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When someone sincerely agrees with an assertion, they might claim that it is the truth. While one might have a good intuitive sense of what it is to be true, providing a definition of truth that achieves wide acceptance is quite difficult. One reason is that often truth is first stated as a goal and only after that people start arguing what truth actually is. So when people are arguing about the definition of Truth they may be arguing about the goal to which they should aspire. Truth is the goal of religion, philosophy, mathematics, law, and science, yet those fields use different methods and seek different goals. Not surprisingly, using a single word for all of them is very likely to cause confusion and conflict.

Much of this article is about philosophical ideas regarding what sorts of things are called true, and the meaning of the word truth. In addition it discusses some particular and peculiar uses of truth. The term philosophy derives from a combination of the Greek words philos meaning love and sophia meaning wisdom. ...


Bearers of truth

Propositions, sentences, statements, ideas, beliefs, and judgements are said to be true, and are variously called truth bearers by philosophers. Proposition is a term used in logic to describe the content of assertions, content which may be taken as being true or false, and which are a non-linguistic abstraction from the linguistic sentence that constitutes an assertion. ... In linguistics, the sentence is a unit of language, characterised in most languages by the presence of a finite verb. ... The term statement can have several meanings: In programming, a statement is an instruction to execute something that will not return a value. ... An idea (Greek: ιδέα) is a specific thought or concept that arises in the mind of a person as a result of thinking. ... Belief is assent to a proposition. ... Judgment or judgement implies a balanced weighing up of evidence preparatory to making a decision. ... A philosopher is a person devoted to studying and producing results in philosophy. ...

Some philosophers exclude one or more of these categories, or argue that some of them are true only in a derivative sense. These claims are made on the basis of theories about truth such as those discussed below.

For example, propositions are often thought to be the only things that are literally true. A proposition is the abstract entity which is expressed by a sentence, held in a belief, affirmed in a statement or judgement. All these things (which are parts of a language) are called true only if they express, hold, or affirm true propositions. So plausibly sentences of different languages, such as the (English) The sky is blue and the (German) Der Himmel ist blau are both true, for the reason that they express the same proposition. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...

On the other hand, many philosophers have claimed that propositions and similar abstract entities are mysterious and provide little explanation; surely sentences, or even utterances of sentences, are a more clear-cut and fundamental truth bearer.

Theories about truth

Formal definitions

Semantic theory of truth

The semantic theory of truth has as its general case for a given language: The semantic theory of truth holds that any assertion that a proposition is true can be made only as a formal requirement regarding the language in which the proposition itself is expressed. ...

'P' is true if and only if P

where 'P' is a reference to the sentence (the sentence's name), and P is just the sentence itself.

Logician and philosopher Alfred Tarski developed the theory for formal languages (such as formal logic). Here he restricted it in this way: no language could contain its own truth predicate, that is, the expression is true could only apply to sentences in some other language. The latter he called an object language, the language being talked about. (It may, in turn, have a truth predicate that can be applied to sentences in still another language.) The reason for his restriction was that languages that contain their own truth predicate will contain paradoxical sentences like the Liar: This sentence is not true. See The Liar Paradox. As a result Tarski held that the semantic theory could not be applied to any natural language, such as English, because they contain their own truth predicates. Tarski thought of his theory as a species of correspondence theory. Donald Davidson (philosopher) used it as the foundation of his Truth-conditional semantics and linked it to Radical interpretation in a form of Coherentism. Alfred Tarski (January 14, 1901 in Warsaw–October 26, 1983 in Berkeley, USA) was a Polish logician considered to be one of the greatest logicians of all time in a manner after Aristotle, Gottlob Frege, and Kurt Gödel. ... Logic (from ancient Greek λόγος (logos), meaning reason) is the study of arguments. ... In philosophy and logic, the liar paradox encompasses paradoxical statements such as: or To avoid having a sentence directly refer to its own truth value, one can also construct the paradox as follows: // Eubulides of Miletus words The oldest version of the liar paradox is attributed to the Greek philosopher... Donald Davidson (March 6, 1917 – August 30, 2003) was an American philosopher and the Willis S. and Marion Slusser Professor Emeritus of Philosophy at the University of California, Berkeley. ... Truth-conditional semantics is the name for an approach to semantics of natural language that sees the meaning of a sentence being the same as, or reducible to, the truth conditions of that sentence. ... There are two distinct types of Coherentism. ...

Kripke's theory of truth

Saul Kripke contends that a natural language can in fact contain its own truth predicate without giving rise to contradiction. He showed how to construct one as follows: Saul Kripke in 1983 Saul Aaron Kripke (b. ...

  • Begin with a subset of sentences of a natural language that contains no occurrences of the expression "is true" (or "is false"). So The barn is big is included in the subset, but not ' The barn is big is true', nor problematic sentences such as "This sentence is false".
  • Define truth just for the sentences in that subset.
  • Then extend the definition of truth to include sentences that predicate truth or falsity of one of the original subset of sentences. So ' The barn is big is true' is now included, but not either This sentence is false nor "' The barn is big is true' is true".
  • Next, define truth for all sentences that predicate truth or falsity of a member of the second set. Imagine this process repeated infinitely, so that truth is defined for The barn is big; then for ' The barn is big is true'; then for "' The barn is big is true' is true", and so on.

Notice that truth never gets defined for sentences like This sentence is false, since it was not in the original subset and does not predicate truth of any sentence in the original or any subsequent set. In Kripke's terms, these are "ungrounded." Since these sentences are never assigned either truth or falsehood even if the process is carried out infinitely, Kripke's theory implies that some sentences are neither true nor false. This contradicts the Principle of bivalence: every sentence must be either true or false. Since this principle is a key premise in deriving the Liar paradox, the paradox is dissolved. In logic, the principle of bivalence states that for any proposition P, either P is true or P is false. ...

Philosophers and logicians have proposed a number of broad theories about truth, which are now frequently sorted into two camps: A philosopher is a person devoted to studying and producing results in philosophy. ... The article titled Logicians treats the ancient Chinese philosophers known by that name (with a capital L). List of logicians (with a lower-case l) treats philosophers, mathematicians, and others whose topic of scholarly study is logic. ... The word theory has a number distinct meanings depending on the context. ...

Robust Theories

Some theories hold in common that truth is a robust (sometimes inflationary) concept. These theories all hold that the surface grammar of sentences that seem to predicate truth or falsity, such as "Snow is white is true" can be taken at face value. Truth is a property, just as red is a property predicated of a barn in the sentence in "The barn is red." The task, for such theories is to explain the nature of this property. Hence, according to these theories, truth needs explanation and is something about which significant things can be said:

  • The correspondence theory of truth sees truth as correspondence with objective reality. Thus, a sentence is said to be true just in case it expresses a state of affairs in the world.
  • The coherence theory sees truth as coherence with some specified set of sentences or, more often, of beliefs. For example, one of a person's beliefs is true just in case it is coherent with all or most of her other beliefs. Usually, coherence is taken to imply something stronger than mere consistency: justification, evidence, and comprehensiveness of the belief set are common restrictions.
  • The consensus theory holds that truth is whatever is agreed upon, or in some versions, might come to be agreed upon, by some specified group.
  • Pragmatism sees truth as the success of the practical consequences of an idea, i.e. its utility.
  • Social constructivism holds that truth is constructed by social processes, and it represents the power struggles within a community.

The correspondence theory of truth is the theory that something is rendered true by the existence of a fact with corresponding elements and a similar structure. ... There are two distinct types of Coherentism. ... The consensus theory of truth, originated by Charles Sanders Peirce who called it pragmatism, and later pragmaticism, holds that a statement is true if it would be agreed to by all those who investigate it if investigation were carried sufficiently far in that particular direction. ... The pragmatic theory of truth is a philosophical theory of truth. ... This article is about utility in economics and in game theory. ... Constructivism is a new criticism in philosophy directed against medieval realism, classical rationalism and empiricism. ...

Deflationary Theories

Other philosophers reject the idea that truth is a robust concept in this sense. From this point of view, to say "2 + 2 = 4" is true is to say no more than that 2 + 2 = 4, and that there is no more to say about truth than this. These positions are broadly called "deflationary" theories of truth (because the concept has been "deflated" of importance) or "disquotational" theories (to draw attention to the mere "disappearance" of the quotation marks in cases like the above example). The primary theoretical concern of these views is to explain away those special cases where it appears that the concept of truth does have peculiar and interesting properties. (See Semantic paradoxes, and below.)

From this point of view (see Gottlob Frege and F. P. Ramsey), truth is not the name of some property of propositions — some thing about which one could have a theory. The belief that truth is a property is just an illusion caused by the fact that we have the predicate "is true" in our language. Since most predicates name properties, we naturally assume that "is true" does as well. But, deflationists say, statements that seem to predicate truth actually do nothing more than signal agreement with the statement. Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege (November 8, 1848 – July 26, 1925) was a German mathematician, logician, and philosopher who is regarded as a founder of both modern mathematical logic and analytic philosophy. ... Frank Plumpton Ramsey (February 22, 1903 - January 19, 1930) was a British mathematician and logician. ...

For example, the redundancy theory of truth holds that to assert that a statement is true is just to assert the statement itself. Thus, to say that "Snow is white" is true is to say nothing more nor less than that snow is white. The Redundancy theory of truth is a philosophical theory about the way in which the predicate is true functions in such sentences as Snow is white is true. In its simplest version, the redundancy theory holds that Snow is white is true says no more than does Snow is white...

A second example, attributed to P. F. Strawson, is the performative theory of truth which holds that to say "Snow is white" is true is to perform the speech act of signalling one's agreement with the claim that snow is white (much like nodding one's head in agreement). The idea that some statements are more actions than communicative statements is not as odd as it may seem. Consider, for example, that when the bride says "I do" at the appropriate time in a wedding, she is performing the act of taking this man to be her lawful wedded husband. She is not describing herself as taking this man. Peter Frederick Strawson (born November 23, 1919 in London) is a philosopher associated with the ordinary language philosophy movement within analytical philosophy. ... A speech act is best described as in saying something, we do something, such as when a minister says, I now pronounce you husband and wife, or an action performed by means of language, such as describing something (), asking a question (Is it snowing?), making a request or order (Could...

A third type of deflationary theory is the disquotational theory which uses a variant form of Tarski's schema: To say that '"P" is true' is to say that P. One of the most thoroughly worked out versions of this view is the prosentential theory of truth, first developed by Dorothy Grover, Joseph Camp, and Nuel Belnap as an elaboration of Frank P. Ramsey's claims. They argue that sentences like "That's true" are prosentences (see pro-form), expressions that merely repeat the content of other expressions. In the same way that it means the same as my dog in the sentence My dog was hungry, so I fed it, That's true is supposed to mean the same as It's raining if you say the latter and I then say the former. Nuel D. Belnap Jr. ... Frank Plumpton Ramsey (February 22, 1903 – January 19, 1930) was a British mathematician, philosopher and economist. ... A pro-form is a function word that substitutes a word, phrase, clause, or sentence whose meaning is recoverable from the context, and it is used to avoid redundant expressions. ...

Types of truth

Subjective vs. objective

Subjective truths are those with which we are most intimately acquainted. That I like broccoli or that I have a pain in my foot are both subjectively true. Metaphysical subjectivism holds that all we have are such truths. That is, that all we can know about are, one way or another, our own subjective experiences. This view does not necessarily reject realism. But at the least it claims that we cannot have direct knowledge of the real world. This article is in need of attention. ... Realism is commonly defined as a concern for fact or reality and rejection of the impractical and visionary. ...

In contrast, objective truths are supposed in some way to be independent of our subjective beliefs and tastes. Such truths would subsist not in the mind but in the external object. Objectivism is opposed to subjectivism and may mean: Metaphysical objectivism The philosophy of Ayn Rand, Objectivist philosophy The poetry of the Objectivist poets Moral objectivism, Objective morality This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

Relative vs. absolute

Relative truths are statements or propositions that are true only relative to some standard or convention or point-of-view. Usually the standard cited is the tenets of one's own culture. Everyone agrees that the truth or falsity of some statements is relative: That the fork is to the left of the spoon depends on where one stands. But Relativism is the doctrine that all truths within a particular domain (say, morality or aesthetics) are of this form, and Relativism entails that what is true varies across cultures and eras. For example, Moral relativism is the view that moral truths are socially determined. Some logical issues about Relativism are taken up in the article on the relativist fallacy. Relativism is the view that the meaning and value of human beliefs and behaviors have no absolute reference. ... Moral relativism is the position that moral propositions do not reflect absolute or universal truths. ... The relativist fallacy, also known as the subjectivist fallacy, is a logical fallacy committed, roughly speaking, when one person claims that something may be true for one person but not true for someone else. ...

Relative truths can be contrasted with absolute truths. The latter are statements or propositions that are taken to be true for all cultures and all eras. For example, for Muslims God is great expresses an absolute truth; for the microeconomist, that the laws of supply and demand determine the value of any consumable in a market economy is true in all situations; for the Kantian, "act only according to that maxim by which you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law" forms an absolute moral truth. They are statements that are often claimed to emanate from the very nature of the universe, God, or some other ultimate essence or transcendental signifier. But some absolutists claim that the doctines they regard as absolute arise from certain universal facts of human nature. The supply and demand model describes how prices vary as a result of a balance between product availability at each price (supply) and the desires of those with purchasing power at each price (demand). ... Transcendental in philosophical contexts In philosophy, transcendental experiences are experiences of an exclusively human nature that are other-worldly or beyond the human realm of understanding. ...

Absolutism in a particular domain of thought is the view that all statements in that domain are either absolutely true or absolutely false: none is true for some cultures or eras while false for other cultures or eras. For example, Moral absolutism is the view that moral claims such as "Abortion is wrong" or "Charity is good" are either true for all people in all times or false for all people in all times. The term absolutism can mean: A belief in absolute truth moral absolutism, the belief that there is some absolute standard of right and wrong political absolutism, a political system where one person holds absolute power, also called apolytarchy from Gr. ... Moral absolutism is the belief or theory that there are absolute standards against which moral questions can be judged and suggests that morals are not determined by societal or situational influences. ...

Double truth

In thirteenth century Europe, the Roman Catholic Church denounced what it described as theories of "double truth," i.e. theories to the effect that although a truth may be established by reason, its contrary ought to be believed as true as a matter of faith. The Roman Catholic Church is the largest Christian body in the world. ...

The condemnation was aimed specifically at a "Latin Averroist," (see Averroës), Siger of Brabant, but it was more broadly an attempt to halt the spread of Aristotle's ideas, which the reconquest of Spain and, accordingly, access to the libraries of the Moors had re-introduced into the Latin literate world. At the time, much of the doctrine of the Roman Catholic Church was based upon neoplatonic ideas, and Aristoteleanism struck many as heresy. Siger and others seem to have conceded this, and to have used the sharp reason/faith distinction that came to be known as "double truth as a way of legitimizing discussion of Aristotle despite that concession. Averroes Averroes (Ibn Rushd) (1126 - December 10, 1198) was an Andalusian-Arab philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics and medicine. ... Sigerus of Brabant or Siger of Brabant (1240 - 1284) was one of the major proponents and inventors of averroism, active at the University of Sorbonne in Paris. ... Aristotle (sculpture) Aristotle (Greek: Αριστοτέλης AristotelÄ“s; 384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is an ancient school of philosophy beginning in the 3rd century A.D. It was based on the teachings of Plato and Platonists; but it interpreted Plato in many new ways, such that Neoplatonism was quite different from what Plato taught, though not many Neoplatonists would... Heresy, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, is a theological or religious opinion or doctrine maintained in opposition, or held to be contrary, to the ‘catholic’ or orthodox doctrine of the Christian Church, or, by extension, to that of any church, creed, or religious system, considered as orthodox. ...

True testimony

Witnesses who swear under oath to testify truthfully in courts of law, are not expected to make infallibly true statements, but to make a good faith attempt to recount an observed event from their memory or provide expert testimony. That what one witness says may differ from true accounts of other witnesses is a commonplace occurrence in the practice of law. Triers-of-fact are then charged with the responsibility to determine the credibility or veracity of a witness' testimony. This article is about witnesses in law courts. ... Swearing originally meant making an oath, and this usage is still used today in official and legal contexts in some countries. ... An oath (from Saxon eoth) is either a promise or a statement of fact calling upon something or someone that the oath maker considers sacred, usually a god, as a witness to the binding nature of the promise or the truth of the statement of fact. ... In law and in religion, testimony is a solemn attestation as to the truth of a matter. ... A court is an official, public forum which a public power establishes by lawful authority to adjudicate disputes, and to dispense civil, labour, administrative and criminal justice under the law. ... Corruption Jurisprudence Philosophy of law Law (principle) List of legal abbreviations Legal code Intent Letter versus Spirit Natural Justice Natural law Religious law Witness intimidation Legal research External links Wikibooks Wikiversity has more about this subject: School of Law Look up law in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Law, Legal Definitions... In law, good faith (in Latin, bona fides) is the mental and moral state of honest, even if objectively unfounded, conviction as to the truth or falsehood of a proposition or body of opinion, or as to the rectitude or depravity of a line of conduct. ... There are many kinds of events. ... Memory is a function of the brain: the ability to retain information. ... An expert witness is a witness, who by virtue of education, or profession, or experience, is believed to have special knowledge of his subject beyond that of the average person, sufficient that others may officially (and legally) rely upon his opinion. ...

Other uses of "true"

In addition to its use in reference to propositions, there are other uses of "truth" and "true" in the English language: The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...

  1. most often applied to people, and is used as a commendation, synonymous with "loyal", as in she is true to her friends. This sense of truth should be contrasted with being fake, insincere, misleading and so on.
  2. True can mean "in accordance with a standard or archetype," which is how it is used in "He is a true Englishman."
  3. True in engineering and construction can be used as meaning "straight", not warped but in the same flat plane - as the spokes of a wheel.

Synonyms (in ancient Greek syn συν = plus and onoma όνομα = name) are different words with similar or identical meanings. ... Loyalty, one can surmise, began with fellow-feeling for ones family, gene-group and friends. ... Licensure and Qualifications for the Practice of Engineering The Engineers Ring The Ritual of the Calling of an Engineer Engineering Disasters and Learning from Failure American Society of Engineering Education (ASEE) ASEE engineering profile (2003) PDF Categories: Architecture and engineering occupations | Engineering ... Construction on the North Bytown Bridge in Ottawa, Canada. ... Warp is to bend or twist, and this usage is the basis for the derivation of the following terms: warp drive for the propulsion device used in Star Trek, which warps space warp are the spun lengthwise threads used in weaving the Time Warp is a dance from The Rocky... In mathematics, a plane is the fundamental two-dimensional object. ... A spoke is one of some number of rods radiating from the center of a wheel (the hub where the axle connects), connecting the hub with the round traction surface. ... A wheel is a circular object that together with an axle allows low friction motion, e. ...


Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about:
  • "To say of what is, that it is, or of what is not, that it is not, is true." — Aristotle in Metaphysics (Book 4)
  • "Truth certainly would do well enough, if she were once left to shift for herself. ... She is not taught by laws, nor has she any need of force, to procure her entrance into the minds of men." — John Locke, January 31, 1689
  • "What then is truth? A movable host of metaphors, metonymies, and; anthropomorphisms: in short, a sum of human relations which have been poetically and rhetorically intensified, transferred, and embellished, and which, after long usage, seem to a people to be fixed, canonical, and binding." — Friedrich Nietzsche, On truth and Lies in a Nonmoral Sense
  • "I know that most men, including those at ease with problems of the greatest complexity, can seldom accept even the simplest and most obvious truth if it be such as would oblige them to admit the falsity of conclusions which they have delighted in explaining to colleagues, which they have proudly taught to others, and which they have woven, thread by thread, into the fabric of their lives." — Leo Tolstoy

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ... Aristotle (sculpture) Aristotle (Greek: Αριστοτέλης AristotelÄ“s; 384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher. ... John Locke John Locke (August 29, 1632–October 28, 1704) was a 17th-century philosopher concerned primarily with society and epistemology. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) was an influential German philosopher, psychologist, and philologist. ... Lev Tolstoy, pictured late in life Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy   listen? (Russian: Лев Никола́евич Толсто́й; commonly referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy) (September 9, 1828 – November 20, 1910; August 28, 1828 – November 7, 1910, O.S.) was a Russian novelist, social reformer, Christian anarchist, vegetarian, moral thinker and an influential member of...

See also

Look up true in Wiktionary, the free dictionary

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary full URL is a sister project to Wikipedia intended to be a free wiki dictionary (including thesaurus and lexicon) in every language. ... Belief is assent to a proposition. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Honesty, the quality of being honest, is a value which can be defined in multiple ways. ... Knowledge is the awareness and understanding of facts, truths or information gained in the form of experience or learning (a posteriori), or through deductive reasoning (a priori). ... In philosophy and logic, the liar paradox encompasses paradoxical statements such as: or To avoid having a sentence directly refer to its own truth value, one can also construct the paradox as follows: // Eubulides of Miletus words The oldest version of the liar paradox is attributed to the Greek philosopher... A lie is a statement made by someone who believes or suspects it to be false, in the expectation that the hearers may believe it. ... Objectivity has several meanings: Objectivity (philosophy) Objectivity (journalism) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Quantum Mechanical indeterminacy, or often just quantum indeterminacy refers to the same fundamental physics phenomenon as does the more frequently used Heisenberg uncertainty principle. ... Relativism is the view that the meaning and value of human beliefs and behaviors have no absolute reference. ... In philosophy, the unity of the proposition is the problem of explaining how a sentence in the indicative mood expresses more than just what a list of proper names expresses. ...

Truth in logic

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with College logic. ... Modal logic, or (less commonly) intensional logic is the branch of logic that deals with sentences that are qualified by modalities such as can, could, might, may, must, possibly, and necessarily, and others. ... In semantics, truth conditions are the circumstances that must be known to determine whether a sentence is true. ... In logic a truth function is a connective for which the truth value is determined systematically by the values of the statements it connects. ... Truth tables are a type of mathematical table used in logic to determine whether an expression is true or whether an argument is valid. ... In logic, a truth value, or truth-value, is a value indicating to what extent a statement is true. ...

Major philosophers who have proposed theories of truth

Aristotle (sculpture) Aristotle (Greek: Αριστοτέλης AristotelÄ“s; 384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher. ... St Thomas Aquinas Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 – March 7, 1274) was an Italian Catholic philosopher and theologian in the scholastic tradition. ... John Langshaw Austin (March 28, 1911 - February 8, 1960) was a philosopher of language, who developed much of the current theory of speech acts. ... Brand Blanshard (1892-1987) was an American philosopher known primarily for his defense of reason. ... Hartry H. Field (born 1946) is a philosopher working at New York University (NYU). ... Paul Horwich (born 1947) is a British analytic philosopher at the CUNY Graduate Center, whose work includes writings on causality, truth and meaning. ... William James William James (January 11, 1842, New York - August 26, 1910, Chocorua, New Hampshire). ... Saul Kripke in 1983 Saul Aaron Kripke (b. ... Charles Sanders Peirce Charles Sanders Peirce (September 10, 1839 – April 19, 1914) was an American logician, philosopher, scientist, and mathematician. ... Karl Popper Sir Karl Raimund Popper (July 28, 1902 – September 17, 1994), was an Austrian-born philosopher of science. ... W. V. Quine Willard Van Orman Quine (June 25, 1908 - December 25, 2000) was one of the most influential American philosophers and logicians of the 20th century. ... Frank Plumpton Ramsey (February 22, 1903 - January 19, 1930) was a British mathematician and logician. ... Bertrand Russell Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM (18 May 1872–2 February 1970) was an influential British mathematician, philosopher, and logician, working mostly in the 20th century. ... Peter Frederick Strawson (born November 23, 1919 in London) is a philosopher associated with the ordinary language philosophy movement within analytical philosophy. ... Alfred Tarski (January 14, 1901 in Warsaw–October 26, 1983 in Berkeley, USA) was a Polish logician considered to be one of the greatest logicians of all time in a manner after Aristotle, Gottlob Frege, and Kurt Gödel. ... Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951), pictured here in 1930, made influential contributions to logic and the philosophy of language, critically examining the task of conventional philosophy and its relation to the nature of language. ...

External links


  • Blackburn, S and Simmons K. 1999. Truth. Oxford University Press. A good anthology of classic articles, including papers by James, Russell, Ramsey, Tarski and more recent work.
  • Field, H. 2001. Truth and the Absence of Fact, Oxford.
  • Grover, Dorothy. 1992. The Prosentential Theory of Truth, Princeton University Press.
  • Habermas, Jürgen. 2003. Truth and Justification. MIT Press.
  • Horwich, P. Truth. Oxford.
  • Kirkham, Richard 1992: Theories of Truth. Bradford Books. A very good reference book.
  • Kripke, Saul 1975: "An Outline of a Theory of Truth" Journal of Philosophy 72:690-716.
  • http://www.ditext.com/tarski/tarski.html Tarski's classic 1944 paper on the Semantic Conception of Truth online.

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