Trypanosomiasis is the name of the diseases caused by parasiticprotozoantrypanosomes of the genus trypanosoma in vertebrates. The medically correct term for the disease is trypanosomosis but 'trypanosomiasis' is widely used. More than 66 million women, men, and children in 36 countries of sub- Saharan Africa suffer from human African trypanosomiasis. There are two forms of African sleeping sickness, caused by two different parasites: A parasite is an organism that spends a significant portion of its life in or on the living tissue of a host organism and which causes harm to the host without immediately killing it. ... Protozoa (in Greek proto = first and zoa = animal) are single-celled eukaryotes (organisms with nuclei) that show some characteristics usually associated with animals, most notably mobility and heterotrophy. ... Genera Blastocrithidia Crithidia Endotrypanum Herpetomonas Leishmania Leptomonas Phytomonas Trypanosoma Wallaceina Trypanosomes are a group of kinetoplastid protozoa distinguished by having only a single flagellum. ... Trypanosoma is a notable genus of trypanosomes, a group of parasitic protozoa. ... Typical classes Petromyzontidae (lampreys) Placodermi - extinct Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fish) Acanthodii - extinct Actinopterygii (ray-finned fish) Actinistia (coelacanths) Dipnoi (lungfish) Amphibia (amphibians) Reptilia (reptiles) Aves (birds) Mammalia (mammals) Vertebrata is a subphylum of chordates, specifically, those with backbones or spinal columns. ... Sleeping sickness or African trypanosomiasis is a parasitic disease in people and in animals. ...
The term “sleeping sickness” is derived from the West African form of trypanosomiasis, primarily because invasion of the cerebrospinal fluid and brain after infection of the blood is often delayed, resulting in symptoms of extreme fatigue that can last for several years before the severe phase of the disease sets in; toxemia, coma and death.
Animal trypanosomiasis, caused by a wider number of trypanosome species and carried with higher prevalence by a greater number of glossina species, is invariably the greater epidemic across the African continent with dire economic consequences.
Historically, the impact of animal trypanosomiasis were so profound that it influenced the migration routes of cattle-owning tribes into the continent who were forced to avoid the G. morsitans “fly-belts” (Ford 1960), as well as the movements of early European and Arab settlers into the continent who depended on horses and oxen (McKelvey 1973).
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