South Africa, the country with the highest prevalence of TB, BCG is given to all children under the age of three.[42] However, the effectiveness of BCG is lower in areas where mycobacteria are less prevalent, therefore BCG is not given to the entire population in these countries. In the USA, for example, BCG vaccine is not recommended except for people who meet specific criteria:[10] In epidemiology, the prevalence of a disease in a statistical population is defined as the total number of cases of the disease in the population at a given time, or the total number of cases in the population, divided by the number of individuals in the population. ...

  • Infants or children with negative skin-test results who are continually exposed to untreated or ineffectively treated patients or will be continually exposed to multidrug-resistant TB.
  • Healthcare workers considered on an individual basis in settings in which a high percentage of MDR-TB patients has been found, transmission of MDR-TB is likely, and TB control precautions have been implemented and were not successful.

BCG provides some protection against severe forms of pediatric TB, but has been shown to be unreliable against adult pulmonary TB, which accounts for most of the disease burden worldwide. Currently, there are more cases of TB on the planet than at any other time in history and most agree there is an urgent need for a newer, more effective vaccine that would prevent all forms of TB – including drug resistant strains – in all age groups and among people with HIV. [43] Multidrug resistance is the ability of pathologic cells to withstand chemicals that are designed to aid in the eradication of such cells. ...


Several new vaccines to prevent TB infection are being developed. The first recombinant tuberculosis vaccine entered clinical trials in the United States in 2004, sponsored by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID).[44] A 2005 study showed that a DNA TB vaccine given with conventional chemotherapy can accelerate the disappearance of bacteria as well as protect against re-infection in mice; it may take four to five years to be available in humans.[45] A very promising TB vaccine, MVA85A, is currently in phase II trials in South Africa by a group led by Oxford University,[46] and is based on a genetically modified vaccinia virus. Many other strategies are also being used to develop novel vaccines. In order to encourage further discovery, researchers and policymakers are promoting new economic models of vaccine development including prizes, tax incentives and advance market commitments.[47][48] A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ... This box:      In health care, a clinical trial is a comparison test of a medication or other medical treatment (such as a medical device), versus a placebo (inactive look-a-like), other medications or devices, or the standard medical treatment for a patients condition. ... National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) is a component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. ... DNA vaccination is a proposed experimental technique for protecting an organism against disease by injecting it with naked DNA to produce an immunological response. ... Chemotherapy, in its most general sense, refers to treatment of disease by chemicals that kill cells, specifically those of micro-organisms or cancer. ... MVA85A is a new-generation vaccine against tuberculosis. ... This box:      In health care, a clinical trial is a comparison test of a medication or other medical treatment (such as a medical device), versus a placebo (inactive look-a-like), other medications or devices, or the standard medical treatment for a patients condition. ... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... Vaccinia virus (VACV or VV) is a large, complex enveloped virus belonging to the poxvirus family of viruses. ... An advance market commitment is binding contract, typically offered by a government or other financial entity, used to guarantee a viable market if a vaccine or other medicine is successfully developed. ...


The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation has been a strong supporter of new TB vaccine development. Most recently, they announced a $200 million grant to the Aeras Global TB Vaccine Foundation for clinical trials on up to six different TB vaccine candidates currently in the pipeline. [49] The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is the worlds largest charitable foundation. ...


Epidemiology

Annual number of new reported TB cases. Data from WHO.[50]
World TB incidence. Cases per 100,000; Red = >300, orange = 200–300; yellow = 100–200; green 50–100; blue = <50 and grey = n/a. Data from WHO, 2006.
World TB incidence. Cases per 100,000; Red = >300, orange = 200–300; yellow = 100–200; green 50–100; blue = <50 and grey = n/a. Data from WHO, 2006.[50]

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), nearly 2 billion people—one–third of the world's population—have been exposed to the tuberculosis pathogen.[51] Annually, 8 million people become ill with tuberculosis, and 2 million people die from the disease worldwide.[52] In 2004, around 14.6 million people had active TB disease with 9 million new cases. The annual incidence rate varies from 356 per 100,000 in Africa to 41 per 100,000 in the Americas.[2] Tuberculosis is the world's greatest infectious killer of women of reproductive age and the leading cause of death among people with HIV/AIDS.[53] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (4604x2637, 124 KB)[edit] Summary I am author, created from data in annex 2 of Global tuberculosis control - surveillance, planning, financing WHO Report 2006 http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (4604x2637, 124 KB)[edit] Summary I am author, created from data in annex 2 of Global tuberculosis control - surveillance, planning, financing WHO Report 2006 http://www. ... Look up who in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Incidence is a measure of the risk of developing some new condition within a specified period of time. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ...


In 2005, the country with the highest estimated incidence of TB was Swaziland, with 1262 cases per 100,000 people. India has the largest number of infections, with over 1.8 million cases. [54] In developed countries, tuberculosis is less common and is mainly an urban disease. In the United Kingdom, TB incidences range from 40 per 100,000 in London to less than 5 per 100,000 in the rural South West of England;[55] the national average is 13 per 100,000. The highest rates in Western Europe are in Portugal (42 per 100,000) and Spain (20 per 100,000). These rates compare with 113 per 100,000 in China and 64 per 100,000 in Brazil. In the United States, the overall tuberculosis case rate was 4.9 per 100,000 persons in 2004.[52] This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ...


The incidence of TB varies with age. In Africa, TB primarily affects adolescents and young adults.[56] However, in countries where TB has gone from high to low incidence, such as the United States, TB is mainly a disease of older people.[57]


There are a number of known factors that make people more susceptible to TB infection: worldwide the most important of these is HIV. Co-infection with HIV is a particular problem in Sub-Saharan Africa, due to the high incidence of HIV in these countries.[50][58] Smoking more than 20 cigarettes a day also increases the risk of TB by two- to four-times.[59][60] Diabetes mellitus is also an important risk factor that is growing in importance in developing countries.[61] Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... Satellite image of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the sub-Saharan area Sub-Saharan Africa is a geographical term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south of the Sahara, or those African countries which are fully or partially located south of the Sahara. ... Unlit filtered cigarettes. ...


History

Tubercular decay has been found in the spines of Egyptian mummies. Pictured: Egyptian mummy in the British Museum
Tubercular decay has been found in the spines of Egyptian mummies. Pictured: Egyptian mummy in the British Museum

Tuberculosis has been present in humans since antiquity. The earliest unambiguous detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is in the remains of bison dated 18,000 years before the present.[62] However, whether tuberculosis originated in cattle and then transferred to humans, or diverged from a common ancestor, is currently unclear.[63] Skeletal remains show prehistoric humans (4000 BC) had TB, and tubercular decay has been found in the spines of mummies from 3000-2400 BC.[64] Phthisis is a Greek term for tuberculosis; around 460 BC, Hippocrates identified phthisis as the most widespread disease of the times involving coughing up blood and fever, which was almost always fatal.[65] Genetic studies suggest that TB was present in South America for about 2,000 years.[66] In South America, the earliest evidence of tuberculosis is associated with the Paracas-Caverna culture (circa 750 BC to circa 100 AD).[67] Download high resolution version (2725x1978, 341 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2725x1978, 341 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Mummy (disambiguation). ... Ancient redirects here. ... BC may stand for: Before Christ (see Anno Domini) : an abbreviation used to refer to a year before the beginning of the year count that starts with the supposed year of the birth of Jesus. ... For other uses, see Mummy (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hippocrates (disambiguation). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Paracas is a culture of the Paracas peninsula, Peru. ...


Folklore

Before the Industrial Revolution, tuberculosis may sometimes have been regarded as vampirism. When one member of a family died from it, the other members that were infected would lose their health slowly. People believed that this was caused by the original victim draining the life from the other family members. Furthermore, people who had TB exhibited symptoms similar to what people considered to be vampire traits. People with TB often have symptoms such as red, swollen eyes (which also creates a sensitivity to bright light), pale skin and coughing blood, suggesting the idea that the only way for the afflicted to replenish this loss of blood was by sucking blood.[68] Another folk belief attributed it to being forced, nightly, to attend fairy revels, so that the victim wasted away owing to lack of rest; this belief was most common when a strong connection was seen between the fairies and the dead.[69] Similarly, but less commonly, it was attributed to the victims being "hagridden"—being transformed into horses by witches (hags) to travel to their nightly meetings, again resulting in a lack of rest.[69] A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... Vampirism is a term used differently in popular culture and in zoology. ... by Sophie Anderson For other uses, see Fairy (disambiguation). ...


TB was romanticized in the nineteenth century. Many people believed TB produced feelings of euphoria referred to as "Spes phthisica" or "hope of the consumptive". It was believed that TB sufferers who were artists had bursts of creativity as the disease progressed. It was also believed that TB sufferers acquired a final burst of energy just before they died which made women more beautiful and men more creative.[70] Some believed TB to be caused by masturbation. [71] Woman masturbating, 1913 drawing by Gustav Klimt. ...


Study and treatment

The study of tuberculosis dates back to The Canon of Medicine written by Ibn Sina (Avicenna) in the 1020s. He was the first physician to identify pulmonary tuberculosis as a contagious disease, the first to recognise the association with diabetes, and the first to suggest that it could spread through contact with soil and water.[72][73] He developed the method of quarantine in order to limit the spread of tuberculosis.[74] A Latin copy of the Canon of Medicine, dated 1484, located at the P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library of The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. ... (Persian: ابن سينا) (c. ... This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland For the American hard rock band, see SOiL. For the System of a Down song, see Soil (song). ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... For other uses see Quarantine (disambiguation) Quarantine is voluntary or compulsory isolation, typically to contain the spread of something considered dangerous, often but not always disease. ...


Although it was established that the pulmonary form was associated with 'tubercles' by Dr Richard Morton in 1689,[75][76] due to the variety of its symptoms, TB was not identified as a single disease until the 1820s and was not named 'tuberculosis' until 1839 by J. L. Schönlein.[77] During the years 1838–1845, Dr. John Croghan, the owner of Mammoth Cave, brought a number of tuberculosis sufferers into the cave in the hope of curing the disease with the constant temperature and purity of the cave air: they died within a year.[78] The first TB sanatorium opened in 1859 in Görbersdorf, Germany (today Sokołowsko, Poland) by Hermann Brehmer.[79] Richard Morton (1637-1698) was an English physician who was the first to state that tubercles were always present in the tuberculosis disease of the lungs. ... Johann Lukas Schönlein (1793-1864) was a German professor of medicine, born in Bamberg. ... Mammoth Caves Mammoth Cave National Park is a U.S. National Park in south-central Kentucky, encompassing portions of Mammoth Cave, the most extensive cave system known in the world. ... Sanatório Heliantia A sanatorium refers to a medical facility for long-term illness, typically cholera or tuberculosis. ... SokoÅ‚owsko (German: Görbersdorf), a village and climatic health resort romantically situated in a deep and well-wooded valley in Silesia, Poland, Dolny ÅšlÄ…sk Voivodship, WaÅ‚brzych county, Mieroszów commune. ... SokoÅ‚owsko (German: Gorbersdorf), a village and climatic health resort romantically situated in a deep and well-wooded valley in Poland, Dolny ÅšlÄ…sk Voivodship, WaÅ‚brzych county, Mieroszów commune. ...


In regard to this claim, The Times for January 15, 1859, page 5, column 5, carries an advertisement seeking funds for the Bournemouth Sanatorium for Consumption, referring to the balance sheet for the past year, and offering an annual report to prospective donors, implying that this sanatorium was in existence at least in 1858.

Dr. Robert Koch discovered the tuberculosis bacilli.
Dr. Robert Koch discovered the tuberculosis bacilli.

The bacillus causing tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, was identified and described on March 24, 1882 by Robert Koch. He received the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine in 1905 for this discovery.[80] Koch did not believe that bovine (cattle) and human tuberculosis were similar, which delayed the recognition of infected milk as a source of infection. Later, this source was eliminated by the pasteurization process. Koch announced a glycerine extract of the tubercle bacilli as a "remedy" for tuberculosis in 1890, calling it 'tuberculin'. It was not effective, but was later adapted as a test for pre-symptomatic tuberculosis.[81] Image File history File links RobertKoch. ... Image File history File links RobertKoch. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For the American lobbyist, see Bobby Koch. ... Emil Adolf von Behring was the first person to receive the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, for his work on the treatment of diphtheria. ... Pasteurization (or pasteurisation) is the process of heating liquids for the purpose of destroying viruses and harmful organisms such as bacteria, protozoa, molds, and yeasts. ... Glycerin, also known as glycerine and glycerol, and less commonly as 1,2,3-propanetriol, 1,2,3-trihydroxypropane, glyceritol, and glycyl alcohol is a colorless, odorless, hygroscopic, and sweet tasting viscous liquid. ...


The first genuine success in immunizing against tuberculosis was developed from attenuated bovine-strain tuberculosis by Albert Calmette and Camille Guerin in 1906. It was called 'BCG' (Bacillus of Calmette and Guerin). The BCG vaccine was first used on humans in 1921 in France,[39] but it wasn't until after World War II that BCG received widespread acceptance in the USA, Great Britain, and Germany.[40] Léon Charles Albert Calmette (July 12, 1863 – October 29, 1933) was a French physician, bacteriologist and immunologist, and an important officer of the Pasteur Institute. ... Jean-Marie Camille Guérin (b. ... An apparatus (4-5 cm length, with nine short needles) used for BCG vaccination in Japan. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Tuberculosis, or 'consumption' as it was commonly known, caused the most widespread public concern in the 19th and early 20th centuries as an endemic disease of the urban poor. In 1815, one in four deaths in England was of consumption; by 1918 one in six deaths in France were still caused by TB. In the 20th century, tuberculosis killed an estimated 100 million people.[82] After the establishment in the 1880s that the disease was contagious, TB was made a notifiable disease in Britain; there were campaigns to stop spitting in public places, and the infected poor were "encouraged" to enter sanatoria that resembled prisons; the sanatoria for the middle and upper classes offered excellent care and constant medical attention.[79] Whatever the purported benefits of the fresh air and labor in the sanatoria, even under the best conditions, 50% of those who entered were dead within five years (1916).[79] In epidemiology, an infection is said to be endemic in a population when that infection is maintained in the population without the need for external inputs. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... Sanatório Heliantia A sanatorium refers to a medical facility for long-term illness, typically cholera or tuberculosis. ...

Public health campaigns tried to halt the spread of TB

The promotion of Christmas Seals began in Denmark during 1904 as a way to raise money for tuberculosis programs. It expanded to the United States and Canada in 1907–08 to help the National Tuberculosis Association (later called the American Lung Association). Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (904x1406, 744 KB)[edit] Summary U.S. National Library of Medicine [edit] Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (904x1406, 744 KB)[edit] Summary U.S. National Library of Medicine [edit] Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The US Christmas seal of 1925 features holly and mistletoe behind the candles. ... The American Lung Association is a non-profit organization which fights lung disease in all its forms, with special emphasis on asthma, tobacco control and environmental health. It was founded in 1904 to fight tuberculosis as the National Association for the Study and Prevention of Tuberculosis. ...


In the United States, concern about the spread of tuberculosis played a role in the movement to prohibit public spitting except into spittoons. A Chicago courtroom scene, mid 1910s. ...


In Europe, deaths from TB fell from 500 out of 100,000 in 1850 to 50 out of 100,000 by 1950. Improvements in public health were reducing tuberculosis even before the arrival of antibiotics, although the disease remained a significant threat to public health, such that when the Medical Research Council was formed in Britain in 1913 its initial focus was tuberculosis research.[83] Current MRC logo The Medical Research Council (MRC) is a UK organisation dedicated to promot[ing] the balanced development of medical and related biological research in the UK. // The MRC is one of seven Research Councils and is answerable to, although politically independent from, the Office of Science and Innovation...


It was not until 1946 with the development of the antibiotic streptomycin that effective treatment and cure became possible. Prior to the introduction of this drug, the only treatment besides sanatoria were surgical interventions, including the pneumothorax technique—collapsing an infected lung to "rest" it and allow lesions to heal—a technique that was of little benefit and was largely discontinued by the 1950s.[84] The emergence of multidrug-resistant TB has again introduced surgery as part of the treatment for these infections. Here, surgical removal of chest cavities will reduce the number of bacteria in the lungs, as well as increasing the exposure of the remaining bacteria to drugs in the bloodstream, and is therefore thought to increase the effectiveness of the chemotherapy.[85] Streptomycin is an antibiotic drug, the first of a class of drugs called aminoglycosides to be discovered, and was the first antibiotic remedy for tuberculosis. ... “Collapsed lung” redirects here. ...


Hopes that the disease could be completely eliminated have been dashed since the rise of drug-resistant strains in the 1980s. For example, tuberculosis cases in Britain, numbering around 117,000 in 1913, had fallen to around 5,000 in 1987, but cases rose again, reaching 6,300 in 2000 and 7,600 cases in 2005.[86] Due to the elimination of public health facilities in New York and the emergence of HIV, there was a resurgence in the late 1980s.[87] The number of those failing to complete their course of drugs is high. NY had to cope with more than 20,000 "unnecessary" TB-patients with multidrug-resistant strains (resistant to, at least, both Rifampin and Isoniazid). The resurgence of tuberculosis resulted in the declaration of a global health emergency by the World Health Organization in 1993.[88] Antibiotic resistance is the ability of a microorganism to withstand the effects of an antibiotic. ... Multidrug resistance is the ability of pathologic cells to withstand chemicals that are designed to aid in the eradication of such cells. ...


Infection of other animals

Main article: Mycobacterium bovis

Tuberculosis can be carried by mammals; domesticated species, such as cats and dogs, are generally free of tuberculosis, but wild animals may be carriers. In some places, regulations aiming to prevent the spread of TB restrict the ownership of novelty pets; for example, the U.S. state of California forbids the ownership of pet gerbils.[89] Binomial name Mycobacterium bovis Karlson & Lessel 1970 Mycobacterium bovis is a slow-growing (16 to 20 hour generation time), aerobic bacterium and the causative agent of tuberculosis in cattle. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ... A novelty pet, or exotic pet is an unusual animal kept as a pet, sometimes for the express purpose of having an unusual or unique pet. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Gerbil (disambiguation). ...


Mycobacterium bovis causes TB in cattle. An effort to eradicate bovine tuberculosis from the cattle and deer herds of New Zealand is underway. It has been found that herd infection is more likely in areas where infected vector species such as Australian brush-tailed possums come into contact with domestic livestock at farm/bush borders.[90] Controlling the vectors through possum eradication and monitoring the level of disease in livestock herds through regular surveillance are seen as a "two-pronged" approach to ridding New Zealand of the disease. Binomial name Mycobacterium bovis Karlson & Lessel 1970 Mycobacterium bovis is a slow-growing (16 to 20 hour generation time), aerobic bacterium and the causative agent of tuberculosis in cattle. ... Traditionally in medicine, a vector is an organism that does not cause disease itself but which spreads infection by conveying pathogens from one host to another. ... A possum is any of about 25 small to medium-sized arboreal marsupials native to Australia. ... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ...


In the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom, badgers have been identified as one vector species for the transmission of bovine tuberculosis. As a result, governments have come under pressure from some quarters, primarily dairy farmers, to mount an active campaign of eradication of badgers in certain areas with the purpose of reducing the incidence of bovine TB. The UK government has not committed itself on the issue, not least because it fears public opinion: badgers are a protected species. The effectiveness of culling on the incidence of TB in cattle is a contentious issue, with proponents and opponents citing their own studies to support their position.[91][92][93] A 9-year scientific study by an Independent Study Group of the likely efficacy of badger culling reported on 18 June 2007 that it was unlikely to be effective and could actually increase the spread of TB. The Independent Study Group was chaired by Sir John Bourne and included two statisticians, Professor Cristl Donnelly and Sir David Cox, the most distinguished statistician in the United Kingdom. Donnelly and Cox produced a sophisticated stochastic model of the badger population which was used to make detailed quantitative predictions about the effects of various policies. The recommendations of the Bourne report[94] came as a surprise to Ministers. The UK Government's Chief Scientific Adviser, Sir David King convened a committee to re-examine the Bourne report. King's committee produced a report on 30th July, only one month after the publication of Bourne's 9-year study, whose conclusions flatly contradicted those of the Bourne report and recommended badger culling.[95] The King committee did not include any statisticians and did not make use of the Donnelly & Cox statistical model. As a result, the issue of badger culling remains hugely controversial in the United Kingdom. Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Range map The Eurasian or European badger, Meles meles, is a mammal indigenous to most of Europe (excluding northern Scandinavia, Iceland, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily and Cyprus) and to many parts of Asia, from about 15° to 65° North, and from about 10° West to 135° East. ... David Roxbee Cox was born in Birmingham in 1924. ...


See also

The 2007 tuberculosis scare occurred when Atlanta personal-injury lawyer[1] Andrew Drew Speaker[2] (dubbed the TB Guy by major American news organizations) flew from the United States to Europe and back while infected with multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis. ... Chest radiography showing advanced bilateral pulmonary tuberculosis. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... Buruli ulcer is an infectious disease caused by the Mycobacterium ulcerans, from the same family of bacteria which causes tuberculosis and leprosy. ... For the malady found in the Hebrew Bible, see Tzaraath. ... Also called latent tuberculosis infection, latent TB or LTBI. Latent tuberculosis is where a patient is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but does not have active tuberculosis disease. ... This is a list of famous people and celebrities who had, or are believed to have had, tuberculosis. ... The TB Structural Genomics Consortium is a world-wide consortium of scientists developing a foundation for tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment by determining the 3-dimensional structures of proteins from M. tuberculosis. ... The National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHSTP) is a part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and is responsible for public health surveillance, prevention research, and programs to prevent and control human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), other sexually transmitted diseases... Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), or atypical mycobacteria or mycobacteria other than tuberculosis (MOTT), are mycobacteria which do not cause tuberculosis or Hansens disease (leprosy). ... Map of countries by population —showing the population of the China and India in the billions. ... Philip Montagu D’Arcy Hart, CBE, (June 25, 1900 - July 30, 2006) was a British medical researcher and pioneer in tuberculosis treatment. ... Through its affecting important historical figures, tuberculosis has influenced particularly European history, and become a theme in art – mostly literature, music, and film. ... UNITAID is an international facility for the purchase of drugs against HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Tuberculosis. ... // Nosocomial infections are those which are a result of treatment in a hospital or a healthcare service unit, but secondary to the patients original condition. ...

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A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 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A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) is a component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... WHO redirects here. ... National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) is a component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. ... 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A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 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Further reading

  • Blumberg HM, Leonard MK, Jasmer RM (2005). "Update on the treatment of tuberculosis and latent tuberculosis infection". JAMA 293 (22): 2776-84. doi:10.1001/jama.293.22.2776. PMID 15941808. 
  • Dormandy, Thomas (2000). The White Death. New York: New York University Press. ISBN 0814719279. 
  • Joint Tuberculosis Committee of the British Thoracic Society (2000). "Control and prevention of tuberculosis in the United Kingdom: code of practice 2000.". Thorax 55 (11): 887-901. doi:10.1136/thorax.55.11.887. PMID 11050256. 
  • Kidder, Tracy (2004). Mountains Beyond Mountains. New York: Random House Trade Paperbacks. ISBN 0812973011.  A nonfiction account of treating TB in Haiti, Peru, Russia, and elsewhere.
  • Lawlor, Clark (2007). Consumption and Literature. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0230020038. 
  • Nemery B, Yew WW, Albert R, et al (2005). "Tuberculosis, nontuberculous lung infection, pleural disorders, pulmonary function, respiratory muscles, occupational lung disease, pulmonary infections, and social issues in AJRCCM in 2004". Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 171 (6): 554-62. doi:10.1164/rccm.2412009. PMID 15753485. 
  • Ryan, Frank (1993), The Forgotten Plague: How the Battle Against Tuberculosis Was Won — and Lost, Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Company, ISBN 0-316-76380-2 . First published in the United Kingdom as Tuberculosis: The Greatest Story Never Told.
  • Walton D, Farmer P (2000). "MSJAMA: the new white plague". JAMA 284 (21): 2789. doi:10.1001/jama.284.21.2789. PMID 11105192. 

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Mountains Beyond Mountains: The Quest of Dr. Paul Farmer, A Man Who Would Cure the World is a nonfiction, biographical novel by American writer Tracy Kidder. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Little, Brown and Company is a publishing house established by Charles Coffin Little and his partner, James Brown. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Tuberculosis
  • Tuberculosis at the Open Directory Project
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Division of Tuberculosis Elimination. Core Curriculum on Tuberculosis: What the Clinician Should Know. 4th edition (2000). Updated Aug 2003.
  • (CDC) - Division of Tuberculosis Elimination News and updates.
  • (CDC) - Questions and Answers About TB, 2007.
  • Health Protection Agency, England
  • BioHealthBase Bioinformatics Resource Center. Database of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome sequences and related information.
  • Kaiser Family Foundation. Tuberculosis. Globalhealthfacts.org.
  • The Nobel Prize Website. Tuberculosis Educational Game
  • United States Agency for International Development (USAID). The Tuberculosis Coalition for Technical Assistance (TBCTA).
  • World Health Organization (WHO). Tuberculosis.
  • Tuberculosis and HIV: HIV InSite Knowledge Base chapter and related resources.

The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ... USAID logo The United States Agency for International Development (or USAID) is the U.S. government organization responsible for most non-military foreign aid. ... WHO redirects here. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria is also the fictional name of a warring nation under Benzino Napaloni as dictator, in the 1940 film The Great Dictator... Gram-positive bacteria are those that are stained dark blue or violet by gram staining, in contrast to gram-negative bacteria, which are not affected by the stain. ... Classes Bacilli Clostridia Mollicutes The Firmicutes are a division of bacteria, most of which have Gram-positive cell wall structure. ... Species Clostridium acetobutylicum Clostridium aerotolerans Clostridium botulinum Clostridium colicanis Clostridium difficile Clostridium formicaceticum Clostridium novyi Clostridium perfringens Clostridium sordelli Clostridium tetani Clostridium piliforme Clostridium tyrobutyricum etc. ... Pseudomembranous colitis is an infection of the colon often, but not always, caused by the bacterium Clostridium difficile. ... Botulism (Latin, botulus, sausage) is a rare, but serious paralytic illness caused by a nerve toxin, botulin, that is produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. ... Tetanus is a medical condition that is characterized by a prolonged contraction of skeletal muscle fibers. ... Gas gangrene is a bacterial infection that produces gas within tissues in gangrene. ... The group A streptococcus bacterium (Streptococcus pyogenes, or GAS) is a form of Streptococcus bacteria responsible for most cases of streptococcal illness. ... It has been suggested that Perinatal Group B Streptococcal Disease be merged into this article or section. ... Staphylococcus (in Greek staphyle means bunch of grapes and coccos means granule) is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria. ... Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a rare but potentially fatal disease caused by a bacterial toxin. ... This page is about the bacterial class. ... Gram-positive bacteria are those that are stained dark blue or violet by gram staining, in contrast to gram-negative bacteria, which are not affected by the stain. ... Subclasses Acidimicrobidae Actinobacteridae Coriobacteridae Rubrobacteridae Sphaerobacteridae The Actinobacteria or Actinomycetes are a group of Gram-positive bacteria. ... Species See text. ... Visible cavities in later stage tuberculosis; Ghon focuses are smaller. ... Ghons complex is a pathological entity caused by the the progression of tuberculosis, an infectious respiratory disease. ... Tuberculous meningitis is also called TB meningitis. Tuberculous meningitis is Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of the meninges. ... Tuberculosis of the spine in an Egyptian mummy Potts disease is a presentation of extrapulmonary tuberculosis that affects the spine, a kind of tuberculous arthritis of the intervertebral joints. ... King Henry IV of France touching a number of sufferers of scrofula who are gathered about him in a circle. ... Bazin disease is a skin ulceration on the back of the calves. ... Lupus vulgaris are cutaneous tuberculosis skin lesions with nodular appearance, most often on the face around nose and ears. ... For the malady found in the Hebrew Bible, see Tzaraath. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Buruli ulcer is an infectious disease caused by the Mycobacterium ulcerans, from the same family of bacteria which causes tuberculosis and leprosy. ... Suborders Actinomycineae Corynebacterineae Frankineae Glycomycineae Micrococcineae Micromonosporineae Propionibacterineae Pseudonocardineae Streptomycineae Streptosporangineae Actinomycetales is an order of Actinobacteria. ... Erythrasma is a skin disease that can result in pink patches, which can turn into brown scales. ... Bacteria that are Gram-negative are not stained dark blue or violet by Gram staining, in contrast to Gram-positive bacteria. ... Families Spirochaetaceae Brachyspiraceae    Brachyspira    Serpulina Leptospiraceae    Leptospira    Leptonema Spirochaetes is a phylum of distinctive Gram-negative bacteria, which have long, helically coiled cells. ... Syphilis is a curable sexually transmitted disease caused by the Treponema pallidum spirochete. ... Bejel, or endemic syphilis, is a chronic skin and tissue disease caused by infection by a subspecies of the spirochete Treponema pallidum. ... Yaws (also Frambesia tropica, thymosis, polypapilloma tropicum or pian) is a tropical infection of the skin, bones and joints caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pertenue. ... Pinta is a human skin disease endemic to Mexico, Central America, and South America. ... Noma (from Greek numein: to devour) also known as cancrum oris or gangrenous stomatitis, is a gangrenous disease leading to tissue destruction of the face, especially the mouth and cheek. ... Trench mouth is a polymicrobial infection of the gums leading to inflammation, bleeding, deep ulceration and necrotic gum tissue, there may also be fever. ... Lyme disease, or borreliosis, is an emerging infectious disease caused by at least three species of bacteria from the genus Borrelia. ... Sodoku is a bacterial zoonotic disease. ... Bacteria that are Gram-negative are not stained dark blue or violet by Gram staining, in contrast to Gram-positive bacteria. ... Genera Chlamydia Chlamydophila Parachlamydia Simkania Waddlia The Chlamydiae are a group of bacteria, all of which are intracellular parasites of eukaryotic cells. ... Species See text. ... In medicine (pulmonology), psittacosis -- also known as parrot disease, parrot fever, and ornithosis -- is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by a bacterium called Mycoplasma psittaci and contracted from parrots, macaws, cockatiels, and parakeets. ... Species Chlamydia muridarum Chlamydia suis Chlamydia trachomatis For the disease in humans, see Chlamydia infection. ... The term Chlamydia refers to an infection by any one of the species in the bacterial genus, Chlamydia—Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia suis or Chlamydia muridarum—but of these, only C. trachomatis is found in humans. ... Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV), also known as lymphopathia venerea, tropical bubo, climatic bubo, strumous bubo, poradenitis inguinales, Durand-Nicolas-Favre disease and lymphogranuloma inguinale, is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the invasive serovars L1, L2, or L3 of Chlamydia trachomatis. ... Bacteria that are Gram-negative are not stained dark blue or violet by Gram staining, in contrast to Gram-positive bacteria. ... Orders Alpha Proteobacteria    Caulobacterales - e. ... A rickettsiosis is a disease casused by Rickettsiales. ... For the unrelated disease caused by Salmonella typhi, see Typhoid fever. ... Scrub typhus is a form of typhus caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi and transmitted by chiggers, which are found in areas of heavy scrub vegetation. ... Binomial name Wolbach, 1919 Rocky Mountain spotted fever is the most severe and most frequently reported rickettsial illness in the United States, and has been diagnosed throughout the Americas. ... Boutonneuse fever (also called Mediterranean Fever) is a fever as a result of a Rickettsial infection. ... Trench Fever is a moderately serious disease, transmitted by body lice. ... Rickettsialpox is caused by bacteria found in the Rickettsia family (Rickettsia akari) but humans contract the disease through a much less direct route. ... For other uses, see Catscratch and Cat Scratch Fever. ... Bacillary angiomatosis (BA) is a bacterial infection caused by either Bartonella henselae or Bartonella quintana. ... Bacteria that are Gram-negative are not stained dark blue or violet by Gram staining, in contrast to Gram-positive bacteria. ... Orders Alpha Proteobacteria    Caulobacterales - e. ... Species S. bongori S. enterica This article is about the bacteria. ... For a similar disease with a similar name, see typhus. ... Species S. enterica Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped Gram-negative enterobacteria that causes typhoid fever, paratyphoid and foodborne illness. ... Salmonellosis is an infection with Salmonella bacteria. ... Distribution of cholera Cholera, sometimes known as Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera, is an infectious gastroenteritis caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... Zoonosis (pronounced ) is any infectious disease that may be transmitted from other animals, both wild and domestic, to humans or from humans to animals (the latter is sometimes called reverse zoonosis). ... Bubonic plague is the best-known manifestation of the bacterial disease plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. ... Tularemia (also known as rabbit fever) is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis. ... Glanders is an infectious disease that occurs primarily in horses, mules, and donkeys. ... Melioidosis, also known as pseudoglanders and Whitmores disease (after Capt Alfred Whitmore) is an uncommon infectious disease caused by a Gram-negative bacterium, Burkholderia pseudomallei, found in soil and water. ... Pasteurellosis is an infection with a species of the bacteria genus Pasteurella, which is found in humans and animals. ... Pertussis, also known as whooping cough, a highly contagious disease caused by the bacterium, Bordetella pertussis; it derived its name from a characteristic severe hacking cough followed by a high-pitched intake of breath that sounds like whoop; a similar, milder disease is caused by B. parapertussis. ... Binomial name Neisseria meningitidis Albrecht & Ghon, 1901 Neisseria meningitidis, also simply known as meningococcus is a gram-negative bacterium best known for its role in meningitis. ... Meningitis is inflammation of the membranes (meninges) covering the brain and the spinal cord. ... Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome is massive, usually bilateral, hemorrhage into the adrenal glands caused by fulminant meningococcemia. ... Legionellosis is an infectious disease caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Legionella. ... Brazilian purpuric fever (BPF) is a fulminant sceptacaemic illness of children caused by the gram negative bacteria Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius Category: ... Chancroid is a sexually transmitted disease characterized by painful sores on the genitalia. ... Granuloma inguinale or Donovanosis is a bacterial disease caused by the organism Calymmatobacterium granulomatis. ... The clap redirects here. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Tuberculosis (7570 words)
It has been claimed that the high tuberculosis mortality rate in Norrland during the latter part of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century was caused by railway labourers, miners, sawmill labourers etc., who came to Norrland with industrialisation, brought tuberculosis with them and spread the disease among the original virgin population.
By studying the occurrence of tuberculosis in different areas during periods of low and periods of high mortality for various epidemic diseases, an attempt is made to measure the impact of other diseases on TB mortality.
The tuberculosis level of a social group in a particular region at a given period of time is the result of a complicated pattern of causes, which may not be statistically documented or verifiable.
Tuberculosis Control (352 words)
The Tuberculosis Control program, located in the Public Health Division of the NC Department of Health and Human Services, is the lead agency in combating tuberculosis in the state.
Tuberculosis is a communicable, potentially deadly disease that usually affects the lungs but can attack other parts of the body as well.
Now, the goal of the TB Control program is to reduce tuberculosis disease in North Carolina by the year 2010 to under one case per one million persons, virtually eliminating TB in the state.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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