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Encyclopedia > TrueType
TrueType
File extension: .ttf
Type code: tfil
Developed by: Apple Computer
Type of format: outline font

TrueType is an outline font standard originally developed by Apple Computer in the late 1980s as a competitor to Adobe's Type 1 fonts used in PostScript. The primary strength of TrueType was originally that it offered font developers a high degree of control over precisely how their fonts are displayed, right down to particular pixels, at various font heights. (With widely varying rendering technologies in use today, pixel-level control is no longer certain.) A filename extension is a suffix to the name of a computer file applied to show its format. ... A type code is a mechanism used in pre-Mac OS X versions of the Macintosh operating system to denote a files format, in a manner similar to file extensions in other operating systems. ... Apple Inc. ... ... ... “Standard” redirects here. ... Apple Inc. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... Adobe Systems (pronounced a-DOE-bee IPA: ) (NASDAQ: ADBE) (LSE: ABS) is an American computer software company headquartered in San Jose, California, USA. Adobe was founded in December 1982[1] by John Warnock and Charles Geschke, who established the company after leaving Xerox PARC in order to develop and sell... PostScript (PS) is a page description language used primarily in the electronic and desktop publishing areas. ... For the literary term, see Postscript. ... A font can mean: A member of a typeface family; or digital font - file format that encapsulates a typeface family in a database. ... This article is about the picture element. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Contents

History

Apple

On the Macintosh, fonts were originally stored in hand-tuned bitmap font files that specified individual pixel locations for a font at a particular size. If the user wanted to see a font at another size, the Font Manager found the closest match and applied a basic scaling algorithm. When scaled to large sizes the effect was comical—since these fonts were bitmapped, they would scale the same way any raster graphics image does, becoming blocky. Imagine the smiley face in the top left corner as an RGB bitmap image. ...


In contrast, printer fonts for the popular Apple LaserWriter were based on PostScript Type 1 outlines, resulting in excellent output at any size. Outline fonts have a set of equations for drawing lines and curves to create a shape for each character (a "glyph"). By following the equations, the computer draws an "outline" shape at a specific size, and then "fills" it with ink (e.g., black) to create the character. The equations scale to any size, and are independent of the resolution of the screen or printer. It produces the same quality whether it's printing to film, drawing on a screen, or printing a billboard. This technology was the key invention that the founders of Adobe engineered and marketed as PostScript. Making matters difficult was the fact that Type 1 fonts were encrypted, and Adobe made a considerable amount of their income from licensing the format to interested parties. They were not about to simply allow Apple to include the software for free. The Apple LaserWriter was one of the first laser printers available to the mass market. ... PostScript (PS) is a page description language used primarily in the electronic and desktop publishing areas. ...


Instead Sampo Kaasila at Apple decided to write an entirely new format, which he worked on under the name Bass (because it was a scalable font format, and you can scale a fish, and perhaps as in Bass-o-matic from the Saturday Night Live sketch) [1] and later Royal. The system developed and was eventually released as TrueType with the launch of Mac OS System 7 in May 1991. The fonts, four-weight families of Times Roman, Helvetica, Courier, and a handful of others, replaced the older bitmap fonts that previous Macintosh System versions had used. For compatibility with older systems, Apple also shipped a TrueType Extension and a TrueType aware version of Font/DA Mover for System Software 6. This article is about the American television series. ... System 7 (codenamed Big Bang) was a version of Mac OS, the operating system of the Apple Macintosh computer. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Times New Roman is a serif typeface commissioned by The Times (London) newspaper in 1931 and designed by Stanley Morison together with Starling Burgess and Victor Lardent. ... This article is about the typeface Helvetica. ... Courier is a monospace slab serif font that resembles the output from a typewriter. ... An assortment of bitmap fonts from the first version of the Macintosh operating system A bitmap font is one that stores each glyph as an array of pixels (that is, a bitmap). ... Extension (Mac OS) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Apple typography covers several topics concerning typefaces that Apple Computer has used in its marketing, operating systems and industrial design. ... This article is about the Macintosh operating system version. ...


One huge drawback of the TrueType system is that it could not use Type 1 fonts on-screen—not surprising given its genesis. However this meant that the system was in fact not used by the very people it was intended to help, desktop publishing software users. They had already invested considerable money in commercial Type 1 fonts, which they were not interested in replacing, and therefore had to continue using Adobe Type Manager (see below). Adding to the problem was that there were very few fonts available in TrueType format, so even if one wanted to start fresh there was no real way to do so.


As part of Apple's new tactic of distancing itself from Adobe, Apple licensed TrueType to Microsoft, in exchange for a license for TrueImage, a Microsoft-developed PostScript-compatible printer control language that Apple planned to use in their laser printers. This printer language was never actually included in any Apple products. Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... TrueImage is a PostScript-compatible interpreter (clone) originally developed by Cal Bauer and Bauer Enterprises and sold to Microsoft in 1989. ... For the literary term, see Postscript. ... 1993 Apple LaserWriter Pro 630 laser printer A laser printer is a common type of computer printer that rapidly produces high quality text and graphics on plain paper. ...


Part of Adobe's response to learning that TrueType was being developed was to pre-emptively create the Adobe Type Manager software to scale Type 1 fonts on-screen and for output to any printer, much like TrueType fonts. Although ATM initially cost money, rather than coming free with the operating system, it became a de facto standard for anyone involved in desktop publishing. Adobe Systems (pronounced a-DOE-bee IPA: ) (NASDAQ: ADBE) (LSE: ABS) is an American computer software company headquartered in San Jose, California, USA. Adobe was founded in December 1982[1] by John Warnock and Charles Geschke, who established the company after leaving Xerox PARC in order to develop and sell... Adobe Type Manager (ATM) is the name of four different computer programs created and marketed by Adobe Systems. ... Adobe InDesign CS2, one of many popular desktop publishing applications. ...


When TrueType was announced, John Warnock of Adobe gave an impassioned speech in which he claimed Apple and Microsoft were selling snake oil, and then instantly released the Type 1 format as a published standard for anyone to use. This put even more pressure on TrueType. Apple eventually renewed agreements with Adobe for the use of PostScript in its printers; it is speculated that Apple's tactics resulted in lower royalty payments to Adobe as part of its new licensing agreements. John Warnock (b. ... Clark Stanleys Snake Oil. ...


Apple extended TrueType with the launch of TrueType GX in 1994, a smartfont technology that was part of QuickDraw GX. This offered powerful extensions in two main areas. First was font axes (morphing), for example allowing fonts to be smoothly adjusted from light to bold or from narrow to extended—competition for Adobe's "multiple master" technology. Second was substitution, where particular sequences of characters can be coded to flip to different designs in certain circumstances, useful for example to offer ligatures for "fi", "ffi", "ct", etc. while maintaining the backing store of characters necessary for spell-checkers and text searching. However, the lack of user-friendly tools for making TrueType GX fonts meant there were no more than a handful of GX fonts. Much of the technology in TrueType GX, including morphing and substitution, lives on as AAT (Apple Advanced Typography) in Mac OS X. Few font developers outside Apple attempt to make AAT fonts; instead, OpenType has become the dominant "smart font" technology, despite its lack of support for axes or multiple masters. Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Smartfont systems are font rendering systems that have advanced typographic features such as choosing the proper glyph automatically. ... QuickDraw GX was a replacement for the QuickDraw (QD) 2D graphics engine and Printing Manager inside the classic Mac OS. Although GX was based on the same general geometry and dimensions of the original QD engine, the underlying drawing platform became a resolution-independent object oriented retained mode system, making... 3 Frames from a morph from George W. Bush to Arnold Schwarzenegger showing the mid-point between the two extremes Morphing is a special effect in motion pictures and animations that changes (or morphs) one image into another through a seamless transition. ... Multiple master fonts (or MM fonts) are (or, rather, were) an extension to Adobe Systems Type 1 PostScript fonts, now mostly superseded by the advent of OpenType. ... In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more letterforms are written or printed as a unit. ... In computing terms, a spell checker or spelling checker is a design feature or a software program designed to verify the spelling of words in a document, query, or other context, helping a user to ensure correct spelling. ... Apple Computer has been attentive to the typefaces used in its marketing, operating systems and industrial design. ... Mac OS X (pronounced ) is a line of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... OpenType is a scalable computer font format initially developed by Microsoft, later joined by Adobe Systems. ...


Microsoft

By 1991 Microsoft added TrueType into the Windows 3.1 operating system. In partnership with their contractors, Monotype Corporation, Microsoft spent much effort creating a set of high quality TrueType fonts that were compatible with the core fonts being bundled with PostScript equipment at the time. This included the fonts that are standard with Windows to this day: Times New Roman (compatible with Times Roman), Arial (compatible with Helvetica) and Courier New (compatible with Courier). One should understand "compatible" to mean two things: first, that the fonts are similar to look at, and second, very importantly, the fonts have the same character widths so can be used to typeset the same documents without reflowing the text. (The disjunction of the names, particularly between Arial and Helvetica, led some to believe there was a general problem of having to determine an "equivalent" Apple or PostScript font whenever a particular Windows font was called for, or vice versa. However, while the character outlines themselves are different, the styles and weights have been made similar enough that the average user is unable to tell the fonts apart.) Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Windows redirects here. ... Monotype Imaging, Inc is a typesetting and typeface design company (type foundry) responsible for many developments in printing technology — in particular the Monotype machine which was the first fully mechanical typesetter — and the design and production of typefaces in the 19th and 20th centuries. ... The Times New Roman typeface, on top at 88. ... Arial, sometimes marketed as Arial MT, is a typeface and a computer font packaged with Microsoft Windows, other Microsoft software applications, and many PostScript computer printers. ...


Microsoft and Monotype technicians used TrueType's hinting technology to ensure that these fonts did not suffer from the problem of illegibility at low resolutions which had previously forced the use of bitmapped fonts for screen display. Subsequent advances in technology have introduced first anti-aliasing, which smoothes the edges of fonts at the expense of a slight blurring, and more recently subpixel rendering (the Microsoft implementation goes by the name ClearType), which exploits the pixel structure of TFT LCD based displays to increase the apparent resolution of text. Microsoft has marketed these technologies particularly heavily, and they are now widely used on all platforms. In digital signal processing, anti-aliasing is the technique of minimizing the distortion artifacts known as aliasing when representing a high-resolution signal at a lower resolution. ... Subpixel rendering works by increasing the luminance reconstruction points of a color subpixelated screen, such as a liquid crystal display (LCD). ... ClearType is a registered trademark for a technology developed by Microsoft Corporation to improve the appearance of text on certain types of computer display screens, especially flat-panel displays. ... A 15 TFT-LCD TFT-LCD (thin film transistor liquid crystal display) is a variant of liquid crystal display (LCD) which uses thin film transistor (TFT) technology to improve image quality. ...


Microsoft also developed a "smart font" technology, named TrueType Open in 1994, later renamed to OpenType when it merged support of the Adobe Type 1 technology. Smartfont systems are font rendering systems that have advanced typographic features such as choosing the proper glyph automatically. ... OpenType is a scalable computer font format initially developed by Microsoft, later joined by Adobe Systems. ... Renewal of the surface coating of an adobe wall in Chamisal, New Mexico Adobe is a natural building material composed of sand, sandy clay and straw or other organic materials, which is shaped into bricks using wooden frames and dried in the sun. ...


TrueType today

Macintosh and Windows

TrueType has long been the most common format for fonts on Mac OS and Windows, although both also include native support for Adobe's Type 1 format and the OpenType extension to TrueType (since Mac OS X 10.0 and Windows 2000). While some fonts provided with the new operating systems are now in the OpenType format, most free or inexpensive third-party fonts use plain TrueType. This article relates to both the original Classic Mac OS as well as Mac OS X, Apples more recent operating system. ... 1. ... OpenType is a scalable computer font format initially developed by Microsoft, later joined by Adobe Systems. ... Mac OS X (pronounced ) is a line of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... Windows 2000 (also referred to as Win2K) is a preemptive, interruptible, graphical and business-oriented operating system designed to work with either uniprocessor or symmetric multi-processor computers. ...


Increasingly, new approaches to screen rendering have reduced the importance of extensive TrueType hinting. Apple's rendering approach on Mac OS X ignores almost all the hints in a TrueType font, while Microsoft's ClearType ignores many hints, and works best with "lightly hinted" fonts.


Linux and other platforms

The FreeType project of David Turner attempts to create an independent implementation of the TrueType standard (as well as other font standards in FreeType 2). FreeType is included in many Linux distributions. FreeType is a software library that implements a font engine. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ...


There are potential patent infringements in FreeType because parts of the TrueType hinting virtual machine were patented by Apple, a fact not mentioned in the TrueType standards. (Patent holders who contribute to standards not published by a major standards body such as ISO are not required to disclose the scope of their patents.) FreeType 2 includes an automatic hinter that analyzes glyph shapes and attempts to generate hints automatically, thus avoiding the patented technology.[1] The automatic hinter generally improves the appearance of free or cheap fonts, for which hinting is often either nonexistent or automatically generated anyway, but it can degrade the appearance of professional hand-hinted fonts, and does not work well (or at all) for non-Western text that requires a different approach to hinting. As a result, many people prefer to enable the patented hinting technology. A font test with (lower rows) and without hinting (upper rows) at 100% (above) and 400% (below). ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... “ISO” redirects here. ... variant glyphs representing the character a (allographs of a) in the Zapfino typeface. ... Look up shape in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Technical notes

Outlines

The outlines of the characters (or glyphs) in TrueType fonts are made of straight line segments and quadratic Bézier curves. These mathematically simpler curves are slightly more efficient to process than the cubic Bézier curves prevalent in the PostScript-centered world of graphic design, and also used in Type 1 fonts. However, most shapes require more points to describe with quadratic curves than cubics. This difference also means that it is not possible to convert Type 1 losslessly to the TrueType format, although in practice it is often possible to do a lossless conversion from TrueType to Type 1. variant glyphs representing the character a (allographs of a) in the Zapfino typeface. ... Cubic Bézier curve In the mathematical field of numerical analysis, a Bézier curve is a parametric curve important in computer graphics. ... For the literary term, see Postscript. ... Graphics are often utilitarian and anonymous,[1] as these pictographs from the US National Park Service illustrate. ...


Hinting language

TrueType systems include a virtual machine that executes programs inside the font, processing the "hints" of the glyphs. These distort the control points which define the outline, with the intention that the rasterizer produces fewer undesirable features on the glyph. Each glyph's hinting program takes account of the size (in pixels) at which the glyph is to be displayed, as well as other less important factors of the display environment. In computer science, a virtual machine is software that creates a virtualized environment between the computer platform and its operating system, so that the end user can operate software on an abstract machine. ... Apple typography covers several topics concerning typefaces that Apple Computer has used in its marketing, operating systems and industrial design. ... variant glyphs representing the character a (allographs of a) in the Zapfino typeface. ...


Although incapable of receiving input and producing output as normally understood in programming, the TrueType hinting language does offer the other prerequisites of programming languages: conditional branching (IF statements), looping an arbitrary number of times (FOR- and WHILE-type statements), variables (although these are simply numbered slots in an area of memory reserved by the font), and encapsulation of code into functions. Special instructions called delta hints are the lowest level control, moving a control point at just one pixel size. A conditional branch is a basic logical structure. ... In computer science control flow (or alternatively, flow of control) refers to the order in which the individual statements, instructions or function calls of an imperative or functional program are executed or evaluated. ...


Good TrueType glyph programming techniques are meant to do as much as possible using variables defined just once in the whole font (e.g., stem widths, cap height, x-height). This means avoiding delta instructions as much as possible. This helps the font developer to make major changes (e.g., the point at which the entire font's main stems jump from 1 to 2 pixels wide) most of the way through development. In typography, the x-height or corpus size refers to the height of the lowercase letter x in any font, which is usually the same for a, c, e, m, n, o, r, s, u, v, w, and z. ...


Making a very well-hinted TrueType font remains a significant amount of work, despite the increased user-friendliness of programs for adding hints to fonts compared with the early 1990s. Many TrueType fonts therefore have only rudimentary hints, or have hinting automatically applied by the font editor, with variable end results. For the band, see 1990s (band). ...


Font formats

TrueType Collection

TrueType Collection (TTC) is an extension of TrueType format that allows combining multiple fonts into a single file, creating substantial space savings for collection of fonts that only use different glyphs on some characters. They were first available in Chinese, Japanese, and Korean versions of Windows, and supported for all regions in Windows 2000 and later.


Mac OS included support of TTC starting with Mac OS 8.5. In Mac OS, TTC has file type ttcf. This article relates to both the original Classic Mac OS as well as Mac OS X, Apples more recent operating system. ...


File Formats

Basic

A basic font is composed of multiple tables specified in the header. A table name can have up to 4 letters.


In a TTC file, it contain a ttcf table that tells how many fonts are within the collection. Multiple fonts within a collection uses the same glyph table.


Regular TrueType font comes with .ttf extension, while a TTC comes with .ttc extension.


In Mac OS, it is called Data–Fork Font.


Suitcase

Similar to TTC, it is designed to carry multiple fonts within a file. But unlike TTC, it is not limited to fonts within the same family.


Suitcase comes with resource–fork and data–fork formats. Data–fork suitcase is initially supported in Mac OS X. Data–fork suitcase has extension dfont.


Postscript

In Postscript fonts, TrueType outline is define as Type 42, or Type 11 for CID fonts. PostScript fonts are outline font specifications developed by Adobe for professional digital typesetting, which uses PostScript file format to encode font information. ...


References

  1. ^ A Talk with Sampo Kaasila. TrueType Typography. Retrieved on 2007-01-10.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

FreeType is a software library that implements a font engine. ... ClearType is a registered trademark for a technology developed by Microsoft Corporation to improve the appearance of text on certain types of computer display screens, especially flat-panel displays. ... A specimen of roman typefaces by William Caslon Typography is the art and techniques of type design, modifying type glyphs, and arranging type. ... “Font” redirects here. ... For the literary term, see Postscript. ... OpenType is a scalable computer font format initially developed by Microsoft, later joined by Adobe Systems. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... UTF-8 (8-bit UCS/Unicode Transformation Format) is a variable-length character encoding for Unicode. ... Unicode typefaces (also known as UCS fonts and Unicode fonts) contains wide range of characters, letters, digits, glyphs, symbols, ideograms, logograms, etc, which are collectively mapped into Universal Character Set, also known as, UCS (which is an international standard ISO/IEC 10646), derived from many different languages, scripts from all... Uniscribe is the Microsoft Windows set of services for rendering Unicode-encoded text. ... The Apple Type Services for Unicode Imaging (ATSUI) is the Mac OS set of services for rendering Unicode-encoded text. ... WorldScript - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... This article is about computing. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
TrueType - definition of TrueType in Encyclopedia (1492 words)
TrueType is an outline font standard originally developed by Apple Computer in the late 1980s as a competitor to Adobe's Type 1 fonts used in PostScript.
When TrueType was released John Warnock of Adobe gave an impassioned speech in which he claimed Apple and Microsoft were selling snake oil, and then instantly released the Type 1 format as a published standard for anyone to use.
The outlines of the characters (or glyphs) in TrueType fonts are made of straight line segments and quadratic Bézier curves.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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