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Encyclopedia > Tu'i Tonga

The Tu'i Tonga Empire was a powerful Oceanian empire. Oceania is a geographical (often geopolitical) region consisting of numerous countries and territories – mostly islands – in the Pacific Ocean, usually including Australia and New Zealand. ...


It was centered in Tonga on the island of Tongatapu at the capital of Mu'a. At its height, the empire stretched from Niue to Tikopia and had an even greater sphere of influence. Royal Palace on Tongatapu Tongatupu is the main island of Tonga where the capital Nukualofa is located. ... Mua is a small city on the island of Tongatapu. ... Tikopia is the southernmost of the Santa Cruz Islands, located in the province of Temotu. ... A sphere of influence is a metaphorical region of political influences surrounding a country or a region of economic influence around an urban area. ...


The empire began to form around 950 CE after the decline of Tu'i Manu'a in Samoa and Tu'i Pulotu in Fiji. It would have been contemporary to the Micronesian empire based in Yap. Events Duke Boleslav I of Bohemia makes peace with Otto I, possibly becomes his vassal Tu’i Tonga Empire begins to form. ... Map of Yap Yap is an island in the Caroline Islands of the western Pacific Ocean, the westernmost state of the Federated States of Micronesia. ...

Map of Polynesia
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Map of Polynesia

Contents

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (726x726, 98 KB) Deutsch: Polynesien Hawaii Neuseeland Osterinsel Samoa Fidschi Tahiti English: Polynesia Hawai‘i New Zealand Easter Island Samoa Fiji Tahiti Esperanto: Polinezio Havajo Nov-Zelando Paskinsulo Samoo Fiĝioj Tahitio Français: Polynésie Hawaii Nouvelle-Zélande Île... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (726x726, 98 KB) Deutsch: Polynesien Hawaii Neuseeland Osterinsel Samoa Fidschi Tahiti English: Polynesia Hawai‘i New Zealand Easter Island Samoa Fiji Tahiti Esperanto: Polinezio Havajo Nov-Zelando Paskinsulo Samoo Fiĝioj Tahitio Français: Polynésie Hawaii Nouvelle-Zélande Île...


Beginning of Empire

Tonga was under heavy influence from the Tu’i Pulotu and especially the Tu'i Manu’a who controlled large portions of Tonga. After several bloody wars, Tonga managed to free itself from foreign domination. Thus a dynasty under the title Tu’i Tonga was formed. The first Tu’i Tonga was ‘Aho’eitu whose mother was of an important noble Samoan family. His father, Tangaloa ‘Eitumâtupu’a, was a deified Samoan high priest. Because of this, the dynasty would be recognized as capable of both secular and religious personas. Similarities can be drawn to the role played by the Egyptian pharoahs. His capital was located at Toloa, but the capital would be moved to Heketa under the 9th Tu'i Tonga. A deity or a god, is a postulated preternatural being, usually, but not always, of significant power, worshipped, thought holy, divine, or sacred, held in high regard, or respected by human beings. ... The term High Priest may refer to particular individuals who hold the office of ruler-priest in local regional or ethnic contexts. ... This article refers to the historical Pharaoh. ...


Expansion (1200-1500)

Under the 10th Tu’i Tonga, King Momo and his son Tu’itâtui(11th Tu’i Tonga) the empire was expanded to include all of Fiji and parts of Samoa. The empire continued to expand the imperial frontiers to include all of Western and Central Polynesia, some parts of Melanesia, and Micronesia. The empire at its height influenced over three million square kilometres of ocean. Many areas not under direct control of the Empire were forced to pay tribute. The capital was moved under the son of Tu’itâtui to the most well known and prosperous capital in the Empire's history, Mu'a. Events University of Paris receives charter from Philip II of France Births Matthew Paris, English Benedictine monk and chronicler (approximate date). ... // Events Europes population was ~60 million. ... Melanesia (from Greek black islands) is a region extending from the western side of East Pacific to the Arafura Sea, north and north-east of Australia. ... A tribute (from Latin tribulum, contribution) is wealth one party gives to another as a sign of respect or, as was often case in historical contests, of submission or allegiance. ...


Imperial Navy

A Tongan Pirogue, or naval ship
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A Tongan Pirogue, or naval ship

The success of the Empire was largely based upon the Imperial Navy. The most common ships were long-distance canoes that usually had square sails. The largest ships could carry up to 100 men. The most notable ships were the Tongafuesia, ‘âkiheuho, the Lomipeau, and the Taka’ipômana. The large navy allowed for Tonga to become wealthy with large amounts of trade and tribute flowing into the Royal Treasury. These are small flat hulled boats used primarily by the Cajuns of the Louisiana marsh to travel around. ...


Triparte system

Decline of Tu'i Tonga and two new dynasties

The Tu'i Tonga decline began due to numerous wars and internal pressure. In response the falefâ were created as political advisors to the Empire. The falefâ were initially sucessful in keeping the dynasty going but pressure persisted and was followed by the assassination of several rulers. The most notable were, Havea I (19th Tu'i Tonga), Havea II (22nd Tui'Tonga), and Takalau (23rd Tu'i Tonga), which were known for their tyrannical rule. The murder of Takalau around 1470 led to a restructuring of the Empire. The Tu'i Tonga were reduced to purely religious roles while a new dynasty, Tu'i Ha'atakalau, was formed for secular purposes. The first ruler under the title was Mo’ungâmotu’a who was the eldest son of Takalau and younger brother of Kau’ulufonua I, who became the next holder (24th) of the Tu'i Tonga title. This system was successful for more than 100 years, but similar to the Tu'i Tonga, the new dynasty fell to increasing pressure from within and outside that led to the third dynastic line, the Tu’i Kanokupolu. During this and the following periods, the empire became more centralized and, in the progress, lost much of its influence. In 1600 the Empire was expelled from Samoa by the Malietoa family. A tyrant (from Greek τυραννος) is a usurper of rightful power, possessing absolute power and ruling by tyranny. ... Events May 15 - Charles VIII of Sweden who had served three terms as King of Sweden dies. ... // Events January January 1 - Scotland adopts January 1st as being New Years Day February February 17 - Giordano Bruno burned at the stake for heresy in Rome July July 2 - Battle of Nieuwpoort: Dutch forces under Maurice of Nassau defeat Spanish forces under Archduke Albert in a battle on the...


Rise of Tu’i Kanokupolu

The establishment of the dynasty was around 1610 under Ngata, who was the son of the 6th Tu’i Ha’atakalaua. This new dynasty did not replace either of the previous dynasties but instead competed with the Tu’i Ha’atakalaua for secular control. The Tu’i Kanokupolu was highly influenced by Samoan politics because the ruler's mother was the daughter of ‘Ama a Samoan high chief from Safata. The consequences were a more fluid and fragmented system, marking the beginning of democratization. // Events January 7 - Galileo Galilei discovers the Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... Apirana Ngata Sir Apirana Turupa Ngata (3 July 1874 - 14 July 1950) was a prominent New Zealand politician. ... Democracy is the idea that the people have the right to rule themselves, in contrast to the earlier idea that the people existed to make the king more glorious and rich or to live for Gods sake. ...


Civil War and the Constitution of 1875

Taufa’âhau
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Taufa’âhau

In 1799 the 14th Tu’i Kanokupolu, Tuku’aho was murdered, which sent Tonga into a civil war for fifty years. Taufa’âhau, the 19th dynastic ruler of the Tu’i Kanokupolu, took advantage of this in 1845. He had the support of the common people, because of the introduction of Codified Laws. The first was the Vava’u Code in 1839. He was also backed by missionaries for the same reason. The passing of the laws was used by him to decrease the religious power of the Tu'i Tonga and decrease the authority of the powerful Kanokupolu chiefs. He united the kingdom, and in 1875 established a constitution which secured his control of the country. gjggh File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... gjggh File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... King George Tupou I of Tonga George Tupou I (1797-1893 (known until 1875) as Siaosi Taufaahau Tupou Maeakafaua), was the king of Tonga from November 18, 1845 until February 18, 1893. ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1839 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


Culture

The capital of the Empire, Mu'a was established before 500 BCE However, the exact date is unknown. Little is known about Tongan culture but it is apparent that they had a sophisticated system of roads and canals. They also built large pyramids and other large stone objects. Due to flooding, and increased water levels the capital would be moved to a new location of Nuku'alofa later on. Some of Tonga's most famous landmarks include the Ha'amonga 'A Maui which was created under Tu'itatui in the 13th century. The kings and queens of Tonga were buried in the Langi which were large stone mounds. Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Mua is a small city on the island of Tongatapu. ... Geometric shape created by connecting a polygonal base to an apex An n-sided pyramid is a polyhedron formed by connecting an n-sided polygonal base and a point, called the apex, by n triangular faces (n≥3). ... Nukualofa, population 21,300 (1986), is the capital of Tonga. ... Haamonga A Maui (trilithon) Haamonga A Maui - A massive 12-ton stone trilithon in Tonga on the island of Tongatapu constructed out of three limestone slabs. ...


External links

  • History of Tonga
  • Royal Lineage of Tonga's dynasties and a brief history

 
 

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