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Encyclopedia > Tsardom of Russia
History of Russia
East Slavs
Rus' Khaganate
Khazars
Kievan Rus'
Vladimir-Suzdal
Novgorod Republic
Volga Bulgaria
Mongol invasion
Golden Horde
Muscovy
Khanate of Kazan
Tsardom of Russia
Russian Empire
  • 1682-1796
  • 1796-1855
  • 1855-1892
  • 1892-1920
Russian Revolution
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The Tsardom of Russia (Russian: Московское царство or Царство Русское) was the official name for the Russian state between Ivan IV's assumption of the title of Tsar in 1547 and Peter the Great's foundation of the Russian Empire in 1721. Some Western sources refer to this state as Muscovite Russia or Muscovy, the term originally applied to its predecessor, the Grand Duchy of Moscow. The history of Russia begins with that of the East Slavs, the ethnic group that eventually split into the Russians, Ukrainians, and Belarusians. ... Countries inhabited by Slavs (dark green - East Slavs) Distribution of Slavic peoples by language The East Slavs are a Slavic ethnic group, the speakers of East Slavic that evolved into the Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian peoples. ... The Rus Khaganate is a poorly-documented period in the history of East Slavs (roughly the late eighth and early to mid ninth centuries CE). ... The Khazars (Hebrew Kuzari כוזרי Kuzarim כוזרים; Turkish Hazar Hazarlar; Russian Хазары; Tatar sing Xäzär Xäzärlär; Crimean Tatar: ; Greek Χαζάροι;Arabicخزر;Persianخزر; Latin Gazari or Cosri) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia, many of whom converted to Judaism. ... Kievan Rus′ was the early, mostly East Slavic [1] state dominated by the city of Kiev from about 880 to the middle of the 12th century. ... Vladimir-Suzdal Principality, Vladimir-Suzdal Rus (Владимирско-Суздальская Русь), or Vladimir-Suzdal Grand Duchy (Влади́миро-Су&#769... Medieval walls of Novgorod City The Novgorod Feudal Republic (Новгородская феодальная республика or Novgorodskaya feodalnaya respublika in Russian) was a powerful medieval state which stretched from the Baltic Sea to the Ural Mountains between the 12th and 15th century. ... Volga Bulgaria or Volga-Kama Bolghar, is a historic state that existed between the 7th and 13th centuries around the confluence of the Volga and Kama rivers in what is now the Russian Federation. ... The Mongol Invasion of Rus was an invasion of the medieval state of Kievan Rus by a large army of nomadic Mongols, starting in 1223. ... The Golden Horde (Turkish: Altın Ordu) was a Turkic state established in parts of present-day Russia, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan after the break up of the Mongol Empire in the 1240s. ... Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... Map of Kazan Khanate, early 1500s The Kazan Khanate (Tatar: Qazan xanlığı; Russian: Казанское ханство) (1438-1552) was a Tatar state on the territory of former Volga Bulgaria with its capital in Kazan. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... // Note on naming The territory ruled by the Romanov dynasty was often called Muscovy in Western Europe until well into the eighteenth century. ... // Catherine II died in 1796, and her son Paul (r. ... // Economic development The late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were times of crisis for Russia. ... // Radical revolutionary parties During the 1890s, Russias industrial development led to a significant increase in the size of the urban bourgeoisie and the working class, setting the stage for a more dynamic political atmosphere and the development of radical parties. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political events in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the system of autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal Provisional Government (Duma), resulting in the establishment of the Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... Combatants Red Army (Bolsheviks) White Army (Monarchists, SRs, Anti-Communists) Green Army (Peasants and Nationalists) Black Army (Anarchists) Commanders Leon Trotsky Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Lavr Kornilov, Alexander Kolchak, Anton Denikin, Pyotr Wrangel Alexander Antonov, Nikifor Grigoriev Nestor Makhno Strength 5,427,273 (peak) +1,000,000 Casualties 939,755... Ivan IV (August 25, 1530–March 18, 1584) was the first ruler of Russia to assume the title of tsar. ... Monomakhs Cap symbol of Russian autocracy, the crown of Russian grand princes and tsars Czar and tzar redirect here. ... Events January 16 - Grand Duke Ivan IV of Muscovy becomes the first Tsar of Russia. ... Peter I Emperor and Autocrat of All Russia Peter I (Pyotr Alekseyvich) (9 June 1672–8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death. ... Official language Russian Official Religion Russian Orthodox Christianity Capital Saint Petersburg (Petrograd 1914-1924) Area Approx. ... // Events Pope Innocent XIII becomes pope Johann Sebastian Bach composes the Brandenburg Concertos April 4 - Robert Walpole becomes the first prime minister of Britain September 10 - Treaty of Nystad is signed, bringing an end to the Great Northern War November 2 - Peter I is proclaimed Emperor of All the Russias... Look up West in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское)) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ...

Contents

Byzantine heritage

Main articles: Tsar and Third Rome

By the 16th century, the Muscovite ruler had emerged as a powerful, autocratic ruler, a tsar. By assuming that title, the sovereign of Moscow underscored that he was a major ruler or emperor on a par with the Greek emperor or the Mongol khan. Indeed, after Ivan III's marriage to Sophia Paleologue, the niece of the last Byzantine emperor, the Muscovite court adopted Byzantine terms, rituals, titles, and emblems such as the double-headed eagle, which survives as the coat of arms of Russia. Monomakhs Cap symbol of Russian autocracy, the crown of Russian grand princes and tsars Czar and tzar redirect here. ... New Rome is a term that can be applied to a city or a country. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Monomakhs Cap symbol of Russian autocracy, the crown of Russian grand princes and tsars Czar and tzar redirect here. ... Zoe Palaiologina (Greek Ζωή Παλαιολόγου, Russian Софья Фоминична Палеолог, around 1455 - April 7, 1503), Grand Duchess of Moscow, was a niece of the last Byzantine emperor Constantine XI and second wife of Ivan III of Russia. ... This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. ... Two-headed eagle emblem of the Byzantine Empire. ... Coat of Arms of Russian Federation. ...

Ivory throne of Ivan the Terrible.
Ivory throne of Ivan the Terrible.

At first, the Byzantine term autocrat connoted only the literal meaning of an independent ruler, but in the reign of Ivan IV (r. 1533-1584) it came to mean unlimited rule. Ivan IV was crowned tsar and thus was recognized, at least by the Russian Orthodox Church, as emperor. Philotheus of Pskov had claimed that, once Constantinople had fallen to the Ottoman Empire in 1453, the Russian tsar was the only legitimate Orthodox ruler and that Moscow was the Third Rome because it was the final successor to Rome and Constantinople, the centers of Christianity in earlier periods. That concept was to resonate in the self-image of Russians in future centuries. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x1332, 141 KB) Photo of ivory throne of Ivan the Terrible, taken August 2003 by User:Stan Shebs File links The following pages link to this file: Ivan IV of Russia User:Stan Shebs/Gallery/Miscellaneous ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x1332, 141 KB) Photo of ivory throne of Ivan the Terrible, taken August 2003 by User:Stan Shebs File links The following pages link to this file: Ivan IV of Russia User:Stan Shebs/Gallery/Miscellaneous ... Ivan IV (August 25, 1530–March 18, 1584) was the first ruler of Russia to assume the title of tsar. ... An autocrat is generally speaking any ruler with absolute power; the term is now usually used in a negative sense (cf. ... Events January 25 - King Henry VIII of England marries Anne Boleyn, his second Queen consort. ... 1584 was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The Russian Orthodox Church (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Catholic Church of Russia, is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... Filofei (Филофей in Russian) (? - ?, Pskov) was a hegumen of the Yelizarov Monastery in Pskov in the 16th century. ... Map of Constantinople. ... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI... April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (Ä°stanbul). ... New Rome is a term that can be applied to a city or a country. ... The Roman Empire is the name given to both the imperial domain developed by the city-state of Rome and also the corresponding phase of that civilization, characterized by an autocratic form of government. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... This article is becoming very long. ...


Early reign of Ivan IV

The development of the tsar's autocratic powers reached a peak during the reign of Ivan IV, and he became known as the Terrible (his Russian epithet, groznyi, means "thunderous"). Ivan strengthened the position of the tsar to an unprecedented degree, demonstrating the risks of unbridled power in the hands of a mentally unstable individual. Although apparently intelligent and energetic, Ivan suffered from bouts of paranoia and depression, and his rule was punctuated by acts of extreme violence.


Ivan IV became grand prince of Muscovy in 1533 at the age of three. The Shuisky and Belsky factions of the boyars competed for control of the regency until Ivan assumed the throne in 1547. Reflecting Muscovy's new imperial claims, Ivan's coronation as tsar was an elaborate ritual modeled after those of the Byzantine emperors. With the continuing assistance of a group of boyars, Ivan began his reign with a series of useful reforms. In the 1550s, he promulgated a new law code, revamped the military, and reorganized local government. These reforms undoubtedly were intended to strengthen the state in the face of continuous warfare. Events January 25 - King Henry VIII of England marries Anne Boleyn, his second Queen consort. ... Shuisky (Шуйские) was a Rurikid family of boyars descending from Grand Dukes of Vladimir-Suzdal. ... Belsky (Russian: Бельский, pl. ... A boyar (also spelled bojar) or bolyarin was a member of the highest rank of the feudal Russian, Romanian and Bulgarian aristocracy, second only to the ruling princes, from the tenth through the seventeenth century. ... Events January 16 - Grand Duke Ivan IV of Muscovy becomes the first Tsar of Russia. ... Events and Trends Categories: 1550s ...


Foreign policies of Ivan IV

Muscovy remained a fairly unknown society in western Europe until Baron Sigismund von Herberstein published his Rerum Moscoviticarum Commentarii (literally Notes on Muscovite Affairs) in 1549. This provided a comprehensive view of what had been a rarely visited and poorly reported state. In the 1630s, Muscovite Russia was visited by Adam Olearius, whose lively and well-informed writings were soon translated into all major languages of Europe. Siegmund (Sigismund) Freiherr von Herberstein[1], (or Baron Sigismund von Herberstein), (August 23, 1486—March 28, 1566), Austrian diplomat, writer and historian. ... Rerum Moscoviticarum Commentarii (1549) (literally Notes on Muscovite Affairs) was a book in Latin by Baron Sigismund von Herberstein on the geography, history and customs of Muscovy (the 16th century Russian state). ... Events July - Ketts Rebellion Francis Xavier arrives in Japan. ... Adam Olearius (born Adam Oehlschlaeger) (1603–1671), German scholar, mathematician, geographer and librarian. ...

Apollinary Vasnetsov. Arrival of heralds to the Kremlin.
Apollinary Vasnetsov. Arrival of heralds to the Kremlin.

Further information about Russia was disseminated by English and Dutch merchants. One of them, Richard Chancellor, sailed to the White Sea in 1553 and continued overland to Moscow. Upon his return to England, the Muscovy Company was formed by him, Sebastian Cabot, Sir Hugh Willoughby, and several London merchants. Ivan the Terrible used these merchants to exchange letters with Elizabeth I and probably even made a proposal to her. Apollinary Vasnetsov (1856-1933). ... Apollinary Vasnetsov (1856-1933). ... Mikhail Nesterov: Portrait of Apollinary Vasnetsov. ... Merchants function as professionals who deal with trade, dealing in commodities that they do not produce themselves, in order to produce profit. ... Richard Chancellor (birth date unknown — 1556) was an English explorer; the first to penetrate to the White Sea and establish relations with Russia. ... Map of the White Sea Two satellite photos of the White Sea The White Sea (Russian: ) is an inlet of the Barents Sea on the North Western coast of Russia. ... // Events June 26 - Christs Hospital in London gets a Royal Charter July 6 - Edward VI of England dies July 10 - Lady Jane Grey is proclaimed Queen of England - for the next nine days July 18 - Lord Mayor of London proclaims Queen Mary as the rightful Queen - Lady Jane Grey... Ivan IV of Russia demonstrates his treasures to the English ambassador (1875) Muscovy Company (also called Russian Company or Muscovy Trading Company, Polish Kompania Moskiewska, Russian: Московская компания), was a trading company chartered in 1555. ... Sebastian Cabot (1484-1557). ... Hugh Willoughby is the name of a number of historically notable men: Sir Hugh Willoughby, sea captain Hugh Willoughby, twelfth Baron Willoughby of Parham Hugh Willoughby, fifteenth Baron Willoughby of Parham This is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England, Queen of France (in name only), and Queen of Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. ...


Despite the domestic turmoil of 1530s and 1540s, Russia continued to wage wars and to expand. Ivan defeated and annexed the Kazan Khanate on the middle Volga in 1552 and later the Astrakhan Khanate, where the Volga meets the Caspian Sea. These victories transformed Russia into a multiethnic and multiconfessional state which it continues to be. The tsar now controlled the entire Volga River and gained access to Central Asia. St. ... Categories: Historical stubs | Former countries | Tatars | Tatarstan history | History of Mongolia ... The Volga, widely viewed as the national river of Russia, flows through the western part of the country. ... Events April - War between Henry II of France and Emperor Charles V. Henry invades Lorraine and captures Toul, Metz, and Verdun. ... The Khanate of Astrakhan (Xacitarxan Khanate) was a Tatar feudal state that appeared after the collapse of the Golden Horde. ... The Caspian Sea is the largest lake on Earth by both area and volume,[1] with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometres (143,244 mi²) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometres (18,761 mi³).[2] It is a landlocked endorheic body of water and lies between...


Expanding to the northwest toward the Baltic Sea proved to be much more difficult. In 1558 Ivan invaded Livonia, eventually embroiling himself in a twenty-five-year war against Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Sweden, and Denmark. Despite occasional successes, Ivan's army was pushed back, and the nation failed to secure a coveted position on the Baltic Sea. The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... Events January 7 - French troops led by Francis, Duke of Guise take Calais, the last continental possession of England July 13 - Battle of Gravelines: In France, Spanish forces led by Count Lamoral of Egmont defeat the French forces of Marshal Paul des Thermes at Gravelines. ... Livonia (Latvian: Livonija; Estonian: Liivimaa; German: Livland; Swedish: Livland; Polish: Inflanty; Russian: Лифляндия or Lifljandija) once was the land of the Finnic Livonians, but came in the Middle Ages to designate a much broader territory controlled by the Livonian Order on the eastern coasts of the Baltic Sea in present-day... The Reformation reached Livonia in the 1520s. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


Hoping to make profit from Russia's concentration on the Livonian affairs, Devlet I Giray of Crimea, accompanied by as many as 120 thousand horsemen, repeatedly devastated the Moscow region, until the Battle of Molodi put a stop to such northward incursions. But for decades to come, the southern borderland was annually pillaged by the Nogai Horde and the Crimean Khanate, who took local inhabitants with them as slaves. Tens of thousands of soldiers protected the Great Abatis Belt — a heavy burden for a state whose social and economic development stagnated. The wars drained Russia. Devlet I Giray (Crimean Tatar: I Devlet Geray) (1512–1577) — a khan of the Crimean Khanate in 1551–1577. ... The Crimean Khanate or the Khanate of Crimea (Crimean Tatar: ; Russian: - Krymskoye khanstvo; Ukrainian: - Krymske khanstvo; Turkish: ) was a Crimean Tatar state from 1441 to 1783. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Combatants Crimean Khanate Muscovite Russia Commanders Khan Devlet Ghiray Voyevoda Mikhail Vorotynsky Strength 80,000 Crimean Tatars, 33,000 Turks, 7,000 elite janissaries 60,000 - 70,000 Casualties 100,000 - 115,000 unknown {{{notes}}} The Battle of Molodi (Russian: Молодинская битва) was one of the key battles of Ivan the Terrible... The Nogai Horde was the Tatar horde that controlled the Caucasus Mountain region after the Mongol invasion. ... The Crimean Khanate or the Khanate of Crimea (Crimean Tatar: ; Russian: - Krymskoye khanstvo; Ukrainian: - Krymske khanstvo; Turkish: ) was a Crimean Tatar state from 1441 to 1783. ... Great Abatis Border (Russian: ) is a chain of fortification lines, created by Muscovy to protect it from the rides of the Mongolo-Tatars. ...


Oprichnina

Main article: Oprichnina
A 17th-century palace at Krutitsy.
A 17th-century palace at Krutitsy.

During the late 1550s, Ivan developed a hostility toward his advisers, the government, and the boyars. Historians have not determined whether policy differences, personal animosities, or mental imbalance caused his wrath. In 1565 he divided Russia into two parts: his private domain (or oprichnina) and the public realm (or zemshchina). For his private domain, Ivan chose some of the most prosperous and important districts of Russia. In these areas, Ivan's agents attacked boyars, merchants, and even common people, summarily executing some and confiscating land and possessions. Thus began a decade of terror in Russia which culminated in the Massacre of Novgorod (1570). The Oprichnina (Russian: Опричнина) formed a section of Russia ruled directly by the Tsar under Ivan the Terrible. ... Krutitsy is a former ecclesiastical estate and monastery, situated on the steep left bank of the Moskva River, in the south-east of present-day Moscow. ... // Events March 1 - the city of Rio de Janeiro is founded. ... The Oprichnina (Russian: Опричнина) formed a section of Russia ruled directly by the Tsar under Ivan the Terrible. ... A boyar (also spelled bojar) or bolyarin was a member of the highest rank of the feudal Russian, Romanian and Bulgarian aristocracy, second only to the ruling princes, from the tenth through the seventeenth century. ... The Massacre of Novgorod was a State-sponsored genocide that occoured in the city of Novgorod, Russia in 1570. ...


As a result of the policies of the oprichnina, Ivan broke the economic and political power of the leading boyar families, thereby destroying precisely those persons who had built up Muscovy and were the most capable of administering it. Trade diminished, and peasants, faced with mounting taxes and threats of violence, began to leave Russia. Efforts to curtail the mobility of the peasants by tying them to their land brought Russia closer to legal serfdom. In 1572 Ivan finally abandoned the practices of the oprichnina. A boyar (also spelled bojar) or bolyarin was a member of the highest rank of the feudal Russian, Romanian and Bulgarian aristocracy, second only to the ruling princes, from the tenth through the seventeenth century. ... A Peasant Leaving His Landlord on Yuriev Day, painting by Sergei V. Ivanov. ... Events January 16 - Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk is tried for treason for his part in the Ridolfi plot to restore Catholicism in England. ...


According to a popular theory, the oprichnina was started by Ivan in order to mobilize resources for the wars and to quell opposition to it. Regardless of the reason, Ivan's domestic and foreign policies had a devastating effect on Russia, and they led to a period of social struggle and civil war, the so-called Time of Troubles (Smutnoye vremya, 1598-1613). Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ... Events January - Galileo observes Neptune, but mistakes it for a star and so is not credited with its discovery. ...


Time of Troubles

Main article: Time of Troubles
Andrei Ryabushkin. Muscovite women at the church service.
Andrei Ryabushkin. Muscovite women at the church service.

Ivan IV was succeeded by his son Fedor, who was mentally deficient. Actual power went to Fedor's brother-in-law, the boyar Boris Godunov (who is credited with abolishing Yuri's Day, the only time of the year when serfs were free to move from one landowner to another). Perhaps the most important event of Fedor's reign was the proclamation of the patriarchate of Moscow in 1589. The creation of the patriarchate climaxed the evolution of a separate and totally independent Russian Orthodox Church. The Time of Troubles (Russian: Смутное время, Smutnoye Vremya) was a period of Russian history comprising the years of interregnum between the death of the last of Moscow Rurikids, Tsar Feodor Ivanovich, in 1598 and the establishment of the Romanov Dynasty in 1613. ... Andrey P. Ryabushkin (1861-1904). ... Andrey P. Ryabushkin (1861-1904). ... Andrei Ryabushkin by Vasily Mathe Andrei Petrovich Ryabushkin (Russian: ; October 29 [O.S. October 17] 1861 - May 10 [O.S. April 27] 1904) was a Russian painter. ... Feodor presents a golden chain to Boris Godunov. ... Tsar Boris I Boris Feodorovich Godunov (Бори́с Фёдорович Годуно́в) (c. ... Yuris Day or Saint George Day is a Russian Orthodox feast celebrated twice a year - in spring and in autumn. ... The following is a list of Russian Orthodox metropolitans and patriarchs of Moscow along with when they served: Metropolitans Maximus (1283_1305) Peter (1308_1326) Theognostus (1328_1353) Alexius (1354_1378) Cyprian (1381_1382), (1390_1406) Pimen (1382_1384) Dionysius I (1384_1385) Photius (1408_1431) Isidore the Apostate (1437_1441) Jonas (1448_1461) Theodosius (1461_1464) Philip I (1464_1473) Gerontius (1473_1489... Events Rebellion of the Catholic League against King Henry III of France, in revenge for his murder of Duke Henry of Guise. ... The Russian Orthodox Church (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Catholic Church of Russia, is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ...


In 1598 Fedor died without an heir, ending the Rurik Dynasty. Boris Godunov then convened a Zemsky Sobor, a national assembly of boyars, church officials, and commoners, which proclaimed him tsar, although various boyar factions refused to recognize the decision. Widespread crop failures caused a famine between 1601 and 1603, and during the ensuing discontent, a man emerged who claimed to be Tsarevich Demetrius, Ivan IV's son who had died in 1591. This pretender to the throne, who came to be known as False Dmitriy I, gained support in Poland and marched to Moscow, gathering followers among the boyars and other elements as he went. Historians speculate[1] that Godunov would have weathered this crisis has he not died in 1605. As a result, False Dmitriy I entered Moscow and was crowned tsar that year, following the murder of Tsar Fedor II, Godunov's son. Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ... Rurik or Riurik (Russian: , Old East Norse Rørik, meaning famous ruler) (ca 830 – ca 879) was a Varangian who gained control of Ladoga in 862 and built the Holmgard settlement (Ryurikovo Gorodishche) in Novgorod. ... The zemsky sobor (Russian: зе́мский собо́р) was the first Russian parliament of the feudal Estates type, in the 16th and 17th centuries. ... Events February 8 - Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, rebels against Elizabeth I of England - revolt is quickly crushed February 25 - Robert Devereux beheaded Jesuit Matteo Ricci arrives in China Bad harvest in Russia due to rainy summer Dutch troops drive Portuguese from Málaga Battle of Kinsale, Ireland Births... King James I of England/VII of Scotland, the first monarch to rule the Kingdoms of England and Scotland at the same time Events March - Samuel de Champlain, French explorer, sails to Canada March 24 - Elizabeth I of England dies and is succeeded by her cousin King James I of... Dmitriy Ivanovich, also known as Dmitry of Uglich and Dmitry of Moscow (Дмитрий Иванович, Дмитрий Угличский, Дмитрий Московский in Russian) (October 19, 1582 — May 15, 1591) was a Russian tsarevich, son of Ivan the Terrible and Maria Nagaya. ... Events June - Capture of Zutphen by the Dutch under Maurice of Nassau. ... False Dmitriy I, Cyrillic Дмитрий (other transliterations: Dmitry, Dmitri, Dmitrii), (ruled 1605-1606) was one of three pretenders to the Russian throne who claimed to be the youngest son of Ivan the Terrible, tsarevich Dmitriy Ivanovich, who had supposedly miraculously escaped the assassination attempt. ... 1605 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Assassination of Feodor II (1862). ...


Subsequently, Russia entered a period of continuous chaos, known as The Time of Troubles (Смутное Время). Despite the tsar's persecution of the boyars, the townspeople's dissatisfaction, and the gradual enserfment of the peasantry, efforts at restricting the power of the tsar were only halfhearted. Finding no institutional alternative to the autocracy, discontented Russians rallied behind various pretenders to the throne. During that period, the goal of political activity was to gain influence over the sitting autocrat or to place one's own candidate on the throne. The boyars fought among themselves, the lower classes revolted blindly, and foreign armies occupied the Kremlin in Moscow, prompting many to accept tsarist absolutism as a necessary means to restoring order and unity in Russia. The Time of Troubles (Russian: Смутное время, Smutnoye Vremya) was a period of Russian history comprising the years of interregnum between the death of the last of Moscow Rurikids, Tsar Feodor Ivanovich, in 1598 and the establishment of the Romanov Dynasty in 1613. ... The Moscow Kremlin The Moscow Kremlin ( Russian: Московский Кремль) is the best known kremlin ( Russian citadel). ...

Monks successfully defended the Troitse-Sergiyeva Lavra against the Poles from September 1609 to January 1611.
Monks successfully defended the Troitse-Sergiyeva Lavra against the Poles from September 1609 to January 1611.

The Time of Troubles included a civil war in which a struggle over the throne was complicated by the machinations of rival boyar factions, the intervention of regional powers Poland and Sweden, and intense popular discontent, led by Ivan Bolotnikov. False Dmitriy I and his Polish garrison were overthrown, and a boyar, Vasily Shuysky, was proclaimed tsar in 1606. In his attempt to retain the throne, Shuysky allied himself with the Swedes, unleashing the Ingrian War with Sweden. False Dmitriy II, allied with the Poles, appeared under the walls of Moscow and set up a mock court in the village of Tushino. View of the lavra in the 1890s. ... Bolotnikovs Battle with the Tsars army at Nizhny Kotly Ivan Isayevich Bolotnikov (Иван Исаевич Болотников) (?—1608) was the leader of the uprising of 1606-1607 (Bolotnikov rebellion, Восстание Ивана Болотникова), which was part of the Time of Troubles in Russia. ... Vasili IV of Russia (1552 – September 12, 1612) was the last Rurikid tsar of Russia between 1606 and 1610. ... Events January 27 - The trial of Guy Fawkes and other conspirators begins ending in their execution on January 31 May 17 - Supporters of Vasili Shusky invade the Kremlin and kill Premier Dmitri December 26 - Shakespeares King Lear performed in court Storm buries a village of St Ismails near... The Ingrian War, which lasted from 1610 to 1617, was initiated by Sweden against Russia in a final attempt to put a Swedish count on the Russian throne, but ended with a large Swedish territorial gain in the Treaty of Stolbovo See also The De la Gardie Campaign Dymitriads Mikhail... False Dmitry II (Russian: Лжедимитрий II), also called the thief of Tushino, was the second of three pretenders to the Russian throne who claimed to be the youngest son of Ivan the Terrible, tsarevich Dmitry. ... Tushino (Тушино in Russian) is a locality in the north of Moscow. ...


In 1609 Poland intervened into Russian affairs officially, captured Shuisky, and occupied the Kremlin. A group of Russian boyars signed in 1610 a treaty of peace, recognising Ladislaus IV of Poland, son of Polish king Sigismund III Vasa, as tsar. In 1611, False Dmitriy III appeared in the Swedish-occupied territories, but was soon apprehended and executed. The Polish presence led to a patriotic revival among the Russians, and a volunteer army, financed by the Stroganov merchants and blessed by the Orthodox Church, was formed in Nizhny Novgorod and, led by Prince Dmitry Pozharsky and Kuzma Minin, drove the Poles out of the Kremlin. In 1613 a zemsky sobor proclaimed the boyar Mikhail Romanov as tsar, beginning the 300-year reign of the Romanov family. // Events April 4 – King of Spain signs an edit of expulsion of all moriscos from Spain April 9 – Spain recognizes Dutch independence May 23 - Official ratification of the Second Charter of Virginia. ... // Events January 7 - Galileo Galilei discovers the Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... Reign in Poland From November 8, 1632 until May 20, 1648 Reign in Russia From 1610 until 1635 Elected in Poland On November 8, 1632 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Elected in Russia In 1610 Coronation On February 6, 1633 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal... Reign in Poland From September 18, 1587 until April 19, 1632 Reign in Sweden From November 17, 1592 until July 24, 1599 Elected in Poland On September 18, 1587 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation in Poland On December 27, 1587 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland... False Dmitriy III, also called Pseudo-Demetrius III (Russian: Лжедимитрий III), was the last and most enigmatic of three pretenders to the Russian throne who claimed to be the youngest son of Ivan the Terrible, tsarevich Dmitry. ... Stroganovs or Strogonovs (Строгановы, Строгоновы in Russian), also spelled in French manner as Stroganoffs, was a family of highly successful Russian merchants, industrialists, landowners, and statesmen of the 16th - 20th centuries that eventually earned nobility. ... Nizhny Novgorod (Russian: ), colloquially shortened as Nizhny and also transliterated into English as Nizhniy Novgorod or Nizhni Novgorod or Nizhnii Novgorod, is the fourth largest city of Russia, ranking after Moscow, St. ... Pozharsky and Minin monument (1804-16) in front of Saint Basils Cathedral Dmitry Mikhaylovich Pozharsky (Russian: Дми́трий Миха́йлович Пожа́рский, Polish: Dymitr Pożarski) (November 1, 1578 - April 30, 1642) was a Rurikid prince who obtainted from the tsar an unprecedented title of the Saviour of Motherland. ... Monument to Kuzma Minin in Nizhny Novgorod Kuzma Minich Minin (Russian: Минин Кузьма Минич) (?-1616) was a Russian patriot who together with Prince Dmitry Pozharsky rallied an army to defend Russia against Polish invasion. ... Events January - Galileo observes Neptune, but mistakes it for a star and so is not credited with its discovery. ... The zemsky sobor (Russian: зе́мский собо́р) was the first Russian parliament of the feudal Estates type, in the 16th and 17th centuries. ... Mikhail at the Ipatiev Monastery by Grigory Ugryumov Mikhail Feodorovich Romanov (In Russian Михаи́л Фёдорович Рома́нов) (July 12, 1596 – July 13, 1645) was the first Russian tsar of the house of Romanov, being the son of Feodor Nikitich Romanov, afterwards the Patriarch Filaret, and Xenia (of disputed family), afterwards the great nun Martha. ... The House of Romanov (Рома́нов, pronounced ) was the second and last imperial dynasty of Russia, which ruled Muscovy and the Russian Empire for five generations from 1613 to 1762. ...


Romanovs

Andrey Ryabushkin. Tsar Michael at the Session of the Boyar Duma.
Andrey Ryabushkin. Tsar Michael at the Session of the Boyar Duma.

The immediate task of the new dynasty was to restore order. Fortunately for Russia, its major enemies, Poland and Sweden, were engaged in a bitter conflict with each other, which provided Russia the opportunity to make peace with Sweden in 1617. The Polish-Muscovite War (1605-1618) was ended with the Truce of Deulino in 1618, restoring temporarily Polish and Lithuanian rule over some territories, including Smolensk, lost by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1509. A Duma (Ду́ма in Russian) is any of various representative assemblies in modern Russia and Russian history. ... Events Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed I (1603-1617) to Mustafa I (1617-1623). ... Combatants Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Muscovite Russia Commanders Strength Casualties The Polish-Muscovite War (1605–1618) is the name of the series of wars (1605–1618) between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Muscovite Russia (or Muscovy), in the background of the Russian dynastic crisis known as the Time of Troubles (1598... Truce of Deulino (also known as Peace or Treaty of Dywilino), was signed in December 1618 and concluded the Dymitriad wars (also known as Polish-Muscovy War of 1605-1618) between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Muscovy. ... Events March 8 - Johannes Kepler discovers the third law of planetary motion (he soon rejects the idea after some initial calculations were made but on May 15 confirms the discovery). ... A view of Smolensk in 1912. ... The presumable banner of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with the coat of arms, called Пагоня in Belarusian, Vytis in Lithuanian and Pogoń in Polish Another version of the Lithuanian banner The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuvos Didžioji Kunigaikštystė, Belarusian: Вялі́кае Кня́ства Літо́ўскае (ВКЛ), Ukrainian: Велике Князівство Литовське (ВКЛ), Polish: Wielkie Księstwo Litewskie) was an... 1509 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The early Romanovs were weak rulers. Under Mikhail, state affairs were in the hands of the tsar's father, Filaret, who in 1619 became patriarch of the Orthodox Church. Later, Mikhail's son Aleksey (r. 1645-1676) relied on a boyarin, Boris Morozov, to run his government. Morozov abused his position by exploiting the populace, and in 1648 Aleksey dismissed him in the wake of the Salt Riot in Moscow. Patriarch Filaret may refer to: Patriarch Filaret of Moscow and All Rus (Feodor Nikitich Romanov), a father of Tzar Michael I of Russia. ... Events May 13 - Dutch statesman Johan van Oldenbarnevelt is executed in The Hague after having been accused of treason. ... Alexei Mikhailovich Romanov (In Russian Алексей Михаилович Романов) (March 9, 1629 (O.S.) - January 29, 1676 (O.S.)) was a Tsar of Russia during some of the most eventful... // Events January 10 - Archbishop Laud executed on Tower Hill, London. ... Events January 29 - Feodor III becomes Tsar of Russia First measurement of the speed of light, by Ole Rømer Bacons Rebellion Russo-Turkish Wars commence. ... Boris Ivanovich Morozov (Борис Иванович Морозов in Russian) (1590 - 1661), Russian statesman and boyar, head of the government in mid 17th century. ... // Events January 17 - Englands Long Parliament passes the Vote of No Address, breaking off negotiations with King Charles I and thereby setting the scene for the second phase of the English Civil War. ... Salt Riot in Kolomenskoe, by N. Nekrasov The Salt Riot, also known as the Moscow Uprising of 1648 (Соляной бунт, Московское восстание 1648 in Russian), was a riot in Moscow in 1648, triggered by the governments substitution of different taxes with a universal direct salt tax for the purpose of replenishing the state...


After an unsuccessful attempt to regain Smolensk from Poland in 1632, Russia made peace with Poland in 1634. Polish king Wladyslaw IV, whose father and predecessor Sigismund III Vasa had been elected by Russian boyars as tsar of Russia during the Time of Troubles, renounced all claims to the title as a condition of the peace treaty. The Smolensk War was a conflict fought in the years 1632- 1634 between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Muscovy. ... See also: 1632 (novel) Events February 22 - Galileos Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is published July 23 - 300 colonists for New France depart Dieppe November 8 - Wladyslaw IV Waza elected king of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth after Zygmunt III Waza death November 16 - Battle of Lützen... Events Moses Amyrauts Traite de la predestination is published Curaçao captured by the Dutch Treaty of Polianovska First meeting of the Académie française The witchcraft affair at Loudun Jean Nicolet lands at Green Bay, Wisconsin Opening of Covent Garden Market in London English establish a settlement... Reign in Poland From November 8, 1632 until May 20, 1648 Reign in Russia From 1610 until 1635 Elected in Poland On November 8, 1632 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Elected in Russia In 1610 Coronation On February 6, 1633 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal... Reign in Poland From September 18, 1587 until April 19, 1632 Reign in Sweden From November 17, 1592 until July 24, 1599 Elected in Poland On September 18, 1587 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation in Poland On December 27, 1587 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland...


Legal code of 1649

Sergei Ivanov. The Voyevoda Arrives in a Provincial Town.
Sergei Ivanov. The Voyevoda Arrives in a Provincial Town.

The autocracy survived the Time of Troubles and the rule of weak or corrupt tsars because of the strength of the government's central bureaucracy. Government functionaries continued to serve, regardless of the ruler's legitimacy or the boyar faction controlling the throne. In the 17th century, the bureaucracy expanded dramatically. The number of government departments (prikazy ; sing., prikaz ) increased from twenty-two in 1613 to eighty by mid-century. Although the departments often had overlapping and conflicting jurisdictions, the central government, through provincial governors, was able to control and regulate all social groups, as well as trade, manufacturing, and even the Orthodox Church. (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Prikaz (Russian: ) was an administrative (palace, civil, military, or church) or judicial office in Muscovy and Russia of 15th-18th centuries. ... Events January - Galileo observes Neptune, but mistakes it for a star and so is not credited with its discovery. ...


The Sobornoye Ulozheniye, a comprehensive legal code introduced in 1649, illustrates the extent of state control over Russian society. By that time, the boyars had largely merged with the new elite, who were obligatory servitors of the state, to form a new nobility, the dvoryanstvo. The state required service from both the old and the new nobility, primarily in the military because of permanent warfare on southern and western borders and attacks of nomads. In return, the nobility received land and peasants. In the preceding century, the state had gradually curtailed peasants' rights to move from one landlord to another; the 1649 code officially attached peasants to their domicile. // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ... // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ...


The state fully sanctioned serfdom, and runaway peasants became state fugitives. Landlords had complete power over their peasants . Peasants living on state-owned land, however, were not considered serfs. They were organized into communes, which were responsible for taxes and other obligations. Like serfs, however, state peasants were attached to the land they farmed. Middle-class urban tradesmen and craftsmen were assessed taxes, and, like the serfs, they were forbidden to change residence. All segments of the population were subject to military levy and to special taxes. By chaining much of Muscovite society to specific domiciles, the legal code of 1649 curtailed movement and subordinated the people to the interests of the state. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Ivan Goryushkin-Sorokopudov. Market Day at the Old Town (1910).
Ivan Goryushkin-Sorokopudov. Market Day at the Old Town (1910).

Under this code, increased state taxes and regulations exacerbated the social discontent that had been simmering since the Time of Troubles. In the 1650s and 1660s, the number of peasant escapes increased dramatically. A favorite refuge was the Don River region, domain of the Don Cossacks. A major uprising occurred in the Volga region in 1670 and 1671. Stenka Razin, a Cossack who was from the Don River region, led a revolt that drew together wealthy Cossacks who were well established in the region and escaped serfs seeking free land. The unexpected uprising swept up the Volga River valley and even threatened Moscow. Tsarist troops finally defeated the rebels after they had occupied major cities along the Volga in an operation whose panache captured the imaginations of later generations of Russians. Razin was publicly tortured and executed. Image File history File links Ivan Goryushkin-Skoropudov. ... Image File history File links Ivan Goryushkin-Skoropudov. ... Significant Events and Trends World Leaders King Frederick III of Denmark (1648 - 1670). ... Events and Trends Samuel Pepys begins his famous diary in 1660 and ends it, due to failing eyesight in 1669. ... The Don (Дон) is one of the major rivers of Russia. ... Don Cossacks refers to cossacks that settled along the Don River, Russia it its lower and middle parts. ... 1670 was a common year beginning on a Saturday in countries using the Julian calendar and a Wednesday in countries using the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 9 - Thomas Blood, disguised as a clergyman, attempts to steal the Crown Jewels from the Tower of London. ... Stepan (Stenka) Timofeyevich Razin (Степан (Стенька) Тимофеевич Разин in Russian) (1630 - 6. ...


Unification with Ukraine and Raskol

Russia continued its territorial growth through the 17th century. In the south-west, it acquired eastern Ukraine, which had been under Polish rule. The Ukrainian Cossacks, warriors organized in military formations, lived in the frontier areas bordering Poland, the Crimean Tatar lands, and Russia. Although they had served in the Polish army as mercenaries, the Cossacks of the Zaporozhian Host remained fiercely independent and staged a number of rebellions against the Poles. In 1648, the peasants of Ukraine joined the Cossacks in rebellion during the Khmelnytsky Uprising, because of the social and religious oppression they suffered under Polish rule. Initially, Ukrainians were allied with Crimean Tatars, which had helped them to throw off Polish rule. Once the Poles convinced the Tartars to switch sides, the Ukrainians needed military help to maintain their position. (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Ottoman Empire. ... The Crimean Tatars (Qırımtatar (aka Qırım, Qırımlı and Qırım türkü), Pl. ... The Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Turkey. ... // Events January 17 - Englands Long Parliament passes the Vote of No Address, breaking off negotiations with King Charles I and thereby setting the scene for the second phase of the English Civil War. ... Chmielnicki Uprising or Chmielnicki Rebellion is the name of a civil war in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the years 1648–1654. ... The Crimean Tatars (Qırımtatar (aka Qırım, Qırımlı and Qırım türkü), Pl. ...


In 1654 the Ukrainian leader, Bohdan Khmelnytsky, offered to place Ukraine under the protection of the Muscovite tsar, Aleksey I. Aleksey's acceptance of this offer, which was ratified in the Treaty of Pereyaslav, led to a protracted war between Poland and Russia. The Treaty of Andrusovo, which ended the war in 1667, split Ukraine along the river Dnieper, reuniting the western sector (or Right-bank Ukraine) with Poland and leaving the eastern sector (Left-bank Ukraine) as the Cossack Hetmanate, self-governing under the suzerainty of the tsar. Bohdan Zynovii Mykhailovych Khmelnytskyi (Ukrainian: Богдан Зиновій Михайлович Хмельницький, commonly transliterated as Khmelnytsky; known in Polish as Bohdan Zenobi Chmielnicki; in Russian as Богда́н Хмельни́цкий (Bogdan Khmelnitsky)) ( 1595 — August 6, 1657) was a famous and a somewhat controversial leader of the Zaporozhian Cossack Hetmanate, hetman of Ukraine. ... Alexei Mikhailovich Romanov (In Russian Алексей Михаилович Романов) (March 9, 1629 (O.S.) - January 29, 1676 (O.S.)) was a Tsar of Russia during some of the most eventful... Pereyaslav Rada The Treaty of Pereyaslav was concluded in 1654 in the Ukrainian city of Pereyaslav during the meeting known as Pereyaslavska Uhoda (Pereyaslav Treaty). ... The Russo-Polish War of 1654-1667, also called the War for Ukraine, was the last major conflict between Muscovite Russia and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Treaty of Andrusovo, 1667 (Polish Rozejm w Andruszowie, Russian Андрусовское перемирие, Ukrainian Андрусівське переми&#1088... // Events January 20 - Poland cedes Kyiv, Smolensk, and eastern Ukraine to Russia in the Treaty of Andrusovo that put a final end to the Deluge, and Poland lost its status as a Central European power. ... This article is about the river. ... Right-bank Ukraine (Ukrainian: Правобережна Україна Russian: Правобережная Украина; Polish: Prawobrzeżna Ukraina), a... Left-bank Ukraine (Ukrainian: Лівобережна Україна Russian: Левобережная Украина, Polish: Lewobrzeżna Ukraina ): historic name of... The Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan of Turkey. ...

Apollinary Vasnetsov. An Old Russian Town.
Apollinary Vasnetsov. An Old Russian Town.

Russia's southwestern expansion, particularly its incorporation of eastern Ukraine, had unintended consequences. Most Ukrainians were Orthodox, but their close contact with the Roman Catholic and the Polish Counter-Reformation also brought them Western intellectual currents. Through the Academy in Kiev, Russia gained links to Polish and Central European influences and to the wider Orthodox world. Although the Ukrainian link stimulated creativity in many areas, it also undermined traditional Russian religious practices and culture. The Russian Orthodox Church discovered that its isolation from Constantinople had caused variations to creep into its liturgical books and practices. Mikhail Nesterov: Portrait of Apollinary Vasnetsov. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy, NaUKMA (Ukrainian: Національний університет «Києво-Могилянська академія» Natsionalnyi universytet Kyyevo-Mohylianska akademiya, НаУКМА), located in Kyiv (Kyiv is the Ukranian to English transliteration while Kiev is the Russian to English transliteration. ... Map of Constantinople. ...


The Russian Orthodox patriarch, Nikon, was determined to bring the Russian texts back into conformity with the Greek originals. But Nikon encountered fierce opposition among the many Russians who viewed the corrections as improper foreign intrusions, or perhaps the work of the devil. When the Orthodox Church forced Nikon's reforms, a schism resulted in 1667. Those who did not accept the reforms came to be called the Old Believers; they were officially pronounced heretics and were persecuted by the church and the state. The chief opposition figure, the protopope Abbacum, was burned at the stake. The split subsequently became permanent, and many merchants and peasants joined the Old Believers. Nikon (Ни́кон), born Nikita Minin (1605-1681), was patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church from 1652 to 1658. ... // Events January 20 - Poland cedes Kyiv, Smolensk, and eastern Ukraine to Russia in the Treaty of Andrusovo that put a final end to the Deluge, and Poland lost its status as a Central European power. ... In the context of Russian Orthodox church history, the Old Believers (Russian: ) separated after 1666 - 1667 from the hierarchy of the Russian Orthodox Church as a protest against church reforms introduced by Patriarch Nikon. ...


The tsar's court also felt the impact of Ukraine and the West. Kiev was a major transmitter of new ideas and insight through the famed scholarly academy that Metropolitan Mohyla founded there in 1631. Among the results of this infusion of ideas into Russia were baroque styles of architecture, literature, and icon painting. Other more direct channels to the West opened as international trade increased and more foreigners came to Russia. The tsar's court was interested in the West's more advanced technology, particularly when military applications were involved. By the end of the 17th century, Ukrainian, Polish, and West European penetration had undermined the Muscovite cultural synthesis--at least among the elite--and had prepared the way for an even more radical transformation. Peter Mogila Peter Mogila (Ukrainian: Петро Могила, Petro Mohyla; Romanian: Petru Movilă; Russian: Pyotr Mogila; December 21, 1596 â€“ December 22, 1646) was a Metropolitan of Kiev and Galicia from 1633 until his death. ... // Events February 5 - Roger Williams emigrates to Boston. ... Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... The Assumption church in Pokrovka Street, Moscow (1696-99) Naryshkin Baroque, also called Moscow Baroque, or Muscovite Baroque, is the name given to a particular style of architecture and decoration which was fashionable in Moscow at the turn of the 17th and 18th centuries. ... Saviour Not Made by Hands, written by Ushakov for the Troitse-Sergiyeva Lavra in 1658, is a key painting of the Stroganov School of Muscovite icon-painting. ...


Conquest of Siberia

Vasily Surikov. Yermak's Conquest of Siberia.
Vasily Surikov. Yermak's Conquest of Siberia.

Russia's eastward expansion encountered relatively little resistance. In 1581 the Stroganov merchant family, interested in fur trade, hired a Cossack leader, Yermak Timofeyevich, to lead an expedition into western Siberia. Yermak defeated the Siberia Khanate and claimed the territories west of the Ob' and Irtysh rivers for Russia. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (900x433, 84 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): History of Siberia Age of Discovery ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (900x433, 84 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): History of Siberia Age of Discovery ... Self-Portrait Vasily Ivanovich Surikov (Василий Иванович Суриков) (January 24, 1848 (Julian calendar: January 12) – March 19, 1916 (Julian calendar: March 6)) was the foremost Russian painter of large-scale historical subjects. ... Events January 16 - English Parliament outlaws Roman Catholicism April 4 - Francis Drake completes a circumnavigation of the world and is knighted by Elizabeth I. July 26 - The Northern Netherlands proclaim their independence from Spain in the Oath of Abjuration. ... Stroganovs or Strogonovs (Строгановы, Строгоновы in Russian), also spelled in French manner as Stroganoffs, was a family of highly successful Russian merchants, industrialists, landowners, and statesmen of the 16th - 20th centuries that eventually earned nobility. ... Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Ottoman Empire. ... Yermak Timofeyevich (Russian: Ерма́к Тимофе́евич, also Ermak) (born between 1532 and 1542 — August 5 or 6, 1585), Cossack leader and explorer of Siberia. ... Siberian Federal District (darker red) and the broadest definition of Siberia (red) Udachnaya pipe Siberia (Russian: , Sibir; Tatar: ) is a vast region of Russia constituting almost all of Northern Asia. ... Siberia Khanate is an anachronistic rendering of its actual name Khanate of Sibir, a Tatar khanate in the later Russian Siberia. ... Ob River ... Irtysh (Иртыш ; Kazakh: Ertis / Эртiс ; Tatar: Ä°rteÅŸ / Иртеш ; Chinese: Erqisi / 额尔齐斯河) a river in Central Asia, the chief tributary of the river Ob. ...


From such bases as Mangazeya, merchants, traders, and explorers pushed eastward from the Ob' River to the Yenisey River, then to the Lena River and to the Coast of Pacific. In 1648 Cossack Semyon Dezhnev opened the passage between America and Asia. By the middle of the 17th century, Muscovites had reached the Amur River and the outskirts of the Chinese Empire. Mangazeya was a Northwest Siberian trans-Ural trade colony and later city in the 16-17th centuries. ... Ob River ... Енисей Length 5,550 (4,102) km Elevation of the source m Average discharge 19,600 m³/s Area watershed 2,580,000 km² Origin  ? Mouth Arctic Ocean Basin countries Russia The Yenisei basin, Lake Baikal, and the cities of Dikson, Dudinka, Turukhansk, Krasnoyarsk, Irkutsk... The Lena River (Russian: Ле́на) in Siberia is the 10th longest river in the world and has the 9th largest watershed. ... Semion Ivanovich Dezhnev (Семён Ива́нович Дежнёв) (circa 1605 – 1673), Russian explorer who led the expedition that doubled the known extent of the easternmost promontory of the Eurasian continent in 1648, discovering that... The Amur (Russian: Амур) (Simplified Chinese: 黑龙江; Traditional Chinese: 黑龍江; Hēilóng Jiāng, literally meaning Black Dragon River) (Mongolian: Хара-Мурэн, Khara-Muren or Black River) (Manchu: Sahaliyan Ula, literal meaning Black... China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ...


After a period of conflict with the Manchu Dynasty, Russia made peace with China in 1689. By the Treaty of Nerchinsk, Russia ceded its claims to the Amur Valley, but it gained access to the region east of Lake Baikal and the trade route to Beijing. Peace with China consolidated the initial breakthrough to the Pacific that had been made in the middle of the century. The Qing Dynasty (Manchu: daicing gurun; Chinese: 清朝; pinyin: qīng cháo; Wade-Giles: ching chao), sometimes known as the Manchu Dynasty, was founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China expanded into China proper and the surrounding territories of... Events Louis XIV of France passed the Code Noir, allowing the full use of slaves in the French colonies. ... Nerchinsk Treaty was the first treaty between Russia and China. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... Beijing [English Pronunciation] (Chinese: 北京 [Chinese Pronunciation]; Pinyin: BÄ›ijÄ«ng; IPA: ), a metropolis in northern China, is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ...


Early Imperial Russia

Main article: Russian Empire
Ilya Repin. Two Tsars: Peter I and Ivan V.
Ilya Repin. Two Tsars: Peter I and Ivan V.

The following article in the series describes how in the 18th century, Russia was transformed from a static, somewhat isolated, traditional state into the more dynamic, partially Westernized, and secularized Russian Empire. This transformation was in no small measure a result of the vision, energy, and determination of Peter the Great. Historians disagree about the extent to which Peter himself transformed Russia, but they generally concur that he laid the foundations for empire building over the next two centuries. The era that Peter initiated signaled the advent of Russia as a major European power. But, although the Russian Empire would play a leading political role in the next century, its retention of serfdom precluded economic progress of any significant degree. As West European economic growth accelerated during the Industrial Revolution, which had begun in the second half of the eighteenth century, Russia began to lag ever farther behind, creating new problems for the empire as a great power. Official language Russian Official Religion Russian Orthodox Christianity Capital Saint Petersburg (Petrograd 1914-1924) Area Approx. ... Ilyá Yefímovich Répin (Илья́ Ефи́мович Ре́пин) (August 5, 1844 (Julian calendar: July 24) – September 29, 1930) was a leading Russian painter and sculptor of the Peredvizhniki artistic... Peter was a tall figure, with an extremely striking build of 2. ... Categories: People stubs | 1666 births | 1696 deaths | Russian tsars ... Official language Russian Official Religion Russian Orthodox Christianity Capital Saint Petersburg (Petrograd 1914-1924) Area Approx. ... Peter was a tall figure, with an extremely striking build of 2. ... A Watt steam engine in Madrid. ...


Key texts

  • Grigory Kotoshikhin's Russia during the reign of Alexey Mikhailovich (1665) is the indispensable source for those studying administration of the Muscovite tsardom
  • Domostroy is a 16th-century set of rules regulating everyday behaviour in the Muscovite boyar families.

Manuscript of Kotoshikhins book Grigory Karpovich Kotoshikhin (Григорий Карпович Котошихин in Russian) (c. ... Russian merchant family at the Domostroy times Domostroy (Russian: Домострой), loosely translated as The Household Management, is a 16th-century Muscovite set of household rules, instructions and advices pertaining to various religious, social, domestic, and family matters. ...

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