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Tuba

Look up tuba in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Tuba. ...

Classification
Playing range
Related instruments

The tuba is the largest and lowest pitched of brass instruments. Sound is produced by vibrating or "buzzing" the lips into a large cupped mouthpiece. It is one of the most recent additions to the modern symphony orchestra, first appearing in the mid-19th century, when it largely replaced the ophicleide. A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. ... A wind instrument is a musical instrument that contains some type of resonator (usually a tube), in which a column of air is set into vibration by the player blowing into (or over) a mouthpiece set at the end of the resonator. ... Image of a trumpet, foreground, a piccolo trumpet behind, and a flugelhorn in background. ... An aerophone is any musical instrument which produces sound primarily by causing a body of air to vibrate, without the use of strings or membranes, and without the vibration of the instrument itself adding considerably to the sound. ... In music, the range of a musical instrument is the distance from the lowest to the highest pitch it can play. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1043x618, 3 KB) Summary Modification of commons:User:Mezzofortists image Range_tuba. ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. ... The euphonium is a conical-bore, baritone-voiced brass instrument. ... The Contrabass Bugle, usually shortened to Contra, is the lowest-pitched instrument in the drum and bugle corps hornline. ... Image of a trumpet, foreground, a piccolo trumpet behind, and a flugelhorn in background. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The ophicleide () is a family of conical bore, brass keyed bugles. ...

Contents

Roles

An orchestra usually has a single tuba, though occasionally a second tuba is required. It serves as the bass of the brass section, though its versatility means it can double as reinforcement for the strings and woodwinds, or increasingly as a solo instrument. For the song titled Orchestra, see The Servant (band). ... Image of a trumpet, foreground, a piccolo trumpet behind, and a flugelhorn in background. ... A string instrument (or stringed instrument) is a musical instrument that produces sound by means of vibrating strings. ... A woodwind instrument is a musical instrument in which sound is produced by blowing through a mouthpiece against an edge or by a vibrating reed, and in which the pitch is varied by opening or closing holes in the body of the instrument. ...


Symphonie Fantastique by Hector Berlioz was the first major work orchestrated for tuba. It was originally scored for two ophicleides, but Berlioz changed it after hearing the newly invented tuba. Other composers also composed influential parts for the tuba, including: Symphonie fantastique (Fantastic Symphony) Opus 14, is a symphony written by French composer Hector Berlioz in 1830. ... Painting of Berlioz by Gustave Courbet, 1850. ...

Various concertos have been written for the tuba by numerous notable composers, including Ralph Vaughan Williams, Edward Gregson, John Williams, Alexander Arutiunian and Bruce Broughton. Tubas are also used in concert bands, marching bands, and in drum and bugle (and drum and brass) corps. In British style brass bands, both E♭ and B♭ tubas are used and are normally referred to as basses. This article is about the German composer of tone-poems and operas. ... Also sprach Zarathustra, op. ... Eine Alpensinfonie (An Alpine Symphony), Op. ... Dmitri Shostakovich in 1942 Dmitri Dmitriyevich Shostakovich   (Russian: , Dmitrij Dmitrievič Å ostakovič) (September 25 [O.S. September 12] 1906 – August 9, 1975) was a Russian composer of the Soviet period. ... The Symphony No. ... Igor Stravinsky. ... The Rite of Spring, commonly referred to by its original French title, Le Sacre du printemps (Russian: Весна священная, Vesna svjaščennaja) is a ballet with music by the Russian composer Igor Stravinsky, which was first performed in 1913. ... Edgard Victor Achille Charles Varèse (December 22, 1883 – November 6, 1965) was a French-born composer. ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as they were later called). ... Lohengrin is a romantic opera (or music drama) in three acts by Richard Wagner. ... Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg (The Master Singers of Nuremberg) is an opera in three acts, written and composed by Richard Wagner. ... Arthur Rackhams illustration to the Ride of the Valkyries The Ride of the Valkyries (German: Walkürenritt) is the popular term for the beginning of Act III of Die Walküre by Richard Wagner. ... Sergei Sergeyevich Prokofiev (Russian: , Sergej Sergejevič Prokofijev; April 27 (April 151 O.S.), 1891–March 5, 1953) was a Russian and Soviet composer who mastered numerous musical genres and came to be admired as one of the greatest composers of the 20th century. ... Sergei Prokofiev wrote his Symphony No. ... The term Concerto (plural concertos or concerti) usually refers to a musical work in which one solo instrument is accompanied by an orchestra. ... A statue of Ralph Vaughan Williams in Dorking. ... Edward Gregson (Sunderland, England 1945) is an English composer. ... For other persons named John Williams, see John Williams (disambiguation). ... Alexander Grigori Arutiunian (b. ... Bruce Broughton (born March 8, 1945 in Los Angeles, California) is a film, video game, and television soundtrack composer who has composed several highly acclaimed soundtracks over his extensive career, including Homeward Bound and Silverado, as well as the video game Heart of Darkness (game). ... Drum and bugle corps is a name used to describe two forms of marching units. ... The Lochgelly Band, a Scottish colliery band, circa 1890 A brass band is a musical group consisting mostly of brass instruments, often with a percussion section. ...


Notable conductor Leif Bjaland has been quoted as saying, "Nothing brings balance and beauty to an orchestra like the soothing bass tones of a tuba." He has also been known to have hired a tuba soloist to help him through one of his many bouts with insomnia.[citation needed] There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... This article is about the sleeping disorder. ...


Types and construction

Tubas are found in various pitches, most commonly in F, E♭, CC, or BB♭ in "brass band" pitching. The main tube of a B♭ tuba is approximately 18 feet long, while that of a CC tuba is 16 feet, of an E♭ tuba 13 feet, and of an F tuba 12 feet (not including any valve branches). Tubas are considered to be conical in shape as the bore of their tubing steadily increases in diameter along its length, from the mouthpiece to the bell. This article is about the geometric object, for other uses see Cone. ...


A tuba with its tubing wrapped for placing the instrument on the player's lap is usually called a tuba or concert tuba. Some have a bell pointing forward as opposed to upward, which are often called recording tubas because of their popularity in the early days of recorded music, as their sound could more easily be directed at the recording instrument. When wrapped to surround the body for marching, it is traditionally known as a hélicon. The modern sousaphone is a hélicon with a bell pointed up, and then curved to point forward. Some ancestors of the tuba, such as the military bombardon, were wrapped such that the bell extended far backwards over the player's shoulder. The fanfare of the French Republican Guard The hélicon is a brass musical instrument in the tuba family. ... Sousaphone player in Washington Square, New York City The sousaphone is a type of tuba often used in a marching band. ...


Bass clef music for tuba is usually in concert pitch, therefore tubists must know the correct fingerings for their specific instrument. However, traditional brass band parts for the tuba are usually written treble clef, with the B-flat tuba sounding two octaves and one step below and the E-Flat tuba sounding one octave and a major sixth below the written pitch. Consequently, the tuba is generally treated as a transposing instrument when it is written for in the treble clef, but not in the bass clef. A brass band a musical group consisting mostly or entirely of brass instruments, often with a percussion section. ... A transposing instrument is a musical instrument whose music is written at a pitch different from concert pitch. ...


The lowest pitched tubas are the contrabass tubas, pitched in C or B-flat; (referred to as CC and BB-flat tubas respectively, based on a traditional distortion of a now-obsolete octave naming convention). The BB-flat is almost exclusively used in brass bands because the other instruments are usually based on B-flat. The CC tuba is used as an orchestral instrument in the U.S. because they are perceived to tune more easily with other orchestral instruments, but BB-flat tubas are the contrabass tuba of choice in German, Austrian, and Russian orchestras. Many younger players start out with an E-flat tuba, and the BB-flat tuba is still the standard adult amateur instrument in the United States. Most professionals (and those trained or training to be professionals) in the U.S. play CC tubas, but most also are trained in proficiency of all four pitches of tubas.


The next smaller tubas are the bass tubas, pitched in F or E-flat (a fourth above the contrabass tubas). The E-flat tuba often plays an octave above the contrabass tubas in brass bands, and the F tuba is commonly used by professional players as a solo instrument and, in America, to play higher parts in the classical repertoire. In most of Europe, the F tuba is the standard orchestral instrument, supplemented by the CC or BB-flat only when the extra weight is desired. In the United Kingdom, the E-flat is the standard orchestral tuba.

Comparison of euphonium (left) and tuba (right)

The euphonium is sometimes referred to as a tenor tuba, and is pitched one octave higher (in B-flat) than the BB-flat contrabass tuba. The term "tenor tuba" is often used more specifically, in reference to B-flat rotary-valved tubas pitched in the same octave as euphoniums. Examples include the Alexander Model 151, which is a popular instrument among tuba players when the use of the tenor tuba is appropriate. One much-debated example of such application for orchestral tuba players in the U.S. is the Bydło movement in Ravel's orchestration of Mussorgsky's Pictures at an Exhibition. The "Small French Tuba in C" is a tenor tuba pitched in C, and provided with 6 valves to make the lower notes in the orchestral repertoire possible. The French C tuba was the standard instrument in French orchestras until overtaken by F and C contrabass tubas since the Second World War. Though extremely rare, there have been larger BB-flat subcontrabass tubas created. There were at least four known examples created. The first two were built by the Gustav Besson on the suggestion of American Bandmaster John Philip Sousa. The monster instruments were not completed until just after Sousa's death (photo). Later, in the 1950s, British musician Gerard Hoffnung commissioned the London firm of Paxman to create a subcontrabass tuba for use in his comedic music festivals (photo). These three instruments were all pitched in BBB♭, one octave below the standard BB-flat tuba. Also, a tuba pitched in FFF was made in Kraslice by Bohland & Fuchs probably during 1910 or 1911 and was destined for the World Exhibition in New York in 1913. This tuba is "playable", but two persons are needed; one to operate the valves and one to blow into the mouthpiece (photo). Euphonium and Tuba brass instruments Taken by Elf | Talk in London, July 04 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Euphonium and Tuba brass instruments Taken by Elf | Talk in London, July 04 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The euphonium is a conical-bore, baritone-voiced brass instrument. ... Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky (Russian: , Modest Petrovič Musorgskij, French: ) (March 9/21, 1839 – March 16/28, 1881), one of the Russian composers known as the Five, was an innovator of Russian music. ... Mussorgsky in 1874 This article refers to the original suite by Modest Mussorgsky. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... John Philip Sousa (November 6, 1854 – March 6, 1932) was an American composer and conductor of the late Romantic era known particularly for American military marches. ... Gerard Hoffnung (1925-1959) was an artist and musician, best known for his humorous works. ...


Valves

Tubas come in both piston and rotary valve models. Rotary valves are based on a design that derived from the Berlinerpumpen used on the very first bass tuba patented by Wilhelm Wieprecht in 1835. Červeny of Graslitz was the first to use true rotary valves, starting in the 1840s or 1850s. Piston valves are based on valves developed by Perinet for the Saxhorn family of instruments promoted by Adolphe Sax around the same time. Pistons may either be oriented to point to the top of the instrument (top-action, as pictured in the figure at the top of the article) or out the front of the instrument (front-action or side-action). Debate abounds as to the advantages and disadvantages of each piston style, with assertions concerning sound, speed, and clarity commonly proclaimed but with little or no scientific measurement. The German tradition prefers rotary valves; the British and American traditions favor piston valves, because a large majority of American and British professional model tubas come in piston options, and are said to give more weight to the sound (top-action in the case of British; front-action in the case of American), but this is not absolute and choice of valve types remains up to the performer. Overall, it is preference; each has its advantages and disadvantages. This is why many American tubists will buy a piston contrabass CC tuba and a rotary Eb and F, so they can adapt easier to different playing experiences. The saxhorn is a valved brass instrument with a tapered bore and deep cup-shaped mouthpiece. ... Life-size statue of Adolphe Sax outside his birthplace in Dinant, Belgium. ...


Some tubas have a strong and useful resonance that is not in the well known harmonic series. For example, the Conn BBb sousaphone has a strong resonance at low Bb, which permits chromatic descent to the pedal BBb. and thence to the sub pedal FF at 20 Hz. This open resonance depends on the design of the instrument. Many three-valve instruments can play chromatically to 20 Hz 'F' without a fourth valve.


Tubas generally have from three to six valves, though some rare exceptions exist. Three-valve tubas are generally the least expensive and are almost exclusively used by beginners and amateurs, and the sousaphone (a marching instrument which is just a different way to wrap the tubing of a B-flat tuba) almost always has three valves. Among more advanced players, four and five valve tubas are by far the most common choices, with six-valve tubas being relatively rare except for F tubas intended to be used by European orchestral performers. Sousaphone player in Washington Square, New York City The sousaphone is a type of tuba often used in a marching band. ...


The valves add tubing to the main tube of the instrument, thus lowering its fundamental pitch. The first valve lowers the pitch by a whole step (two semitones), the second valve by a semitone, and the third valve by three semitones. Used in combination, the valves are too short and the resulting pitch tends to be sharp. For example, a B tuba becomes (in effect) an A♭tuba when the first valve is depressed. The third valve is long enough to lower the pitch of a B tuba by three semitones, but it is not long enough to lower the pitch of an A♭tuba by three semitones. Thus, the first and third valves used in combination lower the pitch by something just short of five semitones, and the first three valves used in combination are nearly a quarter tone sharp.

Tuba with four rotary valves.
Tuba with four rotary valves.

The fourth valve is used in place of combinations of the first and third valves, and the second and fourth used in combination are used in place of the first three valves in combination. The fourth valve can be tuned to lower the pitch of the main tube accurately by five semitones, and thus its use corrects the main problem of combinations being too sharp. By using the fourth valve by itself to replace the first and third combination, or the fourth and second valves in place of the first, second and third valve combinations, the notes requiring these fingerings are more in tune. Download high resolution version (567x872, 28 KB)www. ... Download high resolution version (567x872, 28 KB)www. ...


The fifth and sixth valves are used to provide alternative fingering possibilities to improve intonation, and are also used to reach into the low register of the instrument where all the valves will be used in combination to fill the first octave between the fundamental pitch and the next available note on the open tube. The fifth and sixth valves also give the musician the ability to trill more smoothly or to use alternative fingerings for ease of playing.


Since the bass tuba in F is pitched a fifth above the BB-flat tuba and a fourth above the CC tuba, it needs additional tubing length beyond that provided by four valves to play securely down to a low F as required in much tuba music. The fifth valve is commonly tuned to a flat whole step, so that when used with the fourth valve, it gives an in-tune low B-flat. The sixth valve is commonly tuned as a flat half step, allowing the F tuba to play low G as 1-4-5-6 and low G-flat as 1-2-4-5-6. In CC tubas with five valves, the fifth valve may be tuned as a flat whole step or as a minor third depending on the instrument.


Some piston-valved tubas have a compensating system to allow accurate tuning when using several valves in combination, simplifying fingering and removing the need to constantly adjust slide positions. Such systems are used mainly in United Kingdom brass bands.[citation needed] The most common approach is to plumb the valves so that if the fourth valve is used, the air is sent back through a second set of branches in the first three valves to compensate for the combination of valves. This does have the disadvantage of making the instrument significantly more 'stuffy' or resistant to air flow when compared to a non-compensating tuba. This is due to the need for the air to flow through the valve block twice. It also makes the instrument heavier. But many prefer this approach to additional valves or to manipulation of tuning slides while playing to achieve perfect intonation within an ensemble.


Finish

Tubas are generally finished in raw brass, lacquered brass, or silver-plated brass. Some believe that the external finish of the tuba can play an important role in the tone production, though this has never been objectively measured. Performers have individual preferences on the finish that they select, and will sometimes have horns in more than one finish for different musical settings. Although tone quality is subjective and there is no scientific basis for these claims, tuba players generally agree that silver-plated brass affords a brighter tone, while raw brass produces a richer tone for lower notes.


Variations

Some tubas are capable of being converted into a marching style, known as "marching tubas". A leadpipe can be manually screwed on next to the valves. The tuba is then usually rested on the left shoulder (although some tubas allow use of the right shoulder), with the bell facing directly in front of the player. Some marching tubas are made only for marching, and cannot be converted into a concert model. Most marching bands opt for the sousaphone, an instrument which is easier to carry and almost always cheaper than a true marching tuba. Drum and bugle corps players, however, always use marching tubas, which in this context are referred to as contras. Standard tubas can also be played whilst standing, with the use of a strap which is joined to the tuba using two rings. The strap is then put over the player's shoulder like a sash, allowing the instrument to be played in the same position as when sitting. An American college marching band on the field (Kansas State University) A marching band is a group of instrumental musicians who generally perform outdoors, and who incorporate movement â€“ usually some type of marching and other movements  â€“ with their musical performance. ... Sousaphone player in Washington Square, New York City The sousaphone is a type of tuba often used in a marching band. ... The Cavaliers Drum and Bugle Corps, a DCI Division I corps from Rosemont, Illinois. ... The Contrabass Bugle, usually shortened to Contra, is the lowest-pitched instrument in the drum and bugle corps hornline. ...


Jazz

"Kaiserbass" (tuba in B) and cornet
"Kaiserbass" (tuba in B) and cornet

Tubas have been used in jazz since the genre's beginning. In the earliest years, bands often used a tuba for outdoor playing and a double bass for indoor jobs. In this context, the tuba was sometimes called "brass bass", as opposed to the double bass, which was called "string bass"; it was not uncommon for players to double on both instruments. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 477 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1119 × 1406 pixel, file size: 207 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 477 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1119 × 1406 pixel, file size: 207 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... Side and front views of a modern double bass with a French bow. ...


In modern jazz, the role of the two bass instruments remains similar. Tubas are usually featured in a supporting role, although it is not uncommon for them to take solos. Many jazz bands actually use a sousaphone, commonly if technically incorrectly called a "tuba" in this context. New Orleans style Brass Bands like Dirty Dozen Brass Band, Rebirth Brass Band, and Nightcrawlers Brass Band feature a sousaphone as a jazz bass. One of the most prominent tubists specializing in jazz is the New York City-based Marcus Rojas, who has performed frequently with bandleader Henry Threadgill. Another notable group is the Modern Jazz Tuba Project - founded by R. Winston Morris, which consists entirely of tubas and euphoniums with rhythm section. Dirty Dozen Brass Band The Dirty Dozen Brass Band is a New Orleans, Louisiana brass band. ... Rebirth Brass Band The Rebirth Brass Band is a New Orleans brass band. ... Marcas Rojas is a jazz tubist from New York City. ... Henry Threadgill (born February 15, 1941), Chicago, Illinois, is an American saxophonist, flautist and composer. ... South Carolinian Ralph Winston Morris is the professor of Tuba and Euphonium at Tennessee Tech University. ...


The tuba has also played a large role in ragtime music, and in big band music, the tuba (usually bass tuba pitched in E♭) would provide a walking bass similar to that of a double bass, but with a larger range. The tuba has the lowest pitch of the brass family. Look up ragtime in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A big band is a type of musical ensemble associated with playing jazz music and which became popular during the Swing Era from the early 1930s until the late 1940s, although there are many big-bands around nowadays. ... Image of a trumpet, foreground, a piccolo trumpet behind, and a flugelhorn in background. ...


Notable tubists

See Category:Tubists


See also

Roman tuba The Roman tuba is an ancient musical instrument, different from the modern tuba. ... The Wagner tuba is a comparatively rare brass instrument that combines elements of both the horn and the tuba. ... The euphonium is a conical-bore, baritone-voiced brass instrument. ... Tubachristmas is a music concert in cities worldwide to celebrate those who play and compose music for instruments in the tuba family. ... The Contrabass Bugle, usually shortened to Contra, is the lowest-pitched instrument in the drum and bugle corps hornline. ... Sousaphone player in Washington Square, New York City The sousaphone is a type of tuba often used in a marching band. ...

External links

Look up tuba in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...


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