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Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian царь , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car' ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. Serbian (српски језик; srpski jezik) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... Image File history File links Ru-tsar. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... A monarch (see sovereignty) is a type of ruler or head of state. ...


Originally, and indeed during most of its history, the title tsar (derived from Caesar) meant Emperor in the European medieval sense of the term, i.e., a ruler who has the same rank as a Roman or Byzantine emperor (or, according to Byzantine ideology, the most elevated position next to the one held by the Byzantine monarch) due to recognition by another emperor or a supreme ecclesiastical official (the Pope or the Ecumenical Patriarch). Occasionally, the word could be used to designate other, non-Christian supreme rulers. In Russia and Bulgaria, the imperial connotations of the term were blurred with time and by the 19th century it had come to be viewed as an equivalent of king,[1].[2] The modern languages of these countries use it as a general term for a monarch.[3][4] For example, the title of the Bulgarian monarchs in the 20th century was not generally interpreted as imperial. Caesar (plural Caesars), Latin: Cæsar (plural Cæsares), is a title of imperial character. ... An emperor is a (male) monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope of Rome... The Patriarch of Constantinople is the Ecumenical Patriarch, the first among equals in the Eastern Orthodox Communion. ... A monarch (see sovereignty) is a type of ruler or head of state. ...


"Tsar" was the official title of the supreme ruler in the following states:

Contents

Events The Shiite Fatimid state in modern day Tunisia launches a failed military campaign against Egypt Births Deaths Eadwulf, Anglo-Saxon Earl of Bernicia who ruled the land north of the Tees Alexander III of Byzantium Categories: 913 ... // Team# 1018 Pike High School Robotics Team Team #1018 FIRST Logo Check Out Our FIRST WIKI Page Events Bulgaria becomes part of the Byzantine Empire. ... Events April 25 - Genpei War - Naval battle of Dan-no-ura leads to Minamoto victory in Japan Templars settle in London and begin the building of New Temple Church End of the Heian Period and beginning of the Kamakura period in Japan. ... Events January 10 - Battle of Nemecky Brod during the Hussite Wars. ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... --> Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian language 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 8th century   -  First unified state c. ... // Events Serbian Empire was proclaimed in Skopje by Dusan Silni, occupying much of the South-Eastern Europe Foundation of the University of Valladolid Foundation of Pembroke College, University of Cambridge August 26 Battle of Crecy after which Edward the Black Prince honored the bravery of John I, Count of Luxemburg... Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Kogon of Japan, fourth of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders Start of the reign of Emperor Go-Enyu of Japan, fifth and last of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders Charterhouse Carthusian Monastery founded in Aldersgate, London. ... Events March 6 - Treaty of Toledo - Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain recognize African conquests of Afonso of Portugal and he cedes the Canary Islands to Spain Great standing on the Ugra river - Muscovy becomes independent from the Golden Horde. ... Year 1547 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... // Events Pope Innocent XIII becomes pope Johann Sebastian Bach composes the Brandenburg Concertos April 4 - Robert Walpole becomes the first prime minister of Britain September 10 - Treaty of Nystad is signed, bringing an end to the Great Northern War November 2 - Peter I is proclaimed Emperor of All the Russias... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ...

Etymology and spelling

The word tsar (царь, car' ) is a contraction of the earlier tsesarѣсарь, cěsar' ), derived from the Roman title Caesar, but not from its devalued Byzantine derivative Kaisar (Καίσαρ). Originally the name of the deified dictator Caesar and then of his adopted son, the first emperor Augustus, the word Caesar came to designate the Roman emperor, together with the additional titles of Imperator and Augustus, and the Republican dignity of Princeps (designating the foremost senator). From the Antonine period the title Caesar by itself was also granted to junior associates in imperial power or heirs-designate, with which its importance started to decline. This is expressed even more clearly in Diocletian's Tetrarchy 293306, in which power was shared between two senior emperors (Augusti) and two junior emperors (Caesares). In the Byzantine period the title Caesar (in Greek Kaisar) ceased to imply imperial association or the promise of succession to the throne, and after the Komnenian reforms, it was outranked by new titles such as despotēs and sebastokratōr. Caesar (plural Caesars), Latin: Cæsar (plural Cæsares), is a title of imperial character. ... Gaius Julius Caesar [1] (Latin pronunciation ; English pronunciation ; July 12 or July 13, 100 BC or 102 BC–March 15, 44 BC), was a Roman military and political leader and one of the most influential men of classical antiquity. ... For other uses, see Augustus (disambiguation). ... The Latin word imperator was a title originally roughly equivalent to commander during the period of the Roman Republic. ... Augustus (plural augusti) is Latin for majestic, the increaser, or venerable. The feminine form is Augusta. ... The Latin word Princeps (plural: principes) means the first. This article is devoted to a number of specific historical meanings the word took, by far the most important of which follows first. ... The Antonines most often referred to were two successive Roman Emperors who ruled between A.D. 138 and 180: Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius, famous for their skilled leadership. ... Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (c. ... The Tetrarchs, a porphyry sculpture sacked from a Byzantine palace in 1204, Treasury of St. ... Events March 1 - Diocletian and Maximian appoint Constantius Chlorus and Galerius as Caesars. ... Events July 25 - Constantine I proclaimed Roman Emperor by his troops. ... Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus The Comnenus or Komnenos family was an important dynasty in the history of the Byzantine Empire. ... Despotes (Greek DespotÄ“s, feminine Despoina, Bulgarian and Serbian Despot, feminine Despotica, sometimes Anglicized Despot), is a Byzantine court title, also granted in the Latin Empire, Bulgaria, Serbia, and the Empire of Trebizond. ...


Like German Kaiser, Old Church Slavonic tsesarѣсарь) was derived directly from the Roman title Caesar, and not from the lower-ranking Byzantine Kaisar, as can be seen from etymological development and the coexistence of the distinct terms tsesar (цѣсарь) and kesar (кесарь) with different meanings (corresponding to, respectively the Byzantine Emperor (Basileus) and Byzantine Kaisar) in early Cyrillic texts. The word is thus cognate with German Kaiser, Gothic káisar, Dutch keizer, Danish kejser, Swedish kejsare, Norwegian keisar/keiser, and (through Slavonic) Hungarian császár. The contraction of tsesar (цѣсарь) into tsar (царь) occurred by the way of shorthand writing of titles in Slavonic manuscripts (see Titlo article). One may see examples of this in the East Slavic Primary Chronicle. The first attested examples seem to date from the 10th-century grave inscription of Mostič from Preslav (see under Bulgaria below). This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Old Church Slavonic (Old Bulgarian or Old Slavic) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavic dialect of Thessaloniki (Solun) by the 9th century Byzantine missionaries, Saints Cyril and Methodius. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (pronounced also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is an alphabet used for several East and South Slavic languages—Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian—and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Gothic is an extinct Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths. ... Titlo is an extended diacritic symbol used in old Cyrillic manuscripts, e. ... The Russian Primary Chronicle (Russian: Повесть временных лет, Povest vremennykh let, which is often translated in English as Tale of Bygone Years), is a history of the early East Slavic state, Kievan Rus, from... Plan of Preslav Preslav (Bulgarian: Преслав) was capital of the First Bulgarian Empire from 893 to 972. ...


Modern usage seems to have standardized on the use of tsar to describe former rulers of Russia (and often Bulgaria and Serbia), while czar is used to informally describe an expert in charge of implementing policy (especially in the US): economics czar, drug czar, etc.


The Russian pronunciation of tsar is [ʦarʲ], the Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian one [tsar] (in IPA notation) though many if not most English-speaking people pronounce it considerably differently: [zɑr] or [zɑ:]. Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ...


The spelling tsar is the closest possible transliteration of the original using standard English spelling, while the scholarly transliteration is car, with the letter 'c' standing for 'ц' ('ts') in Slavic languages employing the Latin alphabet (e.g., Serbian, Czech, Polish). Tsar has been accepted in Standard English for the last century as a correct usage. The use of "czar" is typically found in American English and has also been accepted into general use for more than a century there. The French adopted the form tsar during the 19th century, and it became more frequent in English towards the end of that century, following its adoption by The Times (see the Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition). The spelling tzar with 'z' is also very common, and represents an alternative transliteration of the first letter ц, derived from German. Transliteration is the practice of transcribing a word or text written in one writing system into another writing system. ... Proper spelling is the writing of a word or words with all necessary letters and diacritics present in an accepted standard order. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom since 1785, and under its current name since 1788. ... The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is generally regarded as the most comprehensive and scholarly dictionary of the English language. ... Tse (Ц, ц) is a letter in the Cyrillic alphabet. ...


The early spelling czar originated with the Austrian diplomat Baron Sigismund von Herberstein, whose Rerum Moscoviticarum Commentarii (1549), 'Notes on Muscovite Affairs', was the main source of knowledge of Russia in early modern western Europe, while not found in any of the Slavic languages. Siegmund (Sigismund) Freiherr von Herberstein[1], (or Baron Sigismund von Herberstein), (August 23, 1486—March 28, 1566), Austrian diplomat, writer and historian. ... Rerum Moscoviticarum Commentarii (1549) (literally Notes on Muscovite Affairs) was a book in Latin by Baron Sigismund von Herberstein on the geography, history and customs of Muscovy (the 16th century Russian state). ... Events July - Ketts Rebellion Francis Xavier arrives in Japan. ... The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) comprise the languages of the Slavic peoples. ...


Meaning in the Slavic languages

In contrast to the Latin word "imperator", the Byzantine Greek term basileus had both political and Biblical connotations. In the history of the Greek language, the word originally meant something like "potentate", had gradually approached the meaning of "king" in the Hellenistic Period, and designated "emperor" after the inception in the Roman Empire. As a consequence, Byzantine sources continued to call the Biblical and ancient kings "basileus", even when that word had come to mean "emperor" when referring to contemporary monarchs (while it was never applied to Western European kings, whose title was transliterated from Latin "rex" as ῥήξ, or to other monarchs, for whom designations such as ἄρχων "leader", "chieftain" were used.) A silver coin of the Seleucid king Antiochus I Soter. ... The term Hellenistic (derived from HéllÄ“n, the Greeks traditional self-described ethnic name) was established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to refer to the spreading of Greek culture over the non-Greek people that were conquered by Alexander the Great. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire. ...


As the Greek "basileus" was consistently rendered as "tsar" in Slavonic translations of Greek texts, the dual meaning was transferred into Church Slavonic. Thus, "tsar" was not only used as an equivalent of Latin "imperator" (in reference to the rulers of the Byzantine Empire, the Holy Roman Empire and to native rulers) but was also used to refer to Biblical rulers and ancient kings. In contrast, the title of Western European kings was derived from the name of Charlemagne (Russian korol' , Bulgarian kral) or was transliterated from the Greek ῥήξ as "риксъ".[5] Page from the Spiridon Psalter in Church Slavonic. ... A portrait of Charlemagne by Albrecht Dürer that was painted several centuries after Charlemagnes death. ...


From this ambiguity, the development has moved in different directions in the different Slavic languages. Thus, the Bulgarian and Russian languages no longer use tsar as an equivalent of the term emperor/imperator as it exists in the West European (Latin) tradition. Currently, the term tsar refers to native sovereigns, ancient and Biblical rulers, as well as monarchs in fairy tales and the like. The title of king (Russian korol' , Bulgarian kral) is perceived as alien and is reserved for (West) European royalty (and, by extension, for those modern monarchs outside of Europe whose titles are translated as king in English, roi in French etc.). Foreign monarchs of imperial status, both inside and outside of Europe, ancient as well as modern, are generally called imperator (император), rather than tsar.


In contrast, the Serbian language (along with the closely related Croatian, Bosnian, and Slovene languages) translates "emperor" (Latin imperator) as tsar (car, цар) and not as imperator, whereas the equivalent of king (kralj, краљ) is used to designate monarchs of non-imperial status, Serbian as well as foreign, including Biblical and other ancient rulers - just like Latin "rex".


In the West Slavic languages, the use of the terms is identical to the one in English and German: a king is designated with one term (Czech král, Slovak král' , Polish król), an emperor is designated with another, derived from Caesar as in German (Czech císař, Slovak cisár, Polish cesarz), while the exotic term "tsar" (Czech and Polish car, Slovak cár) is reserved for the Russian emperor. This article or section should be merged with List of West Slavic languages The West Slavic languages is a subdivision of the Slavic language group (q. ...


Bulgaria

Redrawing of the epitaph of ichirgu boila Mostich. Translation (the title Tsar is enclosed): “Here lies Mostich who was ichirgu boila during the reigns of Tsar Simeon and Tsar Peter. At the age of eighty he forsook the rank of ichirgu boila and all of his possessions and became a monk. And so ended his life.” Now in the Museum of Preslav.
Redrawing of the epitaph of ichirgu boila Mostich. Translation (the title Tsar is enclosed): “Here lies Mostich who was ichirgu boila during the reigns of Tsar Simeon and Tsar Peter. At the age of eighty he forsook the rank of ichirgu boila and all of his possessions and became a monk. And so ended his life.” Now in the Museum of Preslav.

The sainted Boris I is sometimes retrospectively referred to as tsar, because at his time Bulgaria was converted to Christianity. However, the title "tsar" (and its Byzantine Greek equivalent "basileus") were actually adopted and used for the first time by his son Simeon I, following a makeshift imperial coronation performed by the Patriarch of Constantinople in 913. After an attempt by the Byzantine Empire to revoke this major diplomatic concession and a decade of intensive warfare, the imperial title of the Bulgarian ruler was recognized by the Byzantine government in 924 and again at the formal conclusion of peace in 927. Since in Byzantine political theory there was place for only two emperors, Eastern and Western (as in the Late Roman Empire), the Bulgarian ruler was crowned basileus as "a spiritual son" of the Byzantian basileus.[6] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 351 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (569 × 971 pixel, file size: 143 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Redrawing of the epitaph of Mostich, Chărgubilya during the reigns of the Bulgarian Tsars Symeon I of Bulgaria and Peter I of Bulgaria from 10th... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 351 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (569 × 971 pixel, file size: 143 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Redrawing of the epitaph of Mostich, Chărgubilya during the reigns of the Bulgarian Tsars Symeon I of Bulgaria and Peter I of Bulgaria from 10th... An epitaph ( literally: on the gravestone in ancient Greek) is text honoring the deceased, most commonly inscribed on a tombstone or plaque. ... Boris I Michail or Boris I Michael (Bulgarian Борис I Михаил)(d. ... The Christianization of Bulgaria is the process of converting 9th-century medieval Bulgaria to Christianity. ... Byzantine Greek is an archaic variant of Greek language derived from Koine which was used by the administration of the Byzantine Empire from 395 until the fall of Constantinople in 1453. ... A silver coin of the Seleucid king Antiochus I Soter. ... Simeon (also Symeon)[1] I the Great (Bulgarian: , transliterated Simeon I Veliki;[2] IPA: ) ruled over Bulgaria from 893 to 927,[3] during the First Bulgarian Empire. ... The Patriarch of Constantinople is the Ecumenical Patriarch, ranking as the first among equals in the Eastern Orthodox communion. ... Events The Shiite Fatimid state in modern day Tunisia launches a failed military campaign against Egypt Births Deaths Eadwulf, Anglo-Saxon Earl of Bernicia who ruled the land north of the Tees Alexander III of Byzantium Categories: 913 ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Events King Athelstan of England succeeds to the throne. ... Events Hubaekje sacks the Silla capital of Gyeongju and places King Gyeongsun on the throne. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire. ...


Some of the earliest attested occurrences of the contraction "tsar" (car' ) from "tsesar" (cěsar' ) are found in the grave inscription of the chărgubilja (ichirgu boila) Mostich, a contemporary of Simeon I and Peter I, from Preslav. Plan of Preslav Preslav (Bulgarian: Преслав) was capital of the First Bulgarian Empire from 893 to 972. ...


It has been hypothesized that Simeon's title was also recognized by a papal mission to Bulgaria in or shortly after 925, as a concession in exchange for a settlement in the Bulgarian-Croatian conflict or a possible attempt to return Bulgaria to union with Rome. Thus, in the later diplomatic correspondence conducted in 1199-1204 between the Bulgarian ruler Kaloyan and Pope Innocent III, Kaloyan — whose self-assumed Latin title was "imperator Bulgarorum et Blachorum" — claims that the imperial crowns of Simeon I, his son Peter I, and of Samuel were somehow derived from the Papacy. The Pope, however, only speaks of reges, kings of Bulgaria in his replies, and eventually grants only that lesser title to Kaloyan, who nevertheless procedes to thank the Pope for the "imperial title" conferred upon him.[7] Events Alfonso IV the Monk becomes king of Leon Ha-Mim proclaims himself a prophet among the Ghomara of Morocco Tomislav, duke of the Croatian duchies of Pannonia and Dalmatia, is crowned King of Croatia at Duvno field. ... Kaloyan Asen, Kalojan, Johannizza, John, The Romankiller (c. ... Innocent III, né Lotario de Conti ( 1161–June 16, 1216), was Pope from January 8, 1198 until his death. ... Simeon (also Symeon)[1] I the Great (Bulgarian: , transliterated Simeon I Veliki;[2] IPA: ) ruled over Bulgaria from 893 to 927,[3] during the First Bulgarian Empire. ... Czar Peter I of Bulgaria (927-969), the son of Czar Simeon the Great of Bulgaria, was married to Maria Irena, the granddaughter of Byzantine Emperor Romanus I Lecapenus. ... Tsar Samuil of Bulgaria (c. ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ...


The title, later augmented with epithets and titles such as autocrat to reflect current Byzantine practice, was used by all of Simeon's successors until the complete conquest of Bulgaria by the Ottoman Empire in 1422. In Latin sources the Emperor of Bulgaria is sometimes designated "Emperor of Zagora" (with variant spellings). Various additional epithets and descriptions apart, the official style read "Emperor and autocrat of all Bulgarians and Greeks". Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (İstanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish (official); spoken languages include Abkhazian, Adyghe, Albanian, Arabic, Aramaic, Armenian, Azerbaijani... Events January 10 - Battle of Nemecky Brod during the Hussite Wars. ...


During the five-century period of Ottoman rule in Bulgaria, the sultan was fequently referred to as "tsar". This may be related to the fact that he had claimed the legacy of the Byzantine Empire or to the fact that the sultan was called "Basileus" in medieval Greek. After falling almost entirely under Ottoman rule in the end of the 14th century, the Bulgarian state ceased to exist as an independent entity and remained part of the Ottoman Empire for nearly five centuries until 1878. ... Sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ...


After Bulgaria's liberation from the Ottomans in 1878, its new monarchs were at first autonomous prince (knjaz). With the declaration of full independence, Ferdinand I of Bulgaria adopted the traditional title "tsar" in 1908 and it was used until the abolition of the monarchy in 1946. (In the same way as the modern rulers of Greece used the traditional title of basileus in Greek and the title of "king" or "roi" in English and French). However, these titles weren't generally perceived as equivalents of "Emperor" any longer. In the Bulgarian as in the Greek vernacular, the meaning of the title had shifted[8] (although Paisius' Slavonic-Bulgarian History (1760-1762) had still distinguished between the two concepts) and the rulers of these countries were recognized only as kings by international diplomacy. 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Kniaz’ or knyaz is a word found in some Slavic languages. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... A silver coin of the Seleucid king Antiochus I Soter. ... Paisius may refer to: Paisius I, the Patriarch of Jerusalem Saint Paisius of Hilendar (Paisiy Hilendarski), an 18th century Bulgarian National Revival figure Paisius Velichkovsky, the founder of modern Eastern Orthodox staretsdom Category: ... A page from the book Istoriya Slavyanobolgarskaya (Cyrillic: История славяноболгарская; История славянобългарска in modern Bulgarian, translated as Slavonic-Bulgarian History) is a book by Bulgarian scholar and clergyman Saint Paisius of Hilendar. ...


Russia

The term "tsar" was used once by Church officials of Kievan Rus in the naming of Yaroslav the Wise of Kiev. This may be connected to Yaroslav's war against Byzantium and to his efforts to distance himself from Constantinople. However, other princes of Kievan Rus never called themselves as "tsars"[9] After the fall of Constantinople to the Crusaders and the Mongol invasion of Rus, the term "tsar" was applied by some people of Kievan Rus to the Mongol (Tatar) overlords of the Rus' principalities. Yet the first Russian ruler to openly break with the khan, Mikhail of Tver, assumed the title of "Basileus of Rus" and "tsar".[10] Kievan Rus′ (Ки́евская Ру́сь, Kievskaya Rus in Russian; Київська Русь, Kyivs’ka Rus’ in Ukrainian) was the early, mostly East Slavic¹ state dominated by the... Yaroslav I the Wise (978?-1054) (Christian name: Yury, or George) was thrice prince of Novgorod and Kiev, uniting the two principalities for a time under his rule. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587. ... Kievan Rus′ (Ки́евская Ру́сь, Kievskaya Rus in Russian; Київська Русь, Kyivs’ka Rus’ in Ukrainian) was the early, mostly East Slavic¹ state dominated by the... The Mongol Invasion of Rus was heralded by the Battle of the Kalka River (1223) between Subutais reconnaissance unit and the combined force of several princes of Rus. After fifteen years of peace, it was followed by Batu Khans full-scale invasion in 1237-40. ... Kievan Rus′ (Ки́евская Ру́сь, Kievskaya Rus in Russian; Київська Русь, Kyivs’ka Rus’ in Ukrainian) was the early, mostly East Slavic¹ state dominated by the... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Tatars (Tatar: Tatarlar/Татарлар), sometimes spelled Tartar (more about the name), is a collective name applied to the Turkic speaking people of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. ... Mikhail Yaroslavich (Михаил Ярославич in Russian) (1271 - November 22, 1318), Prince of Tver (since 1285) and Grand Prince of Vladimir (1305-1317). ...


Following his assertion of independence from the Golden Horde and perhaps also his marriage to an heiress of the Byzantine Empire, "Veliki Kniaz" Ivan III of Muscovy started to use the title of tsar regularly in diplomatic relations with the West. From about 1480, he is designated as "imperator" in his Latin correspondence, as "keyser" in his correspondence with the Swedish regent, as "kejser" in his correspondence with the Danish king, Teutonic Knights, and the Hanseatic League. Ivan's son Vasily III continued using these titles, as his Latin letters to Clement VII testify: "Magnus Dux Basilius, Dei gratia Imperator et Dominator totius Russiae, nec non Magnus Dux Woldomeriae", etc. (In the Russian version of the letter, "imperator" corresponds to "tsar"). Herberstein correctly observed that the titles of "kaiser" and "imperator" were attempts to render the Russian term "tsar" into German and Latin, respectively.[11] The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Ordyn Uls; Turkish: ; Tatar: ; Russian: ) was a Mongol[1][2][3][4] — later Turkicized[3] — khanate established in parts of present-day Russia... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... The title of Grand Duke (Latin, Magnus Dux; German, Großherzog, Russian, Великий князь) used in Slavic, Baltic, and Germanic countries, is ranked in honour below King but higher than a sovereign Duke (Herzog) or Prince (Fürst). ... Albus rex Ivan III Ivan III Vasilevich (Иван III Васильевич) (January 22, 1440, Moscow – October 27, 1505, Moscow), also known as Ivan the Great, was a grand duke of Muscovy who first adopted a more pretentious title of the grand duke of all the Russias. Sometimes referred to as the gatherer of... Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское)) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... Events March 6 - Treaty of Toledo - Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain recognize African conquests of Afonso of Portugal and he cedes the Canary Islands to Spain Great standing on the Ugra river - Muscovy becomes independent from the Golden Horde. ... Carta marina of the Baltic Sea region (1539). ... Vasili III Ivanovich (Russian: Василий III Иванович, also Basil) (March 25, 1479 – December 3, 1533) was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1505 to 1533. ... For the antipope (1378-1394) see Antipope Clement VII. Pope Clement VII Clement VII, né Giulio di Giuliano de Medici (1478 – September 25, 1534) was pope from 1523 to 1534. ...

Nicholas II, the last Tsar of Russia.
Nicholas II, the last Tsar of Russia.

This was related to Russia's growing ambitions to become an Orthodox "Third Rome", after Constantinople had fallen. The Muscovite ruler was recognized as an emperor by Maximilian I, the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire in 1514.[12] However, the first Russian ruler to be formally crowned as "tsar of all Russia" was Ivan IV, until then known as Grand Prince of all Russia (1547). Some foreign ambassadors — namely, Herberstein (in 1516 and 1525), Daniel Printz a Buchau (in 1576 and 1578) and Just Juel (in 1709) — indicated that the word "tsar" should not be translated as "emperor", because it is applied by Russians to David, Solomon and other Biblical kings, which are simple "reges".[13] On the other hand, Jacques Margeret, a bodyguard of False Demetrius I, argues that the title of "tsar" is more honorable for Muscovites than "kaiser" or "king" exactly because it was God and not some earthly potentate who ordained to apply it to David, Solomon, and other kings of Israel.[14] Samuel Collins, a court physician to Tsar Alexis in 1659-66, styled the latter "Great Emperour", commenting that "as for the word Czar, it has so near relation to Cesar... that it may well be granted to signifie Emperour. The Russians would have it to be an higher Title than King, and yet they call David Czar, and our kings, Kirrols, probably from Carolus Quintus, whose history they have among them".[15] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 603 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1609 × 1600 pixel, file size: 569 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Boris Kustodiyev. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 603 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1609 × 1600 pixel, file size: 569 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Boris Kustodiyev. ... Nicholas II can refer to: Pope Nicholas II Tsar Nicholas II of Russia This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Coat of arms of the last imperial dynasty of the Eastern Roman Empire. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Ottoman Empire Commanders Constantine XI† Loukas Notaras Giovanni Giustiniani†[1] Mehmed II Strength 7,000[2] 80,000[1]-200,000[1][3] Casualties 4,000 dead[4] 10,000 civilian dead[5][6] - The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of the Byzantine capital by... Maximilian I, Emperor of Mexico Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, Duke of Bavaria Maximilian I of Bavaria This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... 1514 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Tsar Ivan the Terrible, by Viktor Vasnetsov Ivan IV Vasilyevich (Russian: ) (August 25, 1530, Moscow â€“ March 18, 1584, Moscow) was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1533 to 1547 and Czar of Russia from 1547 until his death. ... Year 1547 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... False Dmitriy I, Cyrillic Дмитрий (other transliterations: Dmitry, Dmitri, Dmitrii), (ruled 1605-1606) was one of three pretenders to the Russian throne who claimed to be the youngest son of Ivan the Terrible, tsarevich Dmitriy Ivanovich, who had supposedly escaped a 1591 assassination attempt. ... Alexey Mikhailovich Romanov (In Russian Алексей Михаилович Романов) (March 9, 1629 (O.S.) - January 29, 1676 (O.S.)) was a Tsar of Russia during some of the most eventful decades of the mid-17th century. ... Charles (February 24, 1500 – September 21, 1558) was Holy Roman Emperor (as Charles V) from 1519-1558; he was also King of Spain from 1516-1556, officially as Charles I of Spain, although often referred to as Charles V (Carlos Quinto or Carlos V) in Spain and Latin America. ...


In short, the Westerners were at a loss as to how the term "tsar" should be translated properly. In 1670, Pope Clement X expressed doubts that it would be appropriate for him to address Alexis as "tsar", because the word is "barbarian" and because it stands for an "emperor", whereas there is only one emperor in the Christian world and he does not reside in Moscow. Reviewing the matter, abbot Scarlati opined that the term is not translatable and therefore may be used by the Pope without any harm. Paul Menesius, the Russian envoy in Vatican, seconded Scarlati's opinion by saying that there is no adequate Latin translation for "tsar", as there is no translation for "shah" or "sultan". In order to avoid such difficulties of translation and to assert his imperial ambitions more clearly, an edict of Peter I the Great decreed that the Latin-based title imperator should be used instead of "tsar" (1721).[16] Clement X, né Emilio Altieri (Rome, July 13, 1590 - Rome, July 22, 1676) was Pope from 29 April 1670-22 July 1676. ... Peter the Great or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич Pyotr I Alekséyevich) (9 June 1672–8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.][1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his weak and sickly...


The title tsar remained in common usage, and also officially as the designator of various titles signifying rule over various states absorbed by the Muscovite monarchy (such as the former Tatar khanates and the Georgian Orthodox kingdom). In the 18th century, it was increasingly viewed as inferior to "emperor" or highlighting the oriental side of the term.[17] Upon annexing Crimea in 1783, Catherine the Great adopted the hellenicized title of "Tsaritsa of Tauric Chersonesos", rather than "Tsaritsa of the Crimea", as should have been expected. By 1815, when a large part of Poland was annexed, the title had clearly come to be interpreted in Russia as the equivalent of Polish Król "king", and the Russian emperor assumed the title "tsar of Poland",[1] (and the puppet Kingdom of Poland was officially called Królewstwo Polskie in Polish and Царство Польское - Tsardom of Poland - in Russian[18]) (see also Full style of Russian Sovereigns below). Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) on the map of Ukraine. ... Catherine II (Екатерина II Алексеевна: Yekaterína II Alekséyevna, April 21, 1729 - November 6, 1796), born Sophie Augusta Fredericka, known as Catherine the Great, reigned as empress of Russia from... The remains of the city of Chersonesos Chersonesos (Greek: , Latin: , Ukrainian: , Russian: ; see also List of traditional Greek place names) also known as Chersonese, Chersonesos, Cherson, Khersones and Korsun was an ancient Greek colony founded approximately 2500 years ago in the southwestern part of Crimea, known then as Taurica. ... Map of Congress Poland. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ...


Since the word "tsar" remained the popular designation of the Russian ruler despite the official change of style, its transliteration of this title in foreign languages such as English is commonly used also, in fact chiefly, for the Russian Emperors up to 1917. 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ...


Full style of Russian Sovereigns

The full title of Russian emperors started with By the Grace of God, Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias (Божию Милостию, Император и Самодержец Всероссийский [Bozhiyu Milostiyu, Imperator i Samodyerzhets Vserossiysky]) and went further to list all ruled territories. For example, according to the article 59 of the Russian Constitution of April 23, 1906, "the full title of His Imperial Majesty is as follows: We, ------ by the grace of God, Emperor and Autocrat of all the Russias, of Moscow, Kiev, Vladimir, Novgorod, Tsar of Kazan, Tsar of Astrakhan, Tsar of Poland, Tsar of Siberia, Tsar of Tauric Chersonesos, Tsar of Georgia, Lord of Pskov, and Grand Duke of Smolensk, Lithuania, Volhynia, Podolia, and Finland, Prince of Estonia, Livonia, Courland and Semigalia, Samogitia, Belostok, Karelia, Tver, Yugra, Perm, Vyatka, Bulgaria, and other territories; Lord and Grand Duke of Nizhni Novgorod, Sovereign of Chernigov, Ryazan, Polotsk, Rostov, Yaroslavl, Beloozero, Udoria, Obdoria, Kondia, Vitebsk, Mstislavl, and all northern territories; Sovereign of Iveria, Kartalinia, and the Kabardinian lands and Armenian territories - hereditary Lord and Ruler of the Circassians and Mountain Princes and others; Lord of Turkestan, Heir of Norway, Duke of Schleswig, Holstein, Stormarn, Dithmarschen, Oldenburg, and so forth, and so forth, and so forth." By the Grace of God, as well as the various equivalent phrases in other languages thus rendered in English, is not a title in its own right, but a common introductory part of the full styles of many Monarchs, preceding the actual princely styles in chief of the specific realm... The word Russia has been used to refer to several Russian states: Russian Federation, the modern successor state of Russian SFSR and the Soviet Union The Soviet Union, a multinational union of socialist republics Russian SFSR, a soviet republic in the union Bolshevik Russia, the revolutionary state during the Russian... An emperor is a (male) monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. ... An autocrat is generally speaking any ruler with absolute power; the term is now usually used in a negative sense (cf. ... Position of Moscow in Europe Coordinates: Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Government  - Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Area  - City 1,081 km²  (417. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587. ... Vladimir (Влади́мир) is a city in Russia, administrative center of Vladimir Oblast. ... Velikiy Novgorod (Russian: ) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the M10(E95) federal highway connecting Moscow and St. ... Kazan (Russian: ; Tatar: Qazan, Казан) is the capital city of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia, and one of Russias largest cities. ... Astrakhan coat of arms features the Khans crown and a sabre Astrakhan (Russian: ; Tatar: Ästerxan), a major city in southern European Russia and the administrative center of Astrakhan Oblast. ... It has been suggested that Western Siberia be merged into this article or section. ... The Chersonesus Tauricus of Antiquity, shown on a map printed in London, ca 1770 Taurica (Greek: , Latin: ) also known as Tauris, Taurida, Tauric Chersonese, and Chersonesus Taurica was the name of Crimea in Antiquity. ... The remains of the city of Chersonesos Chersonesos (Greek: , Latin: , Ukrainian: , Russian: ; see also List of traditional Greek place names) also known as Chersonese, Chersonesos, Cherson, Khersones and Korsun was an ancient Greek colony founded approximately 2500 years ago in the southwestern part of Crimea, known then as Taurica. ... For other uses, see Lord (disambiguation). ... The Trinity Cathedral (1682-99) is a symbol of Pskovs former might and independence. ... The title of Grand Duke (Latin, Magnus Dux; German, Großherzog, Russian, Великий князь) used in Slavic, Baltic, and Germanic countries, is ranked in honour below King but higher than a sovereign Duke (Herzog) or Prince (Fürst). ... A view of Smolensk in 1912. ... Volhynia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , Russian: ; also called Volynia) comprises the historic region in western Ukraine located between the rivers Prypiat and Western Bug -- to the north of Galicia and of Podolia. ... Historical arms of Podilia The region of Podolia (also spelt Podilia or Podillya) is a historical region in the west-central and south-west portions of present-day Ukraine, corresponding to Khmelnytskyi Oblast and Vinnytsia Oblast. ... The term prince, from the Latin root princeps, is used for a member of the highest ranks of the aristocracy or the nobility. ... Baltic Tribes, ca 1200 CE This article is about the region in Europe. ... Coat of arms of Courland Courland (Latvian: ; German: ; Latin: Curonia / Couronia; Lithuanian: ; Estonian: ; Polish: ; Russian: ) is an historical Baltic province now part of Latvia. ... Zemgale (also historically known as Semigallia or Semigalia) is a historical region of Latvia and sometimes a part of Lithuania is also included. ... Etnographic regions of Lithuania. ... BiaÅ‚ystok (pronounced: , Belarusian: , Lithuanian: , Yiddish ביאַליסטאָק) is the largest city (pop. ... Map showing the parts Karelia is traditionally divided into. ... Tvers coat of arms depicts grand ducal crown placed on a throne. ... Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug, a territory formerly known as Yugra Yugra (Russian: ) was the name of the lands between the Pechora River and Northern Urals in the Russian annals of the 12th–17th centuries, as well as the name of the Khanty and partly Mansi tribes inhabiting these territories. ... Location Position of Perm in Russia Government Country Federal district Federal subject Russia Volga Federal District Perm Krai Mayor Igor Nikolayevich Shubin Geographical characteristics Area  - City    - Land    - Water 799. ... Kirov (Ки́ров) is a city in eastern European Russia, on the Vyatka River, capital of Kirov Oblast. ... Area  - Total 260,000 mi² Population  - City (2003)  - Metropolitan 1,334,249 2 million approx. ... Chernihiv (Чернігів in Ukrainian) is an ancient city in northern Ukraine, the central city of Chernihivska oblast. Some common historical spellings of the name are Polish: Czernichów, and Russian: Чернигов, Chernigov. ... Ryazan (Ряза́нь) is a city in Central Russia federal district, the administrative center of the Ryazan Oblast. ... Polatsk (Belarusian: По́лацак, По́лацк; Polish: Połock, also spelt as Polacak; Russian: По́лоцк, also transliterated as Polotsk, Polotzk, Polock) is the most historic city in Belarus, situated on the Dvina... Rostov (Russian: Росто́в; Old Norse: Rostofa) is one of the oldest towns in Russia and an important tourist centre of the so called Golden ring. ... Yaroslavl (Russian: ) is a city in Russia, the administrative center of Yaroslavl Oblast, located 250 km north-east of Moscow at . ... Belozersk cathedral in 1909. ... Udorsky District is an administrative district of Komi Republic. ... Categories: Russia geography stubs | Cities in Russia ... Kondia is a historic Russian region. ... Coat of arms of Vitebsk. ... AmÅ›cislaÅ­ (Belarusian: ; Russian: ; sometimes Mstislavl) is a town in Belarus, MahiloÅ­ Province. ... Ancient countries of Caucasus: Armenia, Iberia, Colchis and Albania Iberia was a name given by the ancient Greeks and Romans to the ancient Georgian kingdom of Kartli (4th century BC-5th century AD) corresponding roughly to the eastern and southern parts of the present day Georgia. ... Kartli is the largest and most populated province of Eastern Georgia. ... Kabarda, Kabard or Kabarid are simply alternative ways of referring to the Kabar people of the northern Caucasus more commonly known by the plural term Kabardin (or Kebertei as they term themselves). ... Circassia, also known as Cherkessia in Russian, is a region in Caucasia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The region of Schleswig (former English name: Sleswick, Danish: Sønderjylland or Slesvig, Low German: Sleswig, North Frisian: Slaswik or Sleesweg) covers the area about 60 km north and 70 km south of the border between Germany and Denmark. ... Holstein (Hol-shtayn) (Low German: Holsteen, Danish: Holsten, Latin and historical English: Holsatia) is the southern part of Schleswig-Holstein in Germany, between the rivers Elbe and Eider. ... Stormarn is a district in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. ... Dithmarschen is a district in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. ... Oldenburg (Low German: Ollnborg) is an Independent City in Lower Saxony, Germany. ...


For example, Nicholas II of Russia (1 November 1894 - 15 March 1917) was titled as follows (notice the archaic Cyrillic spelling): Nicholas II of Russia (18 May [O.S. 6 May] 1868 – 17 July [O.S. 4 July] 1918) (Russian: , Nikolay II) was the last Emperor of Russia, King of Poland,[1] and Grand Duke of Finland. ...

Божію Поспѣшествующею Милостію МЫ, НИКОЛАЙ ВТОРЫЙ ИМПЕРАТОРЪ и САМОДЕРЖЕЦЪ ВСЕРОССІЙСКІЙ
Московский, Кіевскій, Владимірскій, Новгородскій,
Царь Казанскій, Царь Астраханскій, Царь Польскій, Царь Сибирскій, Царь Херсонеса Таврическаго, Царь Грузинскій,
Государь Псковскій, и
Великій Князь Смоленскій, Литовскій, Волынскій, Подольскій и Финляндскій;
Князь Эстляндскій, Лифляндскій, Курляндскій и Семигальскій, Самогитскій, Бѣлостокский, Корельскій,
Тверскій, Югорскій, Пермскій, Вятскій, Болгарскій и иныхъ;
Государь и Великій Князь Новагорода низовскія земли, Черниговскій, Рязанскій, Полотскій,
Ростовскій, Ярославскій, Бѣлозерскій, Удорскій, Обдорскій, Кондійскій, Витебскій, Мстиславскій и
всея Сѣверныя страны Повелитель; и
Государь Иверскія, Карталинскія и Кабардинскія земли и области Арменскія;
Черкасскихъ и Горскихъ Князей и иныхъ Наслѣдный Государь и Обладатель;
Государь Туркестанскій;
Наслѣдникъ Норвежскій,
Герцогъ Шлезвигъ-Голстинскій, Стормарнскій, Дитмарсенскій и Ольденбургскій, и прочая, и прочая, и прочая.
  • The Emperor's subsidiary title of Tsar of Kazan proclaimed the chief Orthodox dynasty as successor in law to the mighty Islamic khanate of Kazan, not maintaining its 'heathen' (khan) title (as the Ottoman Great Sultans did in several cases), but christening it. It should also be noted that Khans of Kazan were mentioned in Russian chronicles such as Kazan Chronicle as Tsars of Kazan.
  • The Emperor's subsidiary title of Tsar of Siberia is somewhat misleading, as there never was such a kingdom, only a very weak Tatar (Islamic) Khanate of Sibir, easily subdued in the early stages of the exploration and annexation of the hugely larger Siberia, most of it before inhabited by nomadic tribal people without a state in the European sense.[19]
  • The subsidiary title of Tsar in chief of Transcausasian Georgia is the continuation of a royal style of a native dynasty, that had as such been recognized by Russia; it was a new, Slavonic style, imposed after the former regional superpower, which had used native and even Persian styles reflecting imperial pretences, had been reduced to a vassal unable to ward off its mighty neighbours.[20]
  • The subsidiary title of Tsar of Poland demonstrates the Russian Emperors' rule over the legally separate (but actually subordinate) Polish Kingdom, nominally in personal union with Russia, established by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 (hence also called "Congress Poland"), in a sense reviving the royal style of the pre-existent national kingdom of Poland. Internationally and in Poland, the tsars were referred to as Kings (królowie) of Poland.[21]

In some cases, defined by the Code of Laws, the Abbreviated Imperial Title was used: Map of Kazan Khanate, early 1500s The Kazan Khanate (Tatar: Qazan xanlığı; Russian: Казанское ханство) (1438-1552) was a Tatar state on the territory of former Volga Bulgaria with its capital in Kazan. ... Khan (sometimes spelled as Xan, Han, Ke-Han, Luba Goy) is a title. ... Kazan Chronicle (Russian: Казанская летопись) or Story of the Tsardom of Kazan (Russian: История Казанского Царства) is a document written between 1560 and 1565 by a Muscovite chronicler. ... Siberia Khanate is an anachronistic rendering of its actual name Khanate of Sibir, a Tatar khanate in the later Russian Siberia. ... The Congress of Vienna by Jean-Baptiste Isabey, 1819. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... Map of Congress Poland. ...

"We, ------ by the grace of God, Emperor and Autocrat of all the Russias, of Moscow, Kiev, Vladimir, Novgorod, Tsar of Kazan, Tsar of Astrakhan, Tsar of Poland, Tsar of Siberia, Tsar of Tauric Chersonesos, Tsar of Georgia, Lord of Pskov, and Grand Duke of Smolensk, Lithuania, Volhynia, Podolia, and Finland, and so forth, and so forth, and so forth."

In other cases, also defined by the Code of Laws, the Short Imperial Title was used: An emperor is a (male) monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. ... An autocrat is generally speaking any ruler with absolute power; the term is now usually used in a negative sense (cf. ... Position of Moscow in Europe Coordinates: Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Government  - Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Area  - City 1,081 km²  (417. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587. ... Vladimir (Влади́мир) is a city in Russia, administrative center of Vladimir Oblast. ... Velikiy Novgorod (Russian: ) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the M10(E95) federal highway connecting Moscow and St. ... Kazan (Russian: ; Tatar: Qazan, Казан) is the capital city of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia, and one of Russias largest cities. ... Astrakhan coat of arms features the Khans crown and a sabre Astrakhan (Russian: ; Tatar: Ästerxan), a major city in southern European Russia and the administrative center of Astrakhan Oblast. ... It has been suggested that Western Siberia be merged into this article or section. ... The Chersonesus Tauricus of Antiquity, shown on a map printed in London, ca 1770 Taurica (Greek: , Latin: ) also known as Tauris, Taurida, Tauric Chersonese, and Chersonesus Taurica was the name of Crimea in Antiquity. ... The remains of the city of Chersonesos Chersonesos (Greek: , Latin: , Ukrainian: , Russian: ; see also List of traditional Greek place names) also known as Chersonese, Chersonesos, Cherson, Khersones and Korsun was an ancient Greek colony founded approximately 2500 years ago in the southwestern part of Crimea, known then as Taurica. ... For other uses, see Lord (disambiguation). ... The Trinity Cathedral (1682-99) is a symbol of Pskovs former might and independence. ... The title of Grand Duke (Latin, Magnus Dux; German, Großherzog, Russian, Великий князь) used in Slavic, Baltic, and Germanic countries, is ranked in honour below King but higher than a sovereign Duke (Herzog) or Prince (Fürst). ... A view of Smolensk in 1912. ... Volhynia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , Russian: ; also called Volynia) comprises the historic region in western Ukraine located between the rivers Prypiat and Western Bug -- to the north of Galicia and of Podolia. ... Historical arms of Podilia The region of Podolia (also spelt Podilia or Podillya) is a historical region in the west-central and south-west portions of present-day Ukraine, corresponding to Khmelnytskyi Oblast and Vinnytsia Oblast. ...

"We, ------ by the grace of God, Emperor and Autocrat of all the Russias, Tsar of Poland, Grand Duke of Finland, and so forth, and so forth, and so forth."

An emperor is a (male) monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. ... An autocrat is generally speaking any ruler with absolute power; the term is now usually used in a negative sense (cf. ... The title of Grand Duke (Latin, Magnus Dux; German, Großherzog, Russian, Великий князь) used in Slavic, Baltic, and Germanic countries, is ranked in honour below King but higher than a sovereign Duke (Herzog) or Prince (Fürst). ...

Titles in the Russian Royal/Imperial family

Tsaritsa (царица) is the term used for an Empress, though in English contexts this seems invariably to be altered to tsarina (since 1717, from Italian czarina, from German Zarin). In Imperial Russia, the official title was Empress (Императрица). Tsaritsa (Empress) could be either the ruler herself or the wife (Empress consort) of the tsar. The title of tsaritsa is used in the same way in Bulgaria and Serbia. A Tsaritsa (Цари́ца), also called tsarina, czarina, or czaritsa, was the title of Tsars wife or a female autocratic ruler(monarch) of Russia or Bulgaria. ... Emperor is also a Norwegian black metal band; see Emperor (band). ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... King George V of the United Kingdom and his consort, Queen Mary A queen consort is the wife and consort of a reigning king. ...


Tsesarevich (Цесаревич) (literally, "son of the tsar") is the term for a male heir apparent, the full title was Heir Tsesarevich ("Naslednik Tsesarevich", Наследник Цесаревич), informally abbreviated in Russia to The Heir ("Naslednik") (from the capital letter). Tsesarevich was the title of the Heir Apparent to the tsars of Russia, (see Tsar). ... The shield and spear of the Roman god Mars, which is also the alchemical symbol for iron, represents the male sex. ... Contrasting with heir presumptive, an heir apparent is one who cannot be prevented from inheriting by the birth of any other person. ...


Tsarevich (царевич) was the term for a son. In older times the term was used in place of "Tsesarevich" (Цесаревич). A son who was not a heir was formally called Velikii Kniaz (Великий Князь) (Grand Duke or Grand Prince). The latter title was also used for grandsons (through male lines). Tsar, (Bulgarian цар�, Russian царь; often spelled Czar or Tzar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to 1917. ... Kniaz’ or knyaz (князь in Russian and Ukrainian; cneaz in Romanian fem. ... The title of Grand Duke (Latin, Magnus Dux; German, Großherzog, Russian, Великий князь) used in Slavic, Baltic, and Germanic countries, is ranked in honour below King but higher than a sovereign Duke (Herzog) or Prince (Fürst). ... The title Grand Prince (Latin, Magnus Princeps; German, Großfürst, Finnish Suuriruhtinas, Swedish Storfurste, Lithuanian Didysis kunigaikÅ¡tis, Russian Великий князь Velikii kniaz) ranks in honour below Emperor and Tsar but higher than a sovereign Prince (Fürst) or Royal Prince. ...


Tsarevna (царевна) was the term for a daughter and a granddaughter of a Tsar or Tsaritsa. The official title was Velikaya Kniaginya (Великая Княгиня), translated as Grand Duchess or Grand Princess. Tsarevna or czarevna(Царевна) - daughter of a Tsar and/or Tsaritsa. ...


See also Grand Duchess for more details on the Velikaya Kniaginya title. A Grand Duchess is the wife of a Grand Duke or a woman who rules a Grand Duchy in her own right. ...


Tsesarevna (Цесаревна) was the wife of the Tsesarevich. Tsar, (Bulgarian цар�, Russian царь; often spelled Czar or Tzar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to 1917. ...


Notes

  1. When Nicholas II abdicated in 1917 he abdicated not just on his own behalf but also on behalf of his teenage son, Alexis, who was too ill to take up the throne. He named as his heir his own brother Michael. Michael initially considered accepting the throne, conditional upon the people accepting him as their ruler. But a day or two later he decided against this course. He saw no need to formally abdicate a throne he had never formally accepted. He was never properly proclaimed as "Emperor Michael II" (although he was proclaimed in cities like Pskov and even Petrograd before the members of the provisional Government changed their minds about accepting Michael as a substitute for Tsarevich Alexis). Historians and lists of tsars differ as to whether to regard Michael or Nicholas II as the last tsar. Nicholas II was undoubtedly the last tsar to rule Russia and so was the last effective tsar. Mikhail, if he can be said to have been Tsar at all, exercised no governmental functions and merely reigned nominally for a very short time. However, he was regarded as the legal Head of State by the Duma representatives who went to see him to persuade him not to accept the Throne. They needed him to hand over power to them which automatically shows he WAS Tsar to be able to do this. Mikhail, like his brother Nicholas, was executed by the Bolsheviks in 1918.
  2. In 1924 Grand Duke Cyril Vladimirovich proclaimed himself Emperor in exile.
  3. Moscow and Saint-Petersburg are known as the two tsar's capitals, though the latter was precisely founded as the new capital, symbolizing the new empire after Peter had shed the formal style of Tsar.
  • The decisions taken by Tsar Michael II are detailed in a biography - Michael and Natasha, The Life and love of the Last Tsar of Russia, Rosemary & Donald Crawford, Weidenfeld & Nicholson, London 1997. ISBN 0 297 81836 8

Tsarevich Alexei Nikolaevich Romanov (Russian: ), full title: Heir, Tsarevich and Grand Duke (Russian: ) (12 August [O.S. 30 July] 1904 — July 17, 1918), of the House of Romanov, was Tsarevich - the heir apparent - of Russia, being the youngest child and the only son of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia and... Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovitch of Russia (1878-1918) Grand Duke Michael of Russia, Mikhail Aleksandrovich Romanov (Russian: Михаи́л Александрович Рома́нов) (St. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Grand Duke Cyril Vladimirovitch of Russia, (Kirill Vladimirovitch Romanov) (October 12 (N.S.), 1876—October 12, 1938) was a member of the Russian Royal Family. ... Position of Moscow in Europe Coordinates: Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Government  - Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Area  - City 1,081 km²  (417. ... “Leningrad” redirects here. ...

Serbia

The title Tsar was also used in Serbia, but only by two monarchs — Stefan Uroš IV Dušan and Stefan Uroš V between 1345 and 1371. Earlier Serbian monarchs had used the royal title Kralj / Краљ (King) since 1077, which had been granted by the Papacy during an early union with the Western Church. In 1345 Stefan Uroš IV Dušan began to style himself "Emperor of Serbians and Greeks" (the Greek renderings read "imperator and autocrator of Serbians and Romans"), and was crowned as such in Skopje on Easter (April 16) 1346 by the newly created Serbian patriarch, alongside with the Bulgarian patriarch and the autocephalous archibishop of Ohrid. On the same occasion, he had his wife Helena of Bulgaria crowned as empress and his son associated in power as king. When Dušan died in 1355, his son Stefan Uroš V became the next "emperor of Serbians and Greeks". The new emperor's uncle Simeon Uroš (Siniša) contested the succession and claimed the same titles as a dynast in Thessaly. After his death around 1370, he was succeeded in his claims by his son John Uroš, who retired to a monastery in about 1373. Tsar Stefan Uroš IV Dušan Silni (the mighty) (Цар Стефан Душан Силни) (around 1308-December 20, 1355) was a Serb king (September 8, 1331-1346) and tsar (1346-December 5, 1355). ... Stefan UroÅ¡ V nejaki (The Weak) (Стефан Урош V нејаки) (1336-1371) was Serb king (1346-1355) as co-ruler of his father DuÅ¡an and tzar (1355-1371). ... Events Miracle of the Host Births October 31 - King Fernando I of Portugal (died 1383) Agnès of Valois, daughter of John II of France (died 1349) Eleanor Maltravers, English noblewoman (died 1405) Deaths April 14 - Richard Aungerville, English writer and bishop (born 1287) September 16 - John IV, Duke of... Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Kogon of Japan, fourth of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders Start of the reign of Emperor Go-Enyu of Japan, fifth and last of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders Charterhouse Carthusian Monastery founded in Aldersgate, London. ... A monarch (see sovereignty) is a type of ruler or head of state. ... Events January 26 - Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor visits Pope Gregory VII as a penitent, asking him remove sentence of excommunication Robert Curthose instigates his first insurrection against his father, William the Conqueror Seljuk Turks capture Nicaea Süleyman I of Rüm becomes the leader of the Sultanate of... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... Events Miracle of the Host Births October 31 - King Fernando I of Portugal (died 1383) Agnès of Valois, daughter of John II of France (died 1349) Eleanor Maltravers, English noblewoman (died 1405) Deaths April 14 - Richard Aungerville, English writer and bishop (born 1287) September 16 - John IV, Duke of... The church of St. ... Easter, the Sunday of the Resurrection, Pascha, or Resurrection Day, is the most important religious feast of the Christian liturgical year, observed at some point between late March and late April each year (early April to early May in Eastern Christianity), following the cycle of the moon. ... // Events Serbian Empire was proclaimed in Skopje by Dusan Silni, occupying much of the South-Eastern Europe Foundation of the University of Valladolid Foundation of Pembroke College, University of Cambridge August 26 Battle of Crecy after which Edward the Black Prince honored the bravery of John I, Count of Luxemburg... Helena of Bulgaria was the daughter of Sratsimir of Kran and Petritsa. ... Events January 7 - Portuguese king Afonso IV sends three men to kill Ines de Castro, beloved of his son prince Pedro - Pedro revolts and incites a civil war. ... Simeon UroÅ¡ or SiniÅ¡a UroÅ¡, also Symeon Ouresis Palaiologos (Greek: Συμεών Ούρεσης Παλαιολόγος, Symeōn OuresÄ“s Palaiologos), was the ruler of Epirus from 1359 to 1366 and of Thessaly from 1359 until his death in c. ... Events Beginning of the rule of Poland by Capet-Anjou family. ... John UroÅ¡ or John Oureses Doukas Palaiologos (Greek: Ιωάννης Ούρεσης Δούκας Παλαιολόγος, IōannÄ“s OuresÄ“s Doukas Palaiologos, Serbian: Jovan UroÅ¡), was ruler of Thessaly from c. ... Events Bristol is made an independent county. ...


With the extinction of Nemanjić dynasty in Serbia in 1371, the imperial title became obsolete (though it was retained by Stefan Uroš IV's widow Elena of Bulgaria until her death in 1376/1377). The royal title was preserved by Vukašin Mrnjavčević, a Serbian ruler in Macedonia, who had been associated by Stefan Uroš V as king, but lapsed on the death of his son Marko in 1395. The Bosnian ban Tvrtko I also assumed the Serbian royal title, but he and his heirs reigned as kings of Serbs and Bosnia, while Sebian part in fact remained under the rule of princes, occasionally granted the Byzantine title of despotēs. Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Kogon of Japan, fourth of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders Start of the reign of Emperor Go-Enyu of Japan, fifth and last of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders Charterhouse Carthusian Monastery founded in Aldersgate, London. ... // Events March – The treaty between England and France is extended until April of 1377. ... // Events January 17 – Pope Gregory XI enters Rome. ... Vukashin (Влъкашинъ; Serbian Вукашин Мрњавчевић, VukaÅ¡in Mrnjavčević; Bulgarian Вълкашин, Valkashin) (around 1320—1371) was a Serbian medieval ruler in modern-day central and northwestern Macedonia, who ruled from 1365 to 1371. ... Contemporary frescoe of Marko, Markos monastery, Skopje, Macedonia, 14th century Coin minted by Marko, Belgrade museum of applied arts This article is about the epic Serbian prince. ... Events End of reign of Hungary by Capet-Anjou family. ... Tvrtko Kotromanić (1338?-1391) was an important native ruler of medieval Bosnia who transformed the country from an autonomous banate into an independent kingdom. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in Croatia. ... Approximate borders between Bosnia (marked light) and Herzegovina (marked dark) Historically and geographically, the region known as Bosnia (natively Bosna/Босна) comprises the northern part of the present-day country of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ...


Several other Serbian rulers are known traditionally as tsars, although they realistically cannot be called so. They include Tsar Lazar, Tsar Jovan Nenad and Tsar Stephen the Little. Prince Lazar, Photo courtesy of [http://www. ... Monument to Emperor Jovan Nenad in Subotica Emperor Jovan Nenad (?-July 26, 1527) was a leader of Serbian mercenaries in Hungary who, using a period of struggle over Hungarian throne, created his state and crowned himself for emperor. ... Tsar Šćepan Mali (Stephen the Little) (? - 22 September 1773) was a ruler of Montenegro from 1767 until his death in 1773. ...


When Serbia, which had emerged as an autonomous principality after a long period of Ottoman domination, became an independent kingdom, its prince, knjaz, adopted the traditional title of king, kralj. The King's full style was, between 6 March 1882 and 1 December 1918 (New Style): Po milosti Božjoj i volji narodnoj kralj Srbije "By the grace of God and the will of the nation, King of Serbia". March 6 is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... December 1 is the 335th (in leap years the 336th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... By the Grace of God, as well as the various equivalent phrases in other languages thus rendered in English, is not a title in its own right, but a common introductory part of the full styles of many Monarchs, preceding the actual princely styles in chief of the specific realm...


Again, when the Serbian dynasty came to rule an enlarged kingdom, including Croatia and Slovenia, three peoples on the Balkan peninsula, after a decade generally collectively referred to as Yugoslavs (literally "Southern Slavonic"), its full style remained accordingly:

  • 1 December 1918 (New Style) - 3 October 1929: Po milosti Božjoj i volji narodnoj kralj Srba, Hrvata i Slovenaca "By the Grace of God and will of the people, King of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes";
  • 3 October 1929 - 29 November 1945: Po milosti Božjoj i volji narodnoj kralj Jugoslavije "By the Grace of God and will of the people, King of Yugoslavia".

By the Grace of God, as well as the various equivalent phrases in other languages thus rendered in English, is not a title in its own right, but a common introductory part of the full styles of many Monarchs, preceding the actual princely styles in chief of the specific realm...

Metaphorical uses

Like many lofty titles, e.g. Mogul, Tsar or Czar has been used as a metaphor for positions of high authority, in English since 1866 (referring to U.S. President Andrew Johnson), with a connotation of dictatorial powers and style, fitting since "Autocrat" was an official title of the Russian Emperor (informally referred to as 'the Tsar'). Mogul may mean: a bump in the snow in alpine skiing, a Mongolian the Mughal empire, or any member of its ruling dynasty by extension, any ruler or powerful person, such as a industrial mogul or media mogul a railroad steam locomotive type called the Mogul the largest size light...


This use is not limited to statesmen, e.g. 'drug czar' for the head of the Drug Enforcement Administration, the U.S. agency against illegal narcotics, or "terrorism czar" for a Presidential advisor on terrorism policy. The DEAs enforcement activities may take agents anywhere from distant countries to suburban U.S. homes. ...


See also

This is a list of Bulgarian monarchs from the earliest records in the Nominalia of the Bulgarian khans to 1946, when the monarchy in the country was abolished. ... At different times, a ruler in Kievan Rus/Rus principalities/Imperial Russia bore the title of Kniaz (translated as Duke or Prince), Velikiy Kniaz (translated as Grand Duke, Grand Prince or Great Prince), Tsar, Emperor. ... Coat of arms of Serbia This is a list of Serbian monarchs. ... Tsesarevich was the title of the Heir Apparent to the tsars of Russia, (see Tsar). ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b The Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedia entry on Tsar. Retrieved on 2006-07-27.
  2. ^ The entry on tsar in the Eleventh Edition of Encyclopædia Britannica (1911).
  3. ^ Български тълковен речник. 3. изд. (the entry on цар in A Bulgarian explanatory dictionary).
  4. ^ Словарь современного русского литературного языка. Издательство Академии наук СССР. 1948-1965 (the entry on царь in The dictionary of the modern Russian literary language)
  5. ^ The word is used to refer to the kings of Hungary in the Halychian Chronicle.
  6. ^ Срђан Пириватрић. Самуилова држава. Београд, 1997.
  7. ^ Innocentii pp. III epistolae ad Bulgariae historiam spectantes. Recensuit et explicavit Iv. Dujcev. Sofia, 1942.
  8. ^ Найден Геров. 1895-1904. Речник на блъгарский язик. (the entry on цар in Naiden Gerov's Dictionary of the Bulgarian Language)
  9. ^ Wladimir Vodoff. Remarques sur la valeur du terme "tsar" appliqué aux princes russes avant le milieu du 15e siècle, in "Oxford Slavonic Series", new series, vol. XI. Oxford University Press, 1978.
  10. ^ A.V. Soloviev. "Reges" et "Regnum Russiae" au moyen âge, in "Byzantion", t. XXXVI. Bruxelles, 1966.
  11. ^ "Den Titel aines Khaisers, wiewol Er alle seine Brief nur Reissisch schreibt, darinn Er sich Czar nent, so schickht Er gemaincklich Lateinische Copeyen darmit oder darinn, und an stat des Czar setzen sy Imperator, den wir Teutsch Khaiser nennen".
  12. ^ "Kayser vnnd Herscher aller Rewssen und Groszfürste zu Wolodimer" in the German text of Maximilian's letter; "Imperator et Dominator universorum Rhutenorum et Magnus Princeps Valadomerorum" in the Latin copy. Vasily III responded by referring to Maximilian as "Maximiliano Dei gratia Electo Romanorum Caesare", i.e., "Roman Caesar". Maximilian's letter was of great importance to Ivan the Terrible and Peter the Great, when they wished to back up their titles of "tsar" and "emperor", respectively. Both monarchs demonstrated the letter to foreign ambassadors; Peter even referred to it when he proclaimed himself Emperor.
  13. ^ This objection may be used against translating "Basileus" as "emperor", too. Based on these accounts, the Popes repeatedly suggested to confer on the Russian monarchs the title of rex ("king"), if they only ally themselves with Vatican. Such a proposal was made for the last time in 1550, i.e., three years after Ivan IV had crowned himself tsar. As early as 1489, Ivan III declined the papal offer, declaring that his regal authority does not require anyone's confirmation.
  14. ^ "Et ainsi retiennent le nom de Zar comme plus autentique, duquel nom il pleut iadis à Dieu d'honorer David, Salomon et autres regnans sur la maison de Iuda et Israel, disent-ils, et que ces mots Tsisar et Krol n'est que invention humaine, lequel nom quelqu'un s'est acquis par beaux faits d'armes".
  15. ^ The Present State of Russia, in a Letter to a Friend at London. Written by an Eminent Person residing at Great Tzars Court at Mosco for the space of nine years. 2nd ed. London, 1671. Pages 54-55.
  16. ^ The first Russian monarch to update his title to "imperator" was False Demetrius I, following his coronation on 7 July 1605. Peter started to use the title informally in 1696. He prepared the official adoption of the new title by renaming the Boyar Duma to Senate (as False Demetrius did before), with its ancient Roman associations, and by introducing the posts of State Chancellor and Vice-Chancellor, which were modeled on similar magistratures of the Holy Roman Empire. For Russian traditionalists, these moves signified Peter's conversion to pagan and Roman Catholic traditions, an opinion reinforced by his adoption of the heathen Roman titles of "Pater Patriae" (Отец Отечества) and "Magnus" (Великий) the same year.
  17. ^ Boris Uspensky. Царь и император: помазание на трон и семантика монарших титулов. Moscow: Языки русской культуры, 2000. ISBN 5-7859-0145-5. Pages 48-52.
  18. ^ The Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedia entry on The Kingdom of Poland. Retrieved on 2006-07-27.
  19. ^ The title was adopted by Boris Godunov to prop up his waning authority and to highlight similarity between his capture of Kuchum and Ivan IV's conquest of Kazan and Astrakhan half a century earlier.
  20. ^ As early as 1592, Fyodor I of Russia styled himself "Государь Иверския земли Грузинских Царей, и Кабардинския земли Черкасских и Горских Князей", i.e., "Sovereign of Iberian lands of Georgian Tsars".
  21. ^ The title of Król, with its strong Catholic associations, was deemed not acceptable for an Orthodox ruler. When Fyodor I posited himself as a candidate to the vacant Polish throne in 1587, he envisaged his future title as "Tsar and Grand Duke of Moscow, Vladimir, and all Russia, King (король) of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania".

Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary (35 volumes, small; 86 (?) volumes, large) was published in Imperial Russia in 1890-1906. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 27 is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Supporters contend that the Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1910-1911) represents the sum of human knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century; indeed, it was advertised as such. ... Ivan IV (August 25, 1530–March 18, 1584) was the first ruler of Russia to assume the title of tsar. ... Peter the Great or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич Pyotr I Alekséyevich) (9 June 1672–8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.][1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his weak and sickly... False Dmitriy I, Cyrillic Дмитрий (other transliterations: Dmitry, Dmitri, Dmitrii), (ruled 1605-1606) was one of three pretenders to the Russian throne who claimed to be the youngest son of Ivan the Terrible, tsarevich Dmitriy Ivanovich, who had supposedly escaped a 1591 assassination attempt. ... July 7 is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 177 days remaining. ... 1605 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with State Duma. ... A senate is a deliberative body, often the upper house or chamber of a legislature. ... Boris Andreyevich Uspensky is a Russian philologist and mythographer. ... Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary (35 volumes, small; 86 (?) volumes, large) was published in Imperial Russia in 1890-1906. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 27 is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Tsar Boris I Boris Feodorovich Godunov (Бори́с Фёдорович Годуно́в) (c. ... Kuchum khan (Tatar: Küçüm, Russian: Кучум) (? - ca. ... Feodor presents a golden chain to Boris Godunov. ...

Sources and references

Supporters contend that the Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1910-1911) represents the sum of human knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century; indeed, it was advertised as such. ...

External links

  • Detailed List of Roman and Byzantine Rulers
  • Detailed List of Bulgarian Rulers
  • Detailed List of Russian Rulers
  • Detailed List of Serbian Rulers
  • Detailed List of Georgian Rulers

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