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Encyclopedia > Tuareg
Tuareg
Total population

Between 100,000 and 3.5 million Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixels Full resolution (1200 × 1600 pixel, file size: 453 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) targui File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tuareg Mali Empire Sahara...

Regions with significant populations
These numbers are all estimates, and may exclude Tuareg who are assimilated into the general population of these countries.

Niger: 720,000 (1998)
Mali: 440,000 (1991)
Algeria: 25,000 (1987)
Burkina Faso: 60,000 (1991)
Libya: 17,000 (1993)

Languages
The Tuareg language(s) (Tamasheq, Tamajeq, Tamahaq)
Religions
Predominantly Islam
Related ethnic groups
Berbers, West Africans

The Tuareg (also spelled Touareg in French, Twareg in English, طوارق in Arabic) are a Berber ethnic group or nation. Tuareg is a name that was applied to them by early explorers and historians (since Leo Africanus). They call themselves variously Kel Tamasheq, Kel Tamajaq "Speakers of Tamasheq" and Imouhar, Imuhagh, Imazaghan or Imashaghen "the Free people". The Tuareg people also call themselves Kel Tagelmust i.e. "People of the Veil" (See Rodd 1926). Tuareg or Tamasheq/Tamajaq/Tamahaq is a Berber language or family of closely related languages spoken by the Tuareg, in parts of Mali, Niger, Algeria, Libya and Burkina Faso (with a few speakers, the Kinnin, even in Chad[1].) They are quite mutually comprehensible, and are commonly regarded as a... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Berbers (also called Amazigh, free men, pl. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... The Tuareg are a Berber ethnic group or nation. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... The Berbers (also called Amazigh, free men, pl. ... One of the most influential doctrines in history is that all humans are divided into groups called nations. ... Leo Africanus was the Christianised name of Hasan bin Muhammed al-Wazzan al-Fasi (Hasan, son of Muhammed, the Weigher from Fez) (Granada 1488? – 1554?). A former inhabitant of Granada, his family left the city sometime after the Christian conquest of the Muslim kingdom in 1492. ... Targui (singular of Tuareg) wearing a Tagelmust Tagelmust (also Tagelmoust) is a 3 to 5, but sometimes up to 10 meter-long indigo dyed cotton combination both a veil and a turban. ...


The origin and meaning of the name Twareg has long been debated with various etymologies advanced, although it would appear that Twārəg is derived from the "broken plural" of Tārgi, an Arabic name whose former meaning was "inhabitant of Targa" (the Tuareg name of the Libyan region commonly known as Fezzan. Targa in Berber means "(drainage) channel", see Alojali et al. 2003: 656, s.v. "Targa"). A misinterpretation of Twārəg as a name connected with the Arabic root ṬRQ made up a false etymology "abandoned (by God)", which has no real linguistic support and is sometimes quoted by those who want to defame this ethnic group. In linguistics, broken plurals is a grammatical phenomenon typical in many Semitic languages of the Middle East and Ethiopia in which a singular noun is broken to form a plural by having its root consonant embedded in a different frame, rather than by merely adding a prefix or suffix to... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Fezzan is a desert region in south-western Libya. ...


The Tuareg today are found mostly in West Africa, but, like many in Northern Africa, were once nomads throughout the Sahara. They have a little-used but ancient script known as the tifinaɤ;  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... Kazakh nomads in the steppes of the Russian Empire, ca. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

Contents

History

The neutrality of this section is disputed.
Please see the discussion on the talk page.
Tuareg in the 1907 Colonial Exhibition

Descended from Berbers in the region that is now Libya, the Tuareg are descendants of ancient Saharan peoples described by Herodotus, who mentions the ancient Libyan people, the Garamantes. Archaeological testimony is the ruins of Germa. Later, they expanded southward, into the Sahel. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Tuareg_1907. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Tuareg_1907. ... The Colonial Exhibitions were supposed to bolster popular support for the various colonial empires. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Garamantes were a Saharan Berber-speaking people who used an elaborate underground irrigation system, and founded a kingdom in the Fezzan area of modern-day Libya, in the Sahara desert. ... Germa is a site in Libya with major ruins of the Garamantian Empire. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


For over two millennia, the Tuareg operated the trans-Saharan caravan trade connecting the great cities on the southern edge of the Sahara via five desert trade routes to the northern (Mediterranean) coast of Africa. The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ...


The Tuareg adopted camel nomadism along with its distinctive form of social organization from camel-herding Arabs about two thousand years ago, when the camel was introduced to the Sahara from Saudi Arabia. Like numerous African and other groups in pre-modern times, the Tuareg once took captives, either for trade or for domestic purposes; those who were not sold became assimilated into the Tuareg community. Captive servants and herdsmen formed a component of the division of labor in camel nomadism. For other uses, see Camel (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


In the early nineteenth century, the Tuareg resisted the French invasion of their Central Saharan homelands for the purpose of colonization. Tuareg broadswords were no match for the more advanced weapons of French squadrons, and after numerous massacres, the Tuareg were subdued and required to sign treaties in Mali 1905 and Niger 1917. In southern Algeria, the French met some of the strongest resistance from the Ahaggar Tuareg. Their Amenokal, traditional chief Moussa ag Amastan, fought numerous battles in defense of the region. Finally, Tuareg territories were taken under French governance and their confederations were largely dismantled and reorganized. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... The Ahaggar Mountains, also known as the Hoggar, are a highland region in central Algeria. ... Amenokal is the Tuareg traditional chief. ...


Before French colonization, the Tuareg were organized into loose confederations, each consisting of a dozen or so tribes. Each of the main groups had a traditional leader called Amenokal along with an assembly of tribal chiefs (imɤaran, singular amɤar). The groups were the Kel Ahaggar, Kel Ajjer, Kel Ayr, Adrar n Fughas, Iwəlləmədan and Kel Gres. Kel Ahaggar (trans: People of Ahaggar) is a Tuareg confederation in the Ahaggar Mountains in Algeria. ... Kel Ajjer (also Kel Azjar, Kel Azjer) is a Tuareg confederation in western Libya and eastern Algeria. ... Kel Ayr (also Kel Aïr) is a Tuareg confederation of Niger. ...


Following the independence of African countries in 1960s, Tuareg territory was artificially divided into modern nations: Niger,Mali, Algeria, Libya, and Burkina Faso.


Long-standing competition for resources in the Sahel has impacted Tuareg conflicts with neighboring African groups, especially after political disruption and economic constraints following French colonization, tight restrictions placed on nomadization, and desertification exacerbated by global warming and the increased firewood needs of growing cities. Today, some Tuareg are experimenting with farming; some have been forced to abandon herding, and seek jobs in towns and cities. This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...


In Mali, a Tuareg uprising resurfaced in the Adrar N'Fughas mountains in the 1960s, following Mali's independence. In May 1990, in the aftermath of a clash between government soldiers and Tuareg outside a prison in Tchin-Tabaraden, Niger, Tuaregs in both Mali and Niger claimed autonomy for their traditional homeland: (Tenere, capital Agadez, in Niger and the Azawad and Kidal regions of Mali). Deadly clashes between Tuareg fighters and the military of both countries followed, with deaths numbering well into the thousands. Negotiations initiated by France and Algeria led to peace agreements (January 11, 1992 in Mali and 1995 in Niger). Both agreements called for decentralization of national power and guaranteed the integration of Tuareg resistance fighters into the countries' respective national armies. The Tuareg Rebellion was an uprising of the 1990s by various Tuareg groups in Niger and Mali with the aim of achieving autonomy or forming their own nation. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Tchin-Tabaraden is a town located in the Azawagh region of Niger, north of the departement city of Tahoua. ... Tenere is a desert region in the south central Sahara, Niger. ... Agadez is the largest city in northern Niger, lying in the Sahara and is the capital of Aïr, one of the traditional Tuareg federations. ... Azawad is a Tuareg region in Northern Mali. ... Kidal is a Tuareg city in northern Mali. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ...


Major fighting between the Tuareg resistance and government security forces ended after the 1995 and 1996 agreements, but in 2004, sporadic fighting continued in Niger between government forces and groups struggling to obtain Tuareg independence. 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Traditional social stratification

Traditionally, Tuareg society is hierarchal, with nobility and vassals. The work of pastoralism was specialized according to social class: imúšaɤ, warrior-aristocrats who organized group defense, livestock raids, and the long-distance caravan trade; ímɤad, vassal-herdsmen who pastured and tended most of the confederation's livestock; ìnhædˤæn, blacksmith-clients who fabricated and repaired the saddles, tools, household equipment and other material needs of the community. After the adoption of Islam, a separate class of religious clerics, the marabout, also became integral to Tuareg social structure. Traditionally, the traders had a higher status than all but the nobility among their more settled compatriots to the south. With time, that difference has eroded, corresponding to the economic fortunes of the two groups. Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ... A marabout is a personal spiritual leader in the Islam faith as practiced in West Africa, and still to a limited extent in the Maghreb. ...


Formerly —like most other Africans— the Tuareg also held éklan (slaves). According to the Travel Channel show Bob Geldof in Africa, the descendants of those slaves (known as the Bella) are still slaves in all but name. Slave redirects here. ... The Travel Channel is a cable television network that features documentaries and how-to shows related to travel and leisure around the United States and throughout the world. ... Robert Frederick Xenon Geldof, KBE[1], known as Bob Geldof (born 5 October 1951) [2], is an Irish singer, songwriter, actor and political activist. ...


Tuareg territory

Areas where significant numbers of Tuaregs live
Areas where significant numbers of Tuaregs live

The Tuareg people inhabit a large area covering almost all the middle and western Sahara and the north-central Sahel. In Tuareg terms, the Sahara is not one desert but many, so they call it Tinariwen "the Deserts". Among the many deserts in Africa there is the true desert Tenere. Then we can cite numerous deserts more and less arid, flat and mountainous: Adrar, Tagant, Tawat (Touat) Tanezruft, Adghagh n Fughas, Tamasna, Azawagh, Adar, Damargu, Tagama, Manga, Ayr, Tarramit (Termit), Kawar, Djado, Tadmait, Admer, Igharghar, Ahaggar, Tassili N'Ajjer, Tadrart, Idhan, Tanghart, Fezzan, Tibesti, Kalansho, Libyan Desert & etc. Areas where significant numbers of Tuaregs live. ... Areas where significant numbers of Tuaregs live. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Tenere is a desert region in the south central Sahara, Niger. ... Adrar is a province of southwestern Algeria. ... Tagant is a region in south-central Mauritania named for the Tagant plateau. ... Disambiguation: Tuat is Vietnamese for the year of the dog. Tuat (Tawat or, in French, Touat) is a Berber name for a people living in the north of Algeria. ... Azawagh is a region in the middle Sahel, Niger. ... Adar can mean several things: Adar is a month of the Hebrew calendar Adar is the middle Persian term for Zoroastrian fire. ... This article is about the comics published in East Asian countries. ... Ayr (Scottish Gaelic, Inbhir Àir) in the south-west of Scotland is a town and port situated on the Firth of Clyde. ... The Djado Plateau lies in the Sahara, in north eastern Niger. ... The Ahaggar Mountains, also known as the Hoggar, are a highland region in central Algeria. ... Landsat image of the Tassili nAjjer The Tassili nAjjer (Arabic: تصلة ناجر) is a mountain range in the Sahara desert in southeast Algeria. ... Tadrart is a mountainous region in south-western Libya, main city Aghat (Ghat). ... Fezzan is a desert region in south-western Libya. ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | Mountain ranges | Stratovolcanoes | Hotspot volcanoes | Mountains of Chad | Volcanoes of Chad ... Desert landscape in Southern Libya The Libyan Desert (Arabic: الصحراء الليبية) is an African desert that is located in the northern and eastern part of the Sahara Desert and occupies southwestern Egypt, eastern Libya and northwestern Sudan. ...


Tuareg confederations, political centers, and leaders

At the turn of the 19th century the Tuareg country was organized into confederations, each ruled by a supreme Chief (Amenokal), along with a counsel of senior tribesmen elected to assist the chief.

  • Kel Ajjer or Azjar, center Aghat (Ghat).
  • Kel Ahaggar, in Ahaggar mountains
  • Kel Adagh, or Kel Assuk, Kidal, and Tin Buktu
  • Iwillimmidan Kel Ataram, Manaka, and Azawagh region
  • Iwillimmidan Kel Denneg, In Tibaraden, Abalagh, Teliya Azawagh.
  • Kel Gres, Zinder and Tanut (Tanout).
  • Kel Ayr, Asode, Agadez, In Gal, Timia and Ifrwan.

The most famous Tuareg leader was a woman, Tin Hinan, heroine and spiritual leader who founded a legendary kingdom in the Ahaggar mountains. Other confederation leaders followed under the title of Amenokal (Chief); among the famous: Kel Ajjer (also Kel Azjar, Kel Azjer) is a Tuareg confederation in western Libya and eastern Algeria. ... Ghat is city in remotest north-western Libya. ... Kel Ahaggar (trans: People of Ahaggar) is a Tuareg confederation in the Ahaggar Mountains in Algeria. ... The Ahaggar Mountains, also known as the Hoggar, are a highland region in central Algeria. ... Azawagh is a region in the middle Sahel, Niger. ... Azawagh is a region in the middle Sahel, Niger. ... Kel Ayr (also Kel Aïr) is a Tuareg confederation of Niger. ... Tin Hinan is following the legend the first leader to unite the Tuareg world and founded a kingdom in the Ahaggar mountains. ...

  • Karidanna, of the Iwillimmidan
  • Waisimudan, of Iwillimidan
  • Aljilani Ag Ibrahim, of Iwillimidan
  • Busari Ag Akhmad, of Iwillimidan
  • Musa Ag Amastan, of Kel Ahaggar
  • Ibrahim Ag Abakkada, of Kel Azjar
  • Amud, of Kel Azjar
  • Makhammad Ag Katami, of Iwillimmidan
  • Balkhu, of Kel Ayr
  • Wan Agoda, of Kel Faday (Kel Ayr)
  • Ahitaghal, of Kel Ahaggar
  • Akhanokhan, of Kel Azjar
  • Khadakhada, of Iwillimidan
  • Alkhurer, of Iwillimidan
  • Bazu, Iwillimidan
  • Makhammad Wan Ag Alkhurer Iwillimidan
  • Abdurrakhman Tagama, of Kel Ayr
  • Hammed Almomin Iwillimidan
  • Fihrun Ag Amansar, of Iwillimidan
  • Atisi Ag Amellal of Kel Ahaggar
  • Akhamok Ag Ihemma of Kel Ahaggar
  • Bay Ag Akhamok of Kel Ahaggar
  • Khamzata Ag Makhammad, of Iwillimidan
  • Edaber Ag Makhammad the new Amenokal of Kel Ahaggar

Culture

The Tuareg are matrilineal, though not matriarchal. Unlike many Muslim societies, women do not traditionally wear the veil, whereas men do. The most famous Tuareg symbol is the Tagelmust, an often blue indigo coloured veil. The men's facial covering originates from the belief that such action wards off evil spirits, but most probably relates to protection against the harsh desert sands as well; in any event, it is a firmly established tradition (as is the wearing of amulets containing verses from the Qur'an). Men begin wearing a veil when they reach maturity which usually conceals their entire face excluding their eyes and the top of the nose. Image File history File links Touaregniger. ... Image File history File links Touaregniger. ... Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 837 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 837 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Matrilineality is a system in which one belongs to ones mothers lineage; it may also involve the inheritance of property or titles through the female line. ... A matriarchy is a tradition (and by extension a form of government) in which community power lies with the eldest mother of a community. ... Veils as articles of clothing, worn almost exclusively by women, are intended to cover some part of the head or face. ... Targui (singular of Tuareg) wearing a Tagelmust Tagelmust (also Tagelmoust) is a 3 to 5, but sometimes up to 10 meter-long indigo dyed cotton combination both a veil and a turban. ... An amulet from the Black Pullet grimoire An amulet (from Latin amuletum, meaning A means of protection) or a talisman (from Arabic tilasm, ultimately from Greek telesma or from the Greek word talein wich means to initiate into the mysteries. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: ;, literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Alcoran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...


Many Tuareg today are either settled agriculturalists or nomadic cattle breeders; though there are also blacksmiths and caravan leaders. A blacksmith A blacksmith at work A blacksmith at work A blacksmiths fire Hot metal work from a blacksmith A blacksmith is a person who creates objects from iron or steel by forging the metal; i. ... A camel train is a series of camels carrying goods or passengers in a group as part of a regular or semi-regular service between two points. ...


The Tuareg are sometimes called the "Blue People" because the indigo pigment in the cloth of their traditional robes and turbans stained the wearer's skin dark blue. Today, the traditional indigo turban is still preferred for celebrations, and generally Tuaregs wear clothing and turbans in a variety of colors. Indigo is the color on the spectrum between about 450 and 420 nm in wavelength, placing it between blue and violet. ...


Language

Main article: Tuareg languages

The Tuareg speak Tamajaq/Tamasheq/Tamahaq, a southern Berber language having several dialects among the different regions. Berber is an Afro-Asiatic language closely related to Pharaonic Egyptian and the Semitic languages (such as Arabic, Hebrew, and Amharic). The language is called Tamasheq by western Tuareg in Mali, Tamahaq among Algerian and Libyan Tuareg, and Tamajaq in the Azawagh and Aïr regions, Niger. The Tamajaq writing system, Tifinagh (also called Shifinagh), descends directly from the original Berber script used by the Numidians in pre-Roman times. Tuareg or Tamasheq/Tamajaq/Tamahaq is a Berber language or family of closely related languages spoken by the Tuareg, in parts of Mali, Niger, Algeria, Libya and Burkina Faso (with a few speakers, the Kinnin, even in Chad[1].) They are quite mutually comprehensible, and are commonly regarded as a... Tuareg or Tamasheq/Tamajaq/Tamahaq is a Berber language or family of closely related languages spoken by the Tuareg, in parts of Mali, Niger, Algeria, Libya and Burkina Faso (with a few speakers, the Kinnin, even in Chad[1].) They are quite mutually comprehensible, and are commonly regarded as a... Afro-Asiatic - Berber The Berber languages (or Tamazight) are a group of closely related languages mainly spoken in Morocco and Algeria. ... 14th century BCE diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Tuareg or Tamasheq/Tamajaq/Tamahaq is a Berber language or family of closely related languages spoken by the Tuareg, in parts of Mali, Niger, Algeria, Libya and Burkina Faso (with a few speakers, the Kinnin, even in Chad[1].) They are quite mutually comprehensible, and are commonly regarded as a... Tamahaq is the Nothern Tuareg language spoken in Algerian Ahaggar center city (Tamanghasat) and Ajjer (Ganat-Djanet, Alezi-Illizi) and in Libya, Azjar (Ghat, Ubari, Sebha and Ghadames), it does not vary much from the southern languges of Ayr, Azawagh and Adagh, but often substitute some sounds, as in Tamahaq... Tamajaq is the Tuareg language of Niger, belonging to southern Berber, spoken by the Kel Tamajaq or Imuhagh, Tuareg. ... Tamajaq is the Tuareg language of Niger, belonging to southern Berber, spoken by the Kel Tamajaq or Imuhagh, Tuareg. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Numidia was an ancient Berber kingdom in North Africa that later alternated between a Roman province and a Roman client state, and is no longer in existence today. ...


Religion

The Tuareg have been predominantly Muslim since the 16th century. They combine Sunni Islam (specifically the Maliki madhhab, popular in North and West Africa) with certain pre-Islamic animistic beliefs, including spirits of nature (Kel Asuf) and such syncretic beliefs as divination through means of the Qur'an. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... This page deals with Islamic thought. ... Madhhab (Arabic مذهب pl. ... Syncretism is the attempt to reconcile disparate, even opposing, beliefs and to meld practices of various schools of thought. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: ;, literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Alcoran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...


Arts

Much Tuareg art is in the form of jewelry, leather and metal saddle decorations called 'Trik', and finely crafted swords. The Inadan community makes traditional handicrafts. Among their products are: Tanaghilt or Zakkat (the 'Agadez Cross' or 'Croix d'Agadez'); the Tuareg Takoba, a nearly one meter long sword, with red leather cover; many beautiful gold and silver-made necklaces called 'Takaza'; and earrings called 'Tizabaten'. Takoba (also Takuba or Takouba) is the sword used by the Tuareg, which is usually about 1 meter in length. ...


In 2007, Stanford's Cantor Arts Center opened an exhibition, "Art of Being Tuareg: Sahara Nomads in a Modern World," curated by Tom Seligman, Director of the center, who first spent time with the Tuareg in 1971 when he traveled through the Sahara after serving in the Peace Corps. The exhibition includes beautifully crafted and adorned functional objects such as camel saddles, tents, bags, swords, amulets, cushions, dresses, earrings, spoons and drums.[1] The exhibition is also being shown at UCLA Fowler Museum in Los Angeles and the Smithsonian’s National Museum of African Art in Washington DC.


Traditional music

Traditional Tuareg music has two major components: the moncord violin Anzad played often during night parties and a small tambour covered with goatskin called Tende, performed during camel races and horse races. and other festivities. Another popular Tuareg musical genre is Takamba, characteristic for its Afro-Berber percussions. The Anzad is a musical instrument. ... View of Tende Tende is a commune of the Alpes-Maritimes département in southeastern France. ...


Tinariwen, a Tuareg band that fuses electric guitars and indigenous musical styles, was founded in the 1980s by rebel fighters. They released their first CD in 2000, and toured in Europe and the United States in 2004. The Niger-based band Etran Finatawa combines Tuareg and Wodaabe members, playing a combination of traditional instruments and electric guitars. Tinariwen Tinariwen (Tamashek for empty places) is a musical band formed in 1982 in Moammar al-Qadhafis camps of Tuareg rebels. ... The Wodaabe (or Bororo) are a subgroup of the Fulani ethnic group. ...


Many music groups emerged after the 1980s cultural revival. Among them Tartit, Imaran and known artists are: Abdallah Oumbadougou from Ayr, Baly Othmany of Djanet.


Ethnic classification

The Tuareg are classified as a Berber group, and are closely related to both Northwest African Berbers and West Africans, in terms of culture and ethnicity. At least some sources argue that the Tuareg are defined by language and culture, not by ethnicity, and that predominantly Tamasheq speakers qualify as "Tuareg" (and, presumably, by implication, individuals of Tuareg descent but who have assimilated into various countries and do not speak Tamasheq languages). (See, for example, [1]). This is probably part of the reason for the widely varying estimates of the number of Tuareg. A map showing Northwest Africa Northwest Africa is the northwestern part of Africa. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ...


References

  • Ghoubeid Alojaly, Karl Prasse, Ghabdouane Mohamed, Dictionnaire touareg-français, Copenhague, Museum Tusculanum, 2003 (2 vols., 1031 p.) - ISBN 8772898445
  • Francis James Rennell Rodd, People of the veil. Being an account of the habits, organisation and history of the wandering Tuareg tribes which inhabit the mountains of Air or Asben in the Central Sahara, London, MacMillian & Co., 1926 (repr. Oosterhout, N.B., Anthropological Publications, 1966)
  • University of Iowa's Art and Life in Africa Online: Tuareg
  • Origin and History of the Tuaregs
  • The Massacres at Tchin Tarabaden: 10 years later!. This press release (7 May 2000), while polemical, is useful for a pro-Tuareg view of the conflicts in Mali and Niger.
  • Heath Jeffrey 2005: A Grammar of Tamashek (Tuareg of Mali). New York: Mouton de Gruyer. Mouton Grammar Library, 35. ISBN 3-11-018484-2
  • Rando et al. (1998) Mitochondrial DNA analysis of northwest African populations reveals genetic exchanges with European, near-eastern, and sub-Saharan populations. Annals of Human Genetics 62(6): 531-50; Watson et al. (1996) mtDNA sequence diversity in Africa. American Journal of Human Genetics 59(2): 437-44; Salas et al. (2002) The Making of the African mtDNA Landscape. American Journal of Human Genetics 71: 1082-1111. These are good sources for information on the genetic heritage of the Tuareg and their relatedness to other populations.
  • Ethnologue 14 pages for Niger, Mali, etc., used for population estimates.
  • Tuareg is not an Ethnos, accessed 2 Feb 2004, available on Internet Archive at [2]. Cited for the low-end estimate of population.
  • A comprehensive tuareg chronology along with lists of amenokals from Kel Ahaggar, Kel Adagh and Kel Azawagh (in Italian).

The University of Iowa, also commonly called Iowa or U of I, is a major national research university located on a 1,900-acre campus in Iowa City, Iowa, USA, on the banks of the Iowa River in East Central Iowa. ... Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ... The logo of Internet Archive The Internet Archive (IA) is a non-profit organization dedicated to maintaining an on-line library and archive of Web and multimedia resources. ...

External links

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Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

Berber Ethnic groups

Chaouis | Chenouas | Chleuhs | Kabyles | Mozabites | Rifains | Siwis | Tuareg The Berbers (also called Amazigh, free men, pl. ... Chaoui people are a Berber ethnic group, they live mainly in the Aures External links chawinet. ... The Chenouas are a Berber ethnic group living in Tipaza (Algeria). ... Chleuh people are a Berber ethnic group, they live mainly in the Moroccos Atlas Mountains. ... This article focuses on the geographical area of Kabylie and its people. ... The Mozabite people are a Berber ethnic group living in the Sahara. ... This is about a region in Morocco: RIF is also an acronym/initialism. ... The Siwis are a Berber ethnic group living in the Siwa Oasis. ...


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African Tribes - Tuareg People (252 words)
The Tuareg people are predominently nomadic people of the sahara desert, mostly in the Northern reaches of Mali near Timbuktu and Kidal.
The Tuareg are often referred to as "Blue Men of the desert " - because their robes are dyed indigo blue.
The Tuareg tribe are excellent craftsmen renowned for their indigo cloth, gold and silver jewellery and carved wooden masks.
Tuareg - LoveToKnow 1911 (940 words)
The Tuareg, at any rate the noble class, are regarded as among the purest of the Berber stocks, but with the adoption of Islam they have become largely Arabized in manners and customs, though the nomad Tuareg preserve in singular purity the Tamashek dialect of the Berber language.
The Tuareg are nominally Mahommedans, and belong to the Malikite section of the Sunnites.
The Tuareg weapons are a straight two-edged sword about 4 ft. long, a dagger bound to the left forearm by a leather ring, and a slender iron lance some 9 ft. long barbed for about a foot.
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