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Encyclopedia > True Grit
True Grit

DVD cover of True Grit featuring John Wayne
Directed by Henry Hathaway
Produced by Hal B. Wallis
Written by Charles Portis (novel)
Marguerite Roberts
Starring John Wayne
Glen Campbell
Kim Darby
Music by Elmer Bernstein
Cinematography Lucien Ballard
Release date(s) June 11, 1969 (U.S. release)
Running time 128 min
Language English
IMDb profile

True Grit by Charles Portis first appeared as a 1968 short story in The Saturday Evening Post. Portis subsequently re-issued the story in book form with a somewhat changed storyline. In 1969, True Grit was adapted for a screenplay as an American Western film starring John Wayne. Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Henry Hathaway (March 13, 1898 – February 11, 1985) was an American film director and producer. ... Hal B. Wallis (September 14, 1898 – October 5, 1986) was an American motion picture producer. ... John Wayne (May 26, 1907 – June 11, 1979), born Marion Robert Morrison, popularly known as The Duke, was an iconic, Academy Award winning, American film actor whose career began in silent movies in the 1920s. ... Glen Campbell, December 2004 This article is about the singer. ... Kim Darby (born Deborah Zerby on July 8, 1947 in Los Angeles, California) is an American actor who has starred in many films and appeared on many TV shows. ... Elmer Bernstein (pronounced Bern-steen[1])(April 4, 1922 – August 18, 2004) was an American composer best known for his work writing music for film and television. ... Lucien Ballard (6 May 1908 - 1 October 1988) was an American cinematographer and director of photography. ... June 11 is the 162nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (163rd in leap years), with 203 days remaining. ... // Events Cannes Film Festival opens, but closes in support of a French general strike without awarding any prizes. ... Charles Portis (born December 28th, 1933 in El Dorado, Arkansas) is a fiction writer who has been described as one of the most inventively comic writers of western fiction 1. ... See also: 1967 in literature, other events of 1968, 1969 in literature, list of years in literature. ... This article is in need of attention. ... A cover of the Saturday Evening Post from 1903 The Saturday Evening Post was a weekly magazine published in the United States from August 4, 1821 to February 8, 1969. ... Justus D. Barnes, from The Great Train Robbery The Western is one of the classic American literary and film genres. ... John Wayne (May 26, 1907 – June 11, 1979), born Marion Robert Morrison, popularly known as The Duke, was an iconic, Academy Award winning, American film actor whose career began in silent movies in the 1920s. ...

Contents

Story

Portis’ novel is narrated in the first person by Mattie Ross, a thrifty, churchgoing spinster distinguished by a rare independence and strength of mind. As an old woman in the year 1928, she tells the story of her adventures many years earlier, in 1873, when, at the age of fourteen, she undertook a quest to avenge her father’s death at the hands of a drifter named Tom Chaney. ... 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the word, for other meanings see Quest (disambiguation) A quest is a journey towards a goal with great meaning and is used in mythology and literature as a plot device. ...


As Mattie's tale begins, Chaney is employed on the Ross’ family farm in west central Arkansas, near the town of Dardanelle in Yell County. Chaney isn't much use as a farmhand and Mattie has only scorn for him, referring to him as "trash." She says her father, a good, kind man, only hired him out of pity. One day, Frank Ross and Chaney go to Fort Smith to buy some horses. Ross takes along $150 to pay for the horses, along with two gold pieces he always carried. When Ross tries to intervene in a barroom confrontation, Chaney kills him, robs the body, and flees into Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma) on his horse. Official language(s) English Capital Little Rock Largest city Little Rock Area  Ranked 29th  - Total 53,179 sq mi (137,732 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 261 miles (420 km)  - % water 2. ... Dardanelle is a city in Yell County, Arkansas, United States. ... Yell County is a county located in the U.S. state of Arkansas. ... Fort Smith is a city situated at the junction of the Arkansas and Poteau rivers. ... Indian Territory in 1836 Indian Country redirects here. ... Official language(s) None Capital Oklahoma City Largest city Oklahoma City Area  Ranked 20th  - Total 69,960 sq mi (181,196 km²)  - Width 230 miles (370 km)  - Length 298 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ...


Hearing that Chaney has joined an outlaw gang led by the infamous "Lucky" Ned Pepper, most of the local marshals refuse to give chase. Mattie means to track down the killer, and upon arriving at Fort Smith she looks for the toughest deputy Marshal in the district. That man turns out to be Reuben J. “Rooster” Cogburn, and although he is an aging, one-eyed, overweight, trigger-happy slob who never seems to miss a drink of whiskey, he also has “grit.” Mattie decides she's found her man. The United States Marshals 127 marshals to accompany James Meredith, an African American, who wished to register at the segregated University of Mississippi. ... Reuben J. Rooster Cogburn is a fictional wild west character who first appears in the Charles Portis novel True Grit. ...


Playing on Cogburn's need for whiskey money, Mattie finally persuades him to take on the job, insisting that, as part of the bargain, she must go along. During the negotiations a Texas Ranger named La Boeuf appears. He, too, is tracking Chaney for killing a senator in Texas, and is out for glory, and a big cash reward. Cogburn and La Boeuf don't much like each other, but, after some haggling, they agree to join forces in the hunt. The two men try hard to leave Mattie behind, but she proves more tenacious and resourceful than they'd expected and eventually she becomes an accepted member of the posse. Texas Rangers, a body of law enforcement in the state of Texas which is the oldest law enforcement body in North America with statewide jurisdiction and serves as a State Bureau of Investigation. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... Posse may refer to: Look up Posse in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Together, but with very different motivations, the three ride into the wilderness to confront Ned Pepper's gang. Along the way, they begin to appreciate each other a little more.


Analysis

True Grit is an adventure story told in a plain style - Mattie's style. Portis frames the narrative in the tone and perspective of a Puritanical (and, at first glance, rather disagreeable) Arkansas frontier woman. In keeping with Mattie's worldview, the story is replete with Biblical themes, especially the “eye for an eye” style of justice. A Puritan of 16th and 17th century England was any person seeking purity of worship and doctrine, especially the parties that rejected the Laudian reform of the Church of England. ... Eye for an Eye is a movie starring Sally Field, Keifer Sutherland, Ed Harris, Beverly DAngelo and Joe Mantegna. ...


An important element of the story is the comradeship that develops between Mattie and Cogburn despite their very different characters. Portis contrasts Mattie’s strict, abstemious nature with Rooster’s abundant indulgence in both alcohol and profanity. However, the two do have one trait in common, and this allows them to develop a strong mutual respect: they both have "true grit." Other characters - notably LaBoeuf and Ned Pepper - also, for good or ill, possess this trait. With this gallery of (mostly) rogues, Portis illustrates the many faces of courage, and the various uses to which courage can be put. Look up Profanity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


True Grit is arguably a story of transitions, particularly the parallel transitions of Mattie. First, and most obvious, are the physical changes: the loss of her forearm from snakebite, her development from girlhood into womanhood, and, on a symbolic level, the death of her horse. Second is the implied emotional damage Mattie suffers; after she avenges her father's murder, she never marries, instead becoming a formidable old maid working in a modern-day fortress - a bank. Third, Mattie's adventures challenge one of her deepest conceits; an overreliance, amounting to self-righteousness, on words and precepts. She begins by assuming that the answers for every problem can be found in the Bible, the Law, and the Protestant work ethic, and she tries to handle every situation by aggressively quoting both the Scriptures and the wise sayings of her attorney, J. Noble Daggett (whom she "draws like a gun”). She later discovers that some situations cannot be managed so easily; in the wilderness, her self-righteous homilies bounce off unpredictable men like Chaney, Cogburn, La Boeuf, and Ned Pepper. When the recoil from the gun she uses to shoot Chaney knocks her into a snakepit, only her companions can rescue her. The word Bible refers to the canonical collections of sacred writings of Judaism and Christianity. ... The Protestant work ethic — also known as the Puritan work ethic — is a biblically based teaching on the necessity of hard work, perfection and the goodness of labor. ... In the Roman Catholic Church, a homily is usually given during Mass at the end of the Liturgy of the Word. ...


In this view, Rooster and La Boeuf also experience changes. Rooster, once a henpecked storekeeper in Illinois, is, when Mattie first sees him, a hardened lawman whose "family" consists of a roommate, a horse, and a cat. Getting to know Mattie, and learning to respect her courage, gives him a new allegiance. The selfish drunkard Mattie meets in Fort Smith becomes her hero, first facing four men alone in a shootout, then rescuing her from a snakepit. Afterwards, in search of a doctor, he rides her horse until it drops dead, then carries Mattie in his arms, and finally steals a wagon and team. La Boeuf, too, moves from obsession with the money and glory of capturing Chaney, and the pride of being a Texas Ranger, to a measure of humility and self-sacrifice. Although he's suffering from a severe head injury, he assists in Mattie's rescue.


It is possible, however, that Mattie, Rooster, and La Boeuf don't actually change that much in the course of the novel; they simply improve upon closer acquaintance. Mattie's later life demonstrates her unquenched high-mindedness, together with a remarkable steadiness of character; once Rooster returns her to civilization, she resumes her old responsibilities. Rooster, too, remains true to his lights, and ends up in a wild west show. The purpose of the novel, then, may be to show courageous people remaining steadfast in the face of their worst fears (as Mattie does when she falls into a pit full of snakes and human bones), not to show them learning to amend their characters through hardship.


Film

The novel was adapted by Marguerite Roberts for the screenplay of the 1969 Western film, directed by Henry Hathaway The film was produced by Hal B. Wallis, Lucien Ballard was the director of photography, and Elmer Bernstein wrote the musical score. // Events Cannes Film Festival opens, but closes in support of a French general strike without awarding any prizes. ... Justus D. Barnes, from The Great Train Robbery The Western is one of the classic American literary and film genres. ... The film director, on the right, gives last minute direction to the cast and crew, whilst filming a costume drama on location in London. ... Henry Hathaway (March 13, 1898 – February 11, 1985) was an American film director and producer. ... Hal B. Wallis (September 14, 1898 – October 5, 1986) was an American motion picture producer. ... Lucien Ballard (6 May 1908 - 1 October 1988) was an American cinematographer and director of photography. ... Elmer Bernstein (pronounced Bern-steen[1])(April 4, 1922 – August 18, 2004) was an American composer best known for his work writing music for film and television. ...


Filming took place mainly in Ouray County, Colorado, in the vicinity of Ridgway (now the home of the True Grit Cafe), and the town of Ouray. The courtroom scenes were filmed at Ouray County Court house in Ouray. (The breathtaking mountain scenery is in sharp constrast to the script's references to place names in Arkansas and Oklahoma.) Ouray County is a county located in the U.S. state of Colorado. ... Ridgway is a town located in Ouray County, Colorado. ... Ouray, Colorado Ouray is a city located in Ouray County, Colorado. ...


It stars John Wayne (Rooster Cogburn), Glen Campbell (La Boeuf), Kim Darby (Mattie Ross), Jeremy Slate (Emmett Quincy), Robert Duvall (Lucky Ned Pepper), Dennis Hopper (Moon), Strother Martin (Col. G. Stonehill), and Jeff Corey (Tom Chaney). John Wayne (May 26, 1907 – June 11, 1979), born Marion Robert Morrison, popularly known as The Duke, was an iconic, Academy Award winning, American film actor whose career began in silent movies in the 1920s. ... Glen Campbell, December 2004 This article is about the singer. ... Kim Darby (born Deborah Zerby on July 8, 1947 in Los Angeles, California) is an American actor who has starred in many films and appeared on many TV shows. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Robert Selden Duvall (born January 5, 1931) is an Academy Award-winning American film actor and director. ... Dennis Hopper (born May 17, 1936) is an American actor and film-maker. ... Strother Martin, (March 26, 1919 – August 1, 1980) was an American character actor in numerous films and television programs. ... Jeff Corey (August 10, 1914 — August 16, 2002) was an American stage and screen actor who became a well-respected acting teacher after being blacklisted in the 1950s. ...


Unlike the book, the movie doesn’t introduce Mattie as an old woman telling a story of her childhood, but instead begins and ends in 1873, when Mattie is fourteen. Also, in the book, Mattie remains the central character throughout; in the movie, Mattie starts out as the main character, but Rooster gets an equal share of the limelight once his character is introduced. The film also downplays the novel's Biblical tone and adds a hint of romance between Mattie and La Boeuf.


Wayne called Roberts' script ‘the best he’d ever read’. He particularly liked the scene with Darby where Rooster tells Mattie about his wife in Illinois, calling it the best scene he ever did. Official language(s) English Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (149,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ...


Critics have noted that Wayne's Oscar-winning performance as Rooster Cogburn bears close similarities to the way Wallace Beery portrayed characters in the 1930s and 1940s, an inspired if surprising choice on Wayne's part. The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... Wallace Beery (April 1, 1885 – April 15, 1949) was an American actor, best known for his many cinema appearances. ...


In the last scene, Mattie gives Rooster her father's horse and he says “Well, come see a fat old man sometime” and jumps it over a fence. Despite the objections of director Hathaway, Wayne, a superb rider, insisted on jumping the horse over the fence himself. Wayne fell in love with that horse, which would carry him through several more westerns, including his final movie, The Shootist. The horse's name, Dollor, or “ole Dollor,” would even appear in the script of that movie. The Shootist is a novel written by Glendon Swarthout, published in 1975. ...


John Wayne won the Academy Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role and the Golden Globe. The movie was nominated for Best Music, Song (for Elmer Bernstein and Don Black for “True Grit”). The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... The Academy Award for Best Actor is one of the awards given to people working in the motion picture industry by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences; nominations are made by Academy members who are actors and actresses. ... The Golden Globe Awards are American awards for motion pictures and television programs, given out each year during a formal dinner. ... The Academy Award for Best Song is one of the awards given to people working in the motion picture industry by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences; nominations are made by Academy members who are songwriters and composers. ... Don Black (b. ...


A sequel, Rooster Cogburn, followed in 1975. True Grit was also remade for television in 1978, starring Warren Oates and Lisa Pelikan. Reuben J. Rooster Cogburn is a fictional wild west character who first appears in the Charles Portis novel True Grit. ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... Warren Oates (July 5, 1928 - April 3, 1982) was an American character actor. ... Image:Http://ia. ...

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External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
True Grit - Trailer - Showtimes - Cast - Movies - New York Times (360 words)
In True Grit, Wayne plays grumpy, pot-bellied U.S. marshal "Rooster" Cogburn, hired by 14-year-old Mattie Ross (Kim Darby) to find Tom Chaney (Jeff Corey), who killed her father.
While the plot of True Grit, adapted (and streamlined) by Marguerite Roberts from the novel by Charles Portis, maintains audience interest throughout, the glue that truly holds this Western together is John Wayne, delivering one of his finest performances (though some believe he was better in She Wore a Yellow Ribbon).
In 1975, Wayne repeated his True Grit characterization opposite Katharine Hepburn in Rooster Cogburn, but the film failed to match its predecessor and the overall effect was blunted.
Feathered Family Inc. · Parrot Rescue and Adoption, Erie CO (418 words)
Grit is used in some avian species in order to help in the digestive process.
Grit, when in the ventriculus, can aid in breaking apart the hard outer shell of seeds which can act like a barrier to prevent digestive enzymes from reaching the softer and nutritious seeds inside.
Grit may (and often does) contain charcoal, which can reduce the birds ability to absorb vitamins A, B2, and K...
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