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Encyclopedia > Tu people
Tu
Alternative names:
Mongour, Monguor, Tsagaan mongghol
Total population 240,000 (est.)
Regions with significant populations China: Qinghai, Gansu
Language Monguor, Wutunhua
Religion Tibetan Buddhism
Related ethnic groups Mongols

The Tu (土) people are an ethnic group. They form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China. Most of them live in Qinghai province, some of them in Gansu province. Qinghai (Chinese: 青海; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching-hai; Postal System Pinyin: Tsinghai; Tibetan: མཚོ་སྔོན་ mtsho-sngon; Mongolian: Köke Naγur; Manchu: Huhu Noor) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, named after the enormous Qinghai Lake. ... Gansu (Simplified Chinese: 甘肃; Traditional Chinese: 甘肅; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kan-su, Kansu, or Kan-suh) is a province located in the northwest of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Tu language (also known as Mongour, Monguor, and Mongor) is closely related to Mongolian. ... Wutunhua (hua = language) is an unclassified Chinese language spoken by about 2,000 people of a branch of the Tu nationality in the eastern part of the Quinghai province in the west of China. ... Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, and Sikkim), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Qinghai (Chinese: 青海; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching-hai; Postal System Pinyin: Tsinghai; Tibetan: མཚོ་སྔོན་ mtsho-sngon; Mongolian: Köke Naγur; Manchu: Huhu Noor) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, named after the enormous Qinghai Lake. ... Gansu (Simplified Chinese: 甘肃; Traditional Chinese: 甘肅; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kan-su, Kansu, or Kan-suh) is a province located in the northwest of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


They call themselves "Mongour" (also spelled "Monguor") or "Tsagaan mongghol", which literally means White Mongols, and are closely related to the Mongols. However, they are classified as a separate minority in the Peoples' Republic of China, partly due to the fact that they have intermingled with the Tibetan and Turkic people. There are some scholars who believe that the Tu are the descendants of the Tuyuhun. The name Tǔ(rén) meaning local people comes from when Han Chinese began migrating to the regions where the Monguor were already well established. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Ethnolinguistic Groups of Tibet, 1967 ( See entire map, which includes a key) Ethnic Tibetan autonomous entities set up by the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Tuyuhun (Chinese: 吐谷渾) were a nomadic tribe of East Asia who flourished in the 4th-7th centuries, thought to be related to the Xianbei. ...

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Language

The Tu language, which has been recently identified as two separate but related languages—Mongghul (once known as the Huzhu dialect of Monguor/Tu) and Mangghuer (formerly the Minhe dialect of Monguor/Tu)—is a Mongolian language. In recent years, Pinyin-based orthographies have been created for both languages. The Tu language (also known as Mongour, Monguor, and Mongor) is closely related to Mongolian. ... Mongolian is the best-known member of the Mongolic language family, and the primary language of most of the residents of Mongolia. ... Pinyin is a system of romanization (phonemic notation and transcription to Roman script) for Standard Mandarin, where pin means spell and yin means sound. The most common variant of pinyin in use is called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: HànyÇ” PÄ«nyÄ«n), also known as scheme...


In addition, some people speak Wutunhua, a mixed language based on Chinese, Tibetan, and Mongolian. Wutunhua (hua = language) is an unclassified Chinese language spoken by about 2,000 people of a branch of the Tu nationality in the eastern part of the Quinghai province in the west of China. ... A mixed language is a language that arises when two languages are in contact and there is a high degree of bilingualism among speakers. ... The Tibetan language is spoken primarily by the Tibetan people who live across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering South Asia, as well as by large number of Tibetan refugees all over the world. ...

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Miscellaneous

The current Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso, is Mongour by ethnicity.[citation needed] This article describes the Dalai Lama lineage. ... Tenzin Gyatso The fourteenth Dalai Lama Tenzin Gyatso (Tibetan: བསྟན་འཛིན་རྒྱ་མཚོ་; Wylie: Bstan-dzin Rgya-mtsho) (b. ...

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Bibliography

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  • Kalsang Norbu (Skal bzang nor bu), Zhu Yongzhong, and Kevin Stuart. 1999. A Ritual Winter Exorcism in Gnyan Thog Village, Qinghai. Asian Folklore Studies 58:189-203.
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  • Qi Huimin, Limusishiden, and Kevin Stuart. 1997-1998. Huzhu Monguor Wedding Songs: Musical Characteristics. Parts I, II, III, IV. Chinese Music 20:1, 6-12, 14-17; 20:2, 32-37; 20:3, 43-52; 20:4, 68-71; 21:1, 10-13.
  • Qi Huimin, Zhu Yongzhong, and Kevin Stuart. 1999. Minhe Mangghuer Wedding Songs: Musical Characteristics. Asian Folklore Studies 58:77-120.
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  • Albrecht De Smedt & Antoine Mostaert (1933). Le dialecte monguor parlé par les Mongols du Kansou occidental, IIIe partie: Dictionnaire monguor-français. Pei-p’ing: Imprimerie de l’Université Catholique.
  • Albrecht De Smedt & Antoine Mostaert (1945). Le dialecte monguor parlé par les Mongols du Kansou occidental, IIe partie: Grammaire. Monumenta Serica, Monograph 6. Peking.
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  • Kevin Stuart and Hu Jun. 1993. ‘That All May Prosper’: The Monguor Nadun of the Guanting / Sanchuan Region. Anthropos 88:15-27.
  • Kevin Stuart and Limusishiden, editors. 1994. China’s Monguor Minority: Ethnography and Folktales. Sino-Platonic Papers No 59.
  • Sun Zhu, editor. 1990. Menggu yuzu yuyan cidian [Mongol Language Family Dictionary]. Xining: Qinghai renmin chubanshe [Qinghai People’s Press].
  • Thu’u bkwan (III) Blo bzang chos kyi nyi ma. 1989 [1794]. Lcang skya Rol pa’i rdo rje’i rnam thar. Lanzhou: Gansu’u mi rigs dpe skrun khang.
  • Buljash Khojchievna Todaeva. 1959. Über die Sprache der Tung-hsiang. Acta Orientalia Hungarica 9: 273-310.
  • Buljash Khojchievna Todaeva. 1961. Dunsyanskii yazyk. Moskva: Institut narodov Aziï AN SSSR.
  • Buljash Khojchievna Todaeva. 1963. Einige Besonderheiten der Paoan-Sprache. Acta Orientalia Hungarica 16: 175-197.
  • Buljash Khojchievna Todaeva. 1966. Baoan’skii yazyk. Moskva: Institut narodov Aziï AN SSSR.
  • Buljash Khojchievna Todaeva. 1973. Mongorskii yazyk: Issledovanie, teksty, slovar [The Monguor Language: Analysis, Texts, and Glossary]. Moskva: Institut vostokovedeniya AN SSSR.
  • Üjiyediin Chuluu (Wu Chaolu). 1994. Introduction, Grammar, and Sample Sentences for Monguor. Sino-Platonic Papers No 57.
  • Wang Xianzheng and Kevin Stuart. 1995. ‘Blue Skies and Emoluments’: Minhe Monguor Men Sing I and II. Chinese Music 18(1):13-18; 18:(2):28-33.
  • Wang Xianzheng, Zhu Yongzhong, and Kevin Stuart. 1995. ‘The Brightness of the World’: Minhe Monguor Women Sing. Mongolian Studies 18:65-83.
  • Wang Xianzhen, writer; Zhu Yongzhong and Kevin Stuart, editors. 2001. Mangghuerla Bihuang Keli [Mangghuer Folktale Reader]. Chengdu, China-Chengdu Audio Press.
  • www. 4corners.org [A site committed to making the Gospel of Jesus Christ available to the Tu (Monguor) people of northwest China in their own language—in this generation.]
  • www.cybercities.com/t/westernyugur/new.htm [Several Monguor folktales.]
  • www.tu.advocate.net [A site committed to converting Monguor to Christianity.]
  • Xinhua. 8 May 2004. http://202.84.17.11/english/china_abc/minzu.htm.
  • Zhaonasitu, editor. Tuzu yu jianchi [A Brief Account of the Monguor Language]. Beijing: Minzu chubanshe [Nationalities Press].
  • Zhu Yongzhong and Kevin Stuart. 1996. Minhe Monguor Nadun Texts. CHIME 9:Autumn, 89-105.
  • Zhu Yongzhong and Kevin Stuart. 1996. A Minhe Monguor Drinking Song. Central Asiatic Journal 40(2):283-289.
  • Zhu Yongzhong and Kevin Stuart. 1997. Minhe Monguor Children’s Games. Orientalia Suecana XLV-XLVI:179-216.
  • Zhu Yongzhong and Kevin Stuart. Education Among the Minhe Monguor IN Postiglione (1999).
  • Zhu Yongzhong and Kevin Stuart. 1999. ‘Two Bodhisattvas From the East’: Minhe Monguor Funeral Orations. Journal of Contemporary China 8(20):179-188.
  • Zhu Yongzhong, Üjiyediin Chuluu (Chaolu Wu), Keith Slater, and Kevin Stuart. 1997. Gangou Chinese Dialect: A Comparative Study of a Strongly Altaicized Chinese Dialect and Its Mongolic Neighbor. Anthropos 92:433-450.
  • Zhu Yongzhong, Üjiyediin Chuluu (Chaolu Wu), and Kevin Stuart. 1995. The Frog Boy: An Example of Minhe Monguor. Orientalia Suecana XLII-XLIV:197-207.
  • Zhu Yongzhong, Üjiyediin Chuluu, and Kevin Stuart. 1999. NI in Minhe Mangghuer and Other Mongol Languages. Archív Orientální 67 (3):323-338.
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External links

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External links

Chinese ethnic groups (as classified by the government of the PRC)
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Ethnic Groups - china.org.cn (1771 words)
This shows that a portion of the Tu people in Huzhu County are descendants of Mongolians that moved in from Andingwei during the Ming Dynasty.
The Huzhu Tu Autonomous County was established in February 1954, in spite of the fact that the Tu people account for only 13.5 per cent of the population of the county.
People of the Tu ethnic group are renowned for their talent for singing and dancing.
Chinese life/society (1440 words)
The Tu people are known as the "rainbow people," and their homeland is referred to as "home of the rainbow." The Tu people worship nature and have a special affinity for the rainbow, which is reflected in their clothing and headgear.
Bending the body to face the earth expresses the Tu people's worship of the land, while reaching up with their hands represents their reverence for heaven, and their outstretched arms are to show their sincerity towards friends.
The Huzhu Folklore Village in the western suburbs of the county seat is 6.3 square kilometers in size and represents the folk lifestyle of the Tu, Tibetan, Hui and Han people.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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