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Encyclopedia > Tsarevich Alexei Petrovich of Russia
Portrait of Alexei by Johann Gottfried Tannauer, c. 1712-16, Russian Museum, St Petersburg
Portrait of Alexei by Johann Gottfried Tannauer, c. 1712-16, Russian Museum, St Petersburg

Alexei Petrovich (Russian: Алексей Петрович) (28 February 1690 [O.S. 18 February]7 July 1718 [O.S. 26 June]), a Russian tsarevich. He was born in Moscow, the son of Tsar Peter I and his first wife Eudoxia Lopukhina. Image File history File links Tannauer_Aleksei. ... Image File history File links Tannauer_Aleksei. ... February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Giovanni Domenico Cassini observes differential rotation within Jupiters atmosphere. ... Old Style or O.S. is a designation indicating that a date conforms to the Julian calendar, formerly in use in many countries, rather than the Gregorian calendar, currently in use in most countries. ... July 7 is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 177 days remaining. ... // The Funj warrior aristocracy deposes the reigning mek and places one of their own ranks on the throne of Sennar. ... Old Style or O.S. is a designation indicating that a date conforms to the Julian calendar, formerly in use in many countries, rather than the Gregorian calendar, currently in use in most countries. ... Tsar, (Bulgarian цар�, Russian царь; often spelled Czar or Tzar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to 1917. ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2005)    - Density 10,415,400   8537. ... Peter was a tall figure, with an extremely striking build of 2. ... Evdokiya Feodorovna Lopukhina (Julian calendar, July 30, 1669 - August 27, 1731)/(Gregorian calendar, August 9, 1669 – September 7, 1731) was the first Empress consort of Peter I of Russia. ...

Contents

Childhood

The young Alexei was brought up by his mother, who fostered an atmosphere of disdain towards Peter the Great, Alexei's father. Alexei's relations with his father suffered from the hatred between his father and his mother, as it was very difficult for him to feel affection for his mother's worst persecutor. From the ages of 6 to 9, Alexei was educated by his tutor Vyazemsky, but after the removal of his mother by Peter the Great to the Suzdal Intercession Convent, Alexei was confined to the care of educated foreigners, who taught him history, geography, mathematics and French. Peter was a tall figure, with an extremely striking build of 2. ... St. ...


Military career

In 1703, Alexei was ordered to follow the army to the field as a private in a bombardier regiment. In 1704, he was present at the capture of Narva. At this period, the preceptors of the tsarevich had the highest opinion of his ability. Alexei had strong leanings towards archaeology and ecclesiology. However, Peter had wished his son and heir to dedicate himself to the service of new Russia, and demanded from him unceasing labour in order to maintain Russia's new wealth and power. Painful relations between father and son, quite apart from the prior personal antipathies, were therefore inevitable. It was an additional misfortune for Alexei that his father should have been too busy to attend to him just as he was growing up from boyhood to manhood. He was left in the hands of reactionary boyars and priests, who encouraged him to hate his father and wish for the death of the tsar. Events February 2 - Earthquake in Aquila, Italy February 4 - In Japan, the 47 samurai commit seppuku (ritual suicide) February 14 - Earthquake in Norcia, Italy April 21 - Company of Quenching of Fire (ie. ... For Bombardier Group, Canada see: Bombardier United Kingdom Bombardier and lance-bombardier are British Army ranks used in the Royal Artillery instead of (respectively) corporal and lance-corporal. ... Events Building of the Students Monument in Aiud, Romania. ... The reconstructed fortress of Narva (to the left) overlooking the Russian fortress of Ivangorod (to the right). ... Archaeology, archeology, or archology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech/discourse) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains and environmental data, including architecture, artifacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... In Christian theology, ecclesiology is a branch of study that deals with the doctrines pertaining to the Church itself as a community or organic entity, and with the understanding of what the church is —ie. ... Reactionary (or reactionist) is a political epithet, generally used as a pejorative, originally applied in the context of the French Revolution to counter-revolutionaries who wished to restore the real or imagined conditions of the monarchical Ancien Régime. ... A boyar (also spelt bojar; Romanian: boier) was a member of the highest rank of the feudal Ruthenian (Russian) and Romanian aristocracy, second only to the ruling princes, from the 10th through the 17th century. ...


In 1708 Peter sent Alexei to Smolensk to collect provender and recruits, and after that to Moscow to fortify it against Charles XII of Sweden. At the end of 1709, Alexei went to Dresden for one year. There, he finished lessons in French, German, mathematics and fortification. After his education, Alexei married, albeit greatly against his will Princess Charlotte of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, whose family was connected by marriage to many of the great families of Europe i.e., Charlotte's sister Elizabeth was married to the Hapsburg Emperor Charles VI. In theory Alexei could have refused the marriage, and he had been encouraged by his father to at least meet his intended. "Why haven't you written to tell me what you thought about her?" wrote Peter (in a tone that can only be guessed) in a letter dated August 13, 1710. // Events March 23 - James Francis Edward Stuart lands at the Firth of Forth July 1 - Tewoflos becomes Emperor of Ethiopia September 28 - Peter the Great defeats the Swedes at the Battle of Lesnaya Kandahar conquered by Mir Wais In Masuria one third of the population die during the plague J... A view of Smolensk in 1912. ... A salad of vegetables and cheese. ... Recruit (from the French recrue, from the verb recroître to grow again, i. ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2005)    - Density 10,415,400   8537. ... Carl XII, Karl XII or Carolus Rex, (June 17, 1682 – November 30, 1718), the Alexander of the North, nicknamed in Turkish as DemirbaÅŸ Åžarl (Charles the Habitué), was a King of Sweden from 1697 until his death in 1718. ... // Events January 12 - Two-month freezing period begins in France - The coast of the Atlantic and Seine River freeze, crops fail and at least 24. ... Dresden (Sorbian: Drježdźany; etymologically from Old Sorbian Drežďany, meaning people of the riverside forest) is the capital city of the German Federal Free State of Saxony and situated in a valley on the River Elbe. ... Charlotte Christine (29 August 1694 – 2 November 1715, Saint Petersburg), daughter of Louis Rudolph, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, was the wife of Grand Duke Alexei Petrovich of Russia. ... Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel was empress of the Holy Roman Empire and mother of Maria Theresa of Austria. ... Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI Charles VI of Austria (October 1, 1685 – October 20, 1740) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1711 to 1740 and the second son of Leopold I with his third wife, Eleonore-Magdalena of Pfalz-Neuburg, came first to the throne with the name Charles III of...


The marriage contract was signed in September. The wedding was celebrated at Torgau,the palace of the Queen of Poland, on October 14, 1711. One of the terms of the marriage contract agreed to by Alexei was that while any forth coming children were to be raised in the Orthodox faith, Charlotte herself was allowed to retain her Protestant faith. An agreement that did not sit well at all with Alexei's followers. Torgau is a town on the banks of the Elbe in northwestern Saxony, Germany. ... October 14 is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events February 24 - The London premiere of Rinaldo by George Friderich Handel, the first Italian opera written for the London stage. ...


As for the marriage itself, it was a failure from the very start. Alexei pronounced his bride "pock-marked" and "too thin". He insisted on separate apartments and ignored her in public.


Three weeks later, the bridegroom was hurried away by his father to Toruń to superintend the provisioning of the Russian troops in Poland. For the next twelve months Alexei was kept constantly on the move. His wife joined him at Toruń in December, but in April 1712 a peremptory ukase ordered him off to the army in Pomerania, and in the autumn of the same year he was forced to accompany his father on a tour of inspection through Finland. ToruÅ„ (?· i; German: ; Kashubian: , see also other names) is a city in northern Poland, on the Vistula river. ... // Events Treaty of Aargau signed between Catholic and Protestants. ... Ukase (Russian: указ, ukaz) in Imperial Russia was a proclamation of the tsar government, or a religions leader patriarch that had the force of law. ... Historic Pomerania (outlined in yellow) on the background of modern country borders. ...


By Charlotte, he had two children.

Name Birth Death
Natalia Alekseyevna Romanov 3 March 1714 3 November 1728
Peter Alexeyevich Romanov 23 October 1715 30 January 1730[1]

After the birth of their first child Natalia in 1714, Alexi brought his long time Finnish mistress Afrosinia to live in the palace. Some historians speculate that it was the disapproval of his conservative power-base to this foreign, non-Orthodox bride, more so than her appearance, that caused Alexi spurn the unhappy young woman. March 3 is the 62nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (63rd in leap years). ... Battle of Gangut, by Maurice Baquoi, 1724-27. ... November 3 is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 58 days remaining. ... Events Astronomical aberration discovered by the astronomer James Bradley Swedish academy of sciences founded at Uppsala The founding of the University of Havana (Universidad de la Habana), Cubas most well-established university. ... Peter II (Пётр II Алексеевич in Russian) (October 23, 1715 – January 29, 1730) was Emperor of Russia from 1727 until his death. ... October 23 is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events July 24 - Spanish treasure fleet of ten ships under admiral Ubilla leave Havana, Cuba for Spain. ... January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Pope Clement XII elected September 17 - Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed III (1703-1730) to Mahmud I (1730-1754) Anna Ivanova (Anna I of Russia) became czarina Births April 16 - Henry Clinton, British general (d. ...


Self-exile

Immediately on his return from Finland, Alexei was despatched by his father to Staraya Russa and Lake Ladoga to see to the building of new ships. This was the last commission entrusted to him, since Peter had not been satisfied with his son's performance and his lack of enthusiasm. Nevertheless, Peter made one last effort to "reclaim" his son. On October 11, 1715, Charlotte died, after giving birth to a son, the grand-duke Peter, future tsar Peter II. On the day of the funeral, Peter sent Alexei a stern letter, urging him to take interest in the affairs of the state. Peter threatened to cut him off if he did not acquiesce in his father's plans. Alexei wrote a pitiful reply to his father, offering to renounce the succession in favour of his baby half-brother Peter. Furthermore, in January of 1716, Alexei asked his father for permission to become a monk. Staraya Russa (Russian: ) is an old Russian town located 99 km south of Veliky Novgorod. ... Map of lake Ladoga Towpath Bridge between Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega (from a photograph taken ca. ... October 11 is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events July 24 - Spanish treasure fleet of ten ships under admiral Ubilla leave Havana, Cuba for Spain. ... Peter II (Пётр II Алексеевич in Russian) (October 23, 1715 – January 29, 1730) was Emperor of Russia from 1727 until his death. ... // Events August 5 - In the Battle of Peterwardein 40. ... A monk is a person who practices asceticism, the conditioning of mind and body in favor of the spirit. ...


Still, Peter did not despair. On the August 26, 1716 he wrote to Alexei from abroad, urging him, if he desired to remain tsarevich, to join him and the army without delay. Rather than face this ordeal, Alexei fled to Vienna and placed himself under the protection of his brother-in-law, the emperor Charles VI, who sent him for safety first to the Tirolean fortress of Ahrenberg, and finally to the castle of San Elmo at Naples. He was accompanied throughout his journey by his mistress, the Finnish girl Afrosina. That the emperor sincerely sympathized with Alexei, and suspected Peter of harbouring murderous designs against his son, is plain from his confidential letter to George I of Great Britain, whom he consulted on this delicate affair. Peter felt insulted: the flight of the tsarevich to a foreign potentate was a reproach and a scandal, and he had to be recovered and brought back to Russia at all costs. This difficult task was accomplished by Count Peter Tolstoi, the most subtle and unscrupulous of Peter's servants. August 26 is the 238th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (239th in leap years). ... Tsar, (Bulgarian &#1094;&#1072;&#1088;�, Russian &#1094;&#1072;&#1088;&#1100;; often spelled Czar or Tzar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to 1917. ... Inhabitants according to official census figures: 1800 to 2005 Vienna in 1858 Vienna (German: Wien ) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI Charles VI of Austria (October 1, 1685 – October 20, 1740) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1711 to 1740 and the second son of Leopold I with his third wife, Eleonore-Magdalena of Pfalz-Neuburg, came first to the throne with the name Charles III of... Tyrol (Tirol in German) is a federal state or Bundesland, located in the west of Austria. ... The Bay of Naples Naples (Italian: , Neapolitan: Nàpule, from Greek Νεάπολη < Νέα Πόλις Néa Pólis New City) is the largest city in southern Italy and capital of the Campania region and the Province of Naples. ... George I (Georg Ludwig) (28 May 1660 – 11 June 1727) was Elector of Hanover from 23 January 1698, and King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 1 August 1714, until his death. ... Count Pyotr Andreyevich Tolstoy (1645 - 1729) was a Russian statesman prominent during and after the reign of Peter the Great. ...


The return

Alexei would only consent to return on his father solemnly swearing, that if he came back he should not be punished in the least, but cherished as a son and allowed to live quietly on his estates and marry Afrosina. On 31 January 1718 the tsarevich reached Moscow. Peter had already determined to institute a most searching inquisition in order to get at the bottom of the mystery of the flight. On 18 February a "confession" was extorted from Alexei which implicated most of his friends, and he then publicly renounced the succession to the throne in favour of the baby grand-duke Peter Petrovich. A horrible reign of terror ensued, in the course of which the ex-tsaritsa Eudoxia was dragged from her monastery and publicly tried for alleged adultery, while all who had in any way befriended Alexei were impaled, broken on the wheel and otherwise lingeringly done to death. All this was done to terrorize the reactionaries and isolate the tsarevich. January 31 is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // The Funj warrior aristocracy deposes the reigning mek and places one of their own ranks on the throne of Sennar. ... Inquisition (capitalized I) is broadly used, to refer to things related to judgment of heresy by the Catholic Church. ... February 18 is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Adultery is generally defined as consensual sexual intercourse by a married person with someone other than his or her lawful spouse. ... Woodblock print of Vlad III Dracula attending a mass impalement. ...

Peter I interrogates Tsarevich Alexei Petrovich at Peterhof, history painting by Nikolai Ge, 1871, State Tret'yakov Gallery, Moscow
Peter I interrogates Tsarevich Alexei Petrovich at Peterhof, history painting by Nikolai Ge, 1871, State Tret'yakov Gallery, Moscow

In April 1718 fresh confessions were extorted from, and in regard to, Alexei. This included the words of Alexei's long time mistress Afrosinia, who had turned state's evidence. "I shall bring back the old people..." Alexei is reported to have told her, Peter the Great Interrogating the Tsarevich Alexei Petrovich at Peterhof. ... Peter the Great Interrogating the Tsarevich Alexei Petrovich at Peterhof. ...

"...and choose myself new ones according to my will; when I become sovereign I shall live in Moscow and leave St. Petersburg simply as any other town; I won't launch any ships; I shall maintain troops only for defense, and won't make war on anyone; I shall be content with the old domains. In winter I shall live in Moscow, and in summer in Iaroslav."

Despite this and other hearsay evidence, there were no actual facts to go upon. The worst that could be brought against him was that he had wished his father's death. In the eyes of Peter, his son was now a self-convicted and most dangerous traitor, whose life was forfeit. But there was no getting over the fact that his father had sworn to pardon him and let him live in peace if he returned to Russia. The whole matter was solemnly submitted to a grand council of prelates, senators, ministers and other dignitaries on 13 June 1718. The clergy, for their part, declared the Tsarevich Alexei, Look up prelate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A senate is a deliberative body, often the upper house or chamber of a legislature. ... A minister or a secretary is a politician who heads a government ministry or department (e. ... June 13 is the 164th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (165th in leap years), with 201 days remaining. ... // The Funj warrior aristocracy deposes the reigning mek and places one of their own ranks on the throne of Sennar. ... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ...

"...had placed his Confidence in those who loved the ancient Customs, and that he had become aquainted with them by the Discourses they held, wherein they had constantly praised the ancient Manners, and spoke with Distaste of the Novelties his Father had introduced."


Declaring this to be a civil rather than an ecclesiastical matter, the clergy left the matter to the tsar's own decision.


At noon on June 24 the temporal dignitaries -- the 126 members of both the Senate and magistrates that comprised the court -- declared Alexei guilty and sentenced him to death. But the examination by torture continued, so desperate was Peter to uncover any possible collusion.


On 19 June, the weak and ailing tsarevich received twenty-five strokes with the knout, and now, on the 24th, he was subject to fifteen more. On 26 June, Alexei died in the Petropavlovskaya fortress in Saint Petersburg, two days after the senate had condemned him to death for conspiring rebellion against his father, and for hoping for the cooperation of the common people and the armed intervention of his brother-in-law, the emperor. Some historians believe that Alexei actually died of strangulation by one of Peter's servants. June 19 is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 195 days remaining. ... A knout (rhymes with boot) is a heavy scourge-like whip, usually made of a bunch of rawhide thongs attached to a long handle, sometimes with metal wire or hooks incorporated. ... June 26 is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 188 days remaining. ... The Peter and Paul Fortress (&#1055;&#1077;&#1090;&#1088;&#1086;&#1087;&#1072;&#1074;&#1083;&#1086;&#1074;&#1089;&#1082;&#1072;&#1103; &#1082;&#1088;&#1077;&#1087;&#1086;&#1089;&#1090;&#1100;) is in St. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: &#1057;&#1072;&#1085;&#1082;&#1090;-&#1055;&#1077;&#1090;&#1077;&#1088;&#1073;&#1091;&#769;&#1088;&#1075;, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as &#1055;&#1080;&#1090;&#1077;&#1088; (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (&#1051;&#1077;&#1085;&#1080;&#1085;&#1075;&#1088;&#1072;&#769;&#1076;, 1924&#8211;1991) and...


Further reading

  • Matthew S. Anderson, Peter the Great (London: Thames and Hudson, 1978).
  • Robert Nisbet Bain, The First Romanovs 1613 – 1725 (London, 1905; reprint, New York, 1967).
  • Robert K. Massie, Peter the Great, His Life and World (New York: Ballantine, 1981).
  • B.H. Sumner, Peter the Great and the Emergence of Russia (London: English UP, 1968).
  • Fredrick Charles Weber, The Present State of Russia (2 vols.), (1723; reprint, London: Frank Cass and Co, 1968).
  • Lindsey Hughes, Russia in the Age of Peter the Great (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1998).

References

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Tsarevich Alexei Petrovich of Russia at AllExperts (1320 words)
Alexei's relations with his father suffered from the hatred between his father and his mother, as it was very difficult for him to feel affection for his mother's worst persecutor.
From the ages of 6 to 9, Alexei was educated by his tutor Vyazemsky, but after the removal of his mother by Peter the Great to the Suzdal Intercession Convent, Alexei was confined to the care of educated foreigners, who taught him history, geography, mathematics and French.
Alexei would only consent to return on his father solemnly swearing, that if he came back he should not be punished in the least, but cherished as a son and allowed to live quietly on his estates and marry Afrosina.
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