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Coordinates: 39°57′27″N, 26°14′20″E Troy has several uses: Troy (legendary city described in Homers Iliad) as the site identified, by some archaeologists, in north-western Turkey The Troy weight, a system of measurements for weight and mass commonly used in describing the size of precious metals and gemstones Troy (film), a 2004 movie... The term Illion, Ilium has several meanings, including in legends, in anatomy, and in the arts: Ilion or Ilium is an alternative name for the legendary city of Troy. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

Archaeological Site of Troy*
UNESCO World Heritage Site
State Party Flag of Turkey Turkey
Type Cultural
Criteria ii, iii, vi
Reference 849
Region Europe and North America
Inscription History
Inscription 1998  (22nd Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
Region as classified by UNESCO.

Troy (Greek: Τροία, Troia, also Ίλιον, Ilion; Latin: Troia, Ilium,[1] Turkish: Truva) is a legendary city and center of the Trojan War, as described in the Epic Cycle, and especially in the Iliad, one of the two epic poems attributed to Homer. Trojan refers to the inhabitants and culture of Troy. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... As of 2006, there are a total of 830 World Heritage Sites located in 138 State Parties. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Europe. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... A legend (Latin, legenda, things to be read) is a narrative of human actions that are perceived both by teller and listeners to take place within human history and to possess certain qualities that give the tale verisimilitude. ... The fall of Troy, by Johann Georg Trautmann (1713–1769). ... The Epic Cycle (Greek: Επικός Κύκλος) was a collection of Ancient Greek epic poems that related the story of the Trojan War, which includes the Kypria, the Aithiopis, the Little Iliad, the Iliou persis (The Sack of Troy), the Nostoi (Returns), and the Telegony. ... title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ... For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ...


Today it is the name of an archaeological site, the traditional location of Homeric Troy, Turkish Truva, in Hisarlık in Anatolia, close to the seacoast in what is now Çanakkale province in northwest Turkey, southwest of the Dardanelles under Mount Ida. Looking over the mound of Hisarlik to the plain of Troy. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... shows the Location of the Province Canakkale Çanakkale is a province of Turkey, located in the northwestern part of the country. ... Map of the Dardanelles The Dardanelles (Turkish: Çanakkale BoÄŸazı, Greek: Δαρδανέλλια, Dardanellia), formerly known as the Hellespont (Greek: Eλλήσποντος, Hellespontos), is a narrow strait in northwestern Turkey connecting the Aegean Sea to the Sea of Marmara. ... The Ida Mountains or Kaz DaÄŸi are in northwestern Turkey, southeast of the ruins of Troy. ...


A new city of Ilium was founded on the site in the reign of the Roman Emperor Augustus. It flourished until the establishment of Constantinople and declined gradually during the Byzantine era. Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Byzantine redirects here. ...


In the 1870s the German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann excavated the area. Later excavations revealed several cities built in succession to each other. One of the earlier cities (Troy VII) is often identified with Homeric Troy. While such an identity is disputed, the site has been successfully identified with the city called Wilusa in Hittite texts; Ilion (which goes back to earlier Wilion with a digamma) is thought to be the Greek rendition of that name. // The invention of the telephone (1876) by Alexander Graham Bell. ... Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... Portrait of Heinrich Schliemann. ... Troy VII is an archaeological layer of Troy spanning late Hittite Empire to Neo-Hittite times (ca. ... Walls of the excavated city of Troy This article is about the city of Troy / Ilion as described in the works of Homer, and the location of an ancient city associated with it. ... Hittite is the extinct language once spoken by the Hittites, a people who created an empire centered on ancient Hattusas (modern BoÄŸazkale) in north-central Anatolia (modern Turkey). ... Digamma (upper case , lower case ) is an archaic letter of the Greek alphabet, used primarily as a Greek numeral. ...


The archaeological site of Troy was added to the UNESCO World Heritage list in 1998. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State...

Contents

Legendary Troy

Map of the Troad (Troas)
Map of the Troad (Troas)

Details concerning Troy were transmitted to the historical Greeks entirely through the written Epic Cycle, of which Homer's Iliad is the familiar part. Other epic material, such as Cypria was known in Antiquity but is lost to us. Further ancient material is only known to us in much later literary recensions, such as the fourth century CE Posthomerica of Quintus of Smyrna. Aside from this mass of material, modern philologists have laboured to tease out the few discernible threads of the earlier legendary material that preceded Homer, from which he worked. File links The following pages link to this file: Trojan War Troy Troas Categories: GFDL images ... File links The following pages link to this file: Trojan War Troy Troas Categories: GFDL images ... For other uses, see Map (disambiguation). ... Map of the Troas The Troas (Troad) is an ancient region in the northwestern part of Anatolia, bounded by the Hellespont to the northwest, the Aegean Sea to the west, and separated from the rest of Anatolia by the massif that forms Mount Ida. ... The Epic Cycle (Greek: Επικός Κύκλος) was a collection of Ancient Greek epic poems that related the story of the Trojan War, which includes the Kypria, the Aithiopis, the Little Iliad, the Iliou persis (The Sack of Troy), the Nostoi (Returns), and the Telegony. ... title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ... The Cypria is one of the lost sections of the eight volume cycle that told the full story of the Trojan War. ... Quintus Smyrnaeus, Greek epic poet, probably flourished in the latter part of the 4th century AD. He is sometimes called Quintus Calaber, because the only manuscript of his poem was discovered at Otranto in Calabria by Cardinal Bessarion in 1450. ...


According to Greek mythology the Trojans were the citizens of the ancient municipality of Troy in the Troad region of Anatolia. Troy is presented anachronistically in legend as if it were part of the Greek culture of City states. Since the entire state comprised more than the city of Troy itself, anyone from its jurisdiction, which was mainly the Troad, might be termed "Trojan" in ancient literature.[2] An alternative classical Greek and Latin term was "Teucrians", a name taken from an ethnicity of the south Troad. Troy was known for its riches gained from port trade with east and west, fancy clothes, iron production, and massive defensive walls. The major language spoken there and the derivative cultures remain uncertain. Legend for the most part ignores language and makes the presumption that Trojans had no problem understanding Greek. The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... Map of the Troas The Troas (Troad) is an ancient region in the northwestern part of Anatolia, bounded by the Hellespont to the northwest, the Aegean Sea to the west, and separated from the rest of Anatolia by the massif that forms Mount Ida. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city, usually having sovereignty. ... The Tjekker were one of the Sea Peoples who raided Egypt and the Levant during the 13th and 12th centuries BCE. They raided Egypt repeatedly before settling in northern Canaan. ... The defensive wall of Braşov, Romania. ...


The Trojan royal kinship, in Greek eyes, traced its descent from the Pleiad Electra and Zeus, the parents of Dardanus. Dardanus, according to Greek myths was originally from Arcadia but according to Roman myths was originally from Italy, having crossed over to Asia Minor The Pleiade, or Oceanid, Electra of Greek mythology was one of the seven daughters of Atlas and Pleione. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, Dardanus (burner up) was a son of Zeus by Electra, daughter of Atlas, and founder of the city of Dardania on Mount Ida in the Troad. ... This article is about a region of Greece. ...

from the island of Samothrace, where he met King Teucer. Teucer was himself also a coloniser from Attica, and treated Dardanus with respect. Eventually Dardanus married Teucer's daughters, and founded Dardania (later ruled by Aeneas). Upon Dardanus' death, the Kingdom was passed to his grandson Tros, who called the people Trojans and the land Troad, after himself. Ilus, son of Tros, founded the city of Ilium (Troy) that he called after himself. Zeus gave Ilus the Palladium. Poseidon and Apollo built the walls and fortifications around Troy for Laomedon, son of Ilus the younger. When Laomedon refused to pay, Poseidon flooded the land and demanded the sacrifice of Hesione to a sea monster. Pestilence came and the sea monster snatched away the people of the plain. Coordinates 40°29′ N 25°31′ E Country Greece Periphery East Macedonia and Thrace Prefecture Evros Population 2,723 source (2001) Area 178. ... In Greek mythology, King Teucer (also Teucrus) was said to have been the son of the river Scamander and of the nymph Idaea. ... Attica (in Greek: Αττική, Attike; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a periphery (subdivision) in Greece, containing Athens, the capital of Greece. ... Dardania in Greek mythology is the name of a city founded on Mount Ida by Dardanus from which also the region and the people took their name. ... Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598. ... In Greek mythology, King Tros of Dardania, son of Erichthonius from whom he inherited the throne and the father of three named sons: Ilus, Assaracus, and Ganymedes. ... Ilus is the name of several mythological/homeric persons associated directly or indirectly with Troy. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Palladion. ... Neptune reigns in the city of Bristol. ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, Laomedon was a Trojan king and father of Ganymedes, Priam, Astyoche, Lampus, Hicetaon, Clytius, Cilla, Aethylla, and Hesione. ... In Greek mythology, the most prominent Hesione was a Trojan princess, daughter of King Laomedon of Troy, sister of Priam and second wife of King Telamon of Salamis. ... For the television series about extinct sea animals, see Sea Monsters. ... Look up pestilence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

In Sardis a self-identified Heracleid dynasty ruled for 505 years until the time of Candaules. The dynasty's founding myth legitimizes their rule by asserting that one generation before the Trojan War, Heracles captured Troy and killed Laomedon and his sons, except for young Priam. Priam later became king. During his reign, the Mycenaean Greeks invaded and captured Troy in the Trojan War (traditionally dated to 11931183 BC). The Ionians, Cimmerians, Phrygians, Milesians of Sinope and Lydians moved into Asia Minor. The Persians invaded in 546 BC. A recent view of the ceremonial court of the thermae–gymnasium complex in Sardis, dated to 211—212 AD Sardis, also Sardes (Lydian: Sfard, Greek: Σάρδεις, Persian: Sparda), modern Sart in the Manisa province of Turkey, was the capital of the ancient kingdom of Lydia, the seat of a proconsul under... Candaules (Κανδαυλης) was a king of the ancient Kingdom of Lydia from 735 BC to 718 BC. He succeeded Meles and was followed by Gyges. ... A founding myth is a story or myth surrounding the foundation of a nation-state. ... The fall of Troy, by Johann Georg Trautmann (1713–1769). ... Alcides redirects here. ... King Priam killed by Neoptolemus, son of Achilles, detail of an Attic red-figure amphora In Greek mythology, Priam (Greek Πρίαμος, Priamos) was the king of Troy during the Trojan War, and youngest son of Laomedon. ... Mycenaean Greece, the last phase of the Bronze Age in ancient Greece, is the historical setting of the epics of Homer and much other Greek mythology. ... Centuries: 13th century BC - 12th century BC - 11th century BC Decades: 1240s BC 1230s BC 1220s BC 1210s BC 1200s BC - 1190s BC - 1180s BC 1170s BC 1160s BC 1150s BC 1140s BC Events and trends 1197 BC - The beginning of first period (1197 BC - 982 BC) by Sau Yung... Centuries: 13th century BC - 12th century BC - 11th century BC Decades: 1230s BC 1220s BC 1210s BC 1200s BC 1190s BC - 1180s BC - 1170s BC 1160s BC 1150s BC 1140s BC 1130s BC Events and trends April 24 1184 BC - Traditional date of the fall of Troy. ... Location of Ionia Ionia (Greek Ιωνία; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was an ancient region of southwestern coastal Anatolia (in present-day Turkey, the region nearest İzmir,) on the Aegean Sea. ... The Cimmerians were an ancient people who lived in the south of modern-day Ukraine and Russia in the 8th and 7th century BC. Cimmeria was an ancient continental plate comprising present-day Turkey, Iran, and Afghanistan. ... In antiquity, Phrygia (Greek: ) was a kingdom in the west central part of the Anatolia. ... The lower half of the benches and the remnants of the scene building of the theater of Miletus (August 2005) Miletus (Carian: Anactoria Hittite: Milawata or Millawanda, Greek: Μίλητος transliterated Miletos, Turkish: Milet) was an ancient city on the western coast of Anatolia (in what is now Aydin Province, Turkey), near... Sinop (from Hittite: Sinuwa, in Greek: Σινώπη/Sinope) is a city with a population of 47,000 on Boztepe cape and peninsula which is situated on the most northern edge of the Turkish side of Black Sea coast, in the ancient region of Paphlagonia, in modern-day northern Turkey, historically known... Lydia (Greek ) is a historic region of western Anatolia, congruent with Turkeys modern provinces of İzmir and Manisa. ... Persia redirects here. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 590s BC - 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC Events and Trends 548 BC -- Croesus, Lydian king, defeated by Cyrus. ...


The Maxyans were a west Libyan tribe who said that they were descended from the men of Troy, according to Herodotus. The Trojan ships transformed into naiads, who rejoiced to see the wreckage of Odysseus' ship. Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hērodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... A Naiad by John William Waterhouse, 1893. ... For other meanings, see Odysseus (disambiguation) Ulysses redirects here. ...


Some famous Trojans are: Dardanus (founder of Troy), Laomedon, Ganymede, Priam and his children (including Paris, Hector, Cassandra and Troilus), Oenone, Tithonus, Memnon, Corythus, Aeneas and Brutus. Kapys, Boukolion and Aisakos were Trojan princes who had naiad wives. Some of the Trojan allies were the Lycians and the Amazons. The Aisepid nymphs were the naiads of the Trojan River Aisepos. Pegsis was the naiad of the River Granicus near Troy. "Helen of Troy" was born not at Troy but at Sparta. In Greek mythology, Dardanus (burner up) was a son of Zeus by Electra, daughter of Atlas, and founder of the city of Dardania on Mount Ida in the Troad. ... In Greek mythology, Laomedon was a Trojan king and father of Ganymedes, Priam, Astyoche, Lampus, Hicetaon, Clytius, Cilla, Aethylla, and Hesione. ... The Rape of Ganymede, by Rubens In Greek mythology, Ganymede, or closer to the Greek Ganymede the great man that leads (in Greek — Γανυμήδης, Ganumēdēs) was a divine hero whose homeland was the Troad. ... King Priam killed by Neoptolemus, son of Achilles, detail of an Attic red-figure amphora In Greek mythology, Priam (Greek Πρίαμος, Priamos) was the king of Troy during the Trojan War, and youngest son of Laomedon. ... See List of King Priams children Statue of Paris in the British Museum This article is about the prince of Troy. ... For other uses, see Hector (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cassandra (disambiguation). ... Troilus is a character in medieval and Renaissance versions of the legend of the Trojan War. ... In Greek mythology, Oenone (wine woman) was the first wife of Paris. ... In Greek mythology, Tithonus was Eos lover. ... In Greek mythology, Memnon was an Ethiopian king and son of Tithonus and Eos. ... In Greek mythology, Oenone (wine woman) was the first wife of Paris. ... Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598. ... Brutus of Troy or Brutus I of the Britons (Welsh: Bryttys), according to the accounts of the early Welsh historians Nennius and Geoffrey of Monmouth, was the first king of the Britons. ... In Greek mythology, Capys was a son of Assaracus and Aigesta or Themiste and father of Anchises and so grandfather of Aeneas the Trojan, who warned not to bring the Trojan horse into the city a descendant of Aeneas and king of Rome before Rome was founded The first one... Aesacus or Aisakos in Greek mythology was a son of King Priam of Troy. ... A Naiad by John William Waterhouse, 1893. ... Lycia is a region on the southern coast of Turkey. ... The Amazons (in Greek, ) were a mythical ancient nation of all-female warriors. ... In Greek mythology, a nymph is any member of a large class of female nature entities, either bound to a particular location or landform or joining the retinue of a god or goddess. ... A Naiad by John William Waterhouse, 1893. ... In Greek mythology, Aesepus was the son of the naiad Abarbarea and Bucolion. ... Granicus river (Kocabas Çayı in modern Turkish) is a water flow in northwestern Asia Minor. ... In Greek mythology, Helen (Greek: , Helénē), better known as Helen of Troy, was the daughter of Zeus and Leda and the wife of Menelaus, king of Sparta. ... For modern day Sparta, see Sparti (municipality). ...


Mount Ida in Asia Minor is where Ganymede was abducted by Zeus, where Anchises was seduced by Aphrodite, where Aphrodite gave birth to Aeneas, where Paris lived as a shepherd, where the nymphs lived, where the "Judgement of Paris" took place, where the Greek gods watched the Trojan War, where Hera distracted Zeus with her seductions long enough to permit the Achaeans, aided by Poseidon, to hold the Trojans off their ships, and where Aeneas and his followers rested and waited until the Greeks set out for Greece.Buthrotos (or Buthrotum) was a city in Epirus where Helenus, the Trojan seer, built a replica of Troy. Aeneas landed there and Helenus foretold his future. Mount Ida, Turkish Kazdağı (pronounced Kaz DA-u, with a meaning of Goose Mountain[1]), Kaz DaÄŸları, or KarataÅŸ Tepesi, is a mountain in northwestern Turkey, southeast of the ruins of Troy, along the north coast of the Gulf of Edremit. ... Aeneas Bearing Anchises from Troy, by Carle van Loo, 1729 (Louvre) In Greek mythology, Anchises was a son of Capys and Themiste (daughter of Ilus, son of Tros) or Hieromneme, a naiad. ... The Birth of Venus, (detail) by Sandro Botticelli, 1485 For other uses, see Aphrodite (disambiguation). ... Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598. ... The Judgment of Paris, Peter Paul Rubens, ca 1636 (National Gallery, London) For the wine-tasting event known as The Judgment of Paris, see Paris Wine Tasting of 1976 The Judgement of Paris is a story from Greek mythology, in which the legendary roots of the Trojan War can be... For other uses, see Hera (disambiguation). ... Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598. ... Remains of a theatre and part of the agora (Photo by Marc Morell) Remains of the 6th-century baptistery Butrint (Albanian: Butrint or Butrinti) is a city and an archeological site in Albania, close to the Greek border. ... Epirus, spanning Greece and Albania. ... Helenus was a Trojan soldier in the Trojan War. ... Seer has several possible meanings: A fortune teller or prophet The fictional character on the television series Charmed The Seasonal energy efficiency ratio standard for air conditioning appliances This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Homeric Troy

Portion of the legendary walls of Troy (VII), identified as the site of the Trojan War (ca. 1200 BCE)
Portion of the legendary walls of Troy (VII), identified as the site of the Trojan War (ca. 1200 BCE)

Ancient Greek historians placed the Trojan War variously in the 12th, 13th or 14th century BC: Eratosthenes to 1184 BC, Herodotus to 1250 BC, Douris to 1334 BC. Image File history File links Troy1. ... Image File history File links Troy1. ... The fall of Troy, by Johann Georg Trautmann (1713–1769). ... (13th century BC - 12th century BC - 11th century BC - other centuries) (1200s BC - 1190s BC - 1180s BC - 1170s BC - 1160s BC - 1150s BC - 1140s BC - 1130s BC - 1120s BC - 1110s BC - 1100s BC - other decades) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 1200 BC - Ancient Pueblo Peoples... This bronze ritual wine vessel, dating from the Shang Dynasty in the 13th century BC, is housed at the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution. ... // Overview Events 1344 BCE – 1322 BCE -- Beginning of Hittite empire Rise of the Urnfield culture Significant persons Akhenaten, Pharaoh of Egypt Tutankhamun, Pharaoh of Egypt Suppiliulima, king of the Hittites Moses Inventions, discoveries, introductions Template:DecadesAndYearsBCE Category: ‪14th century BCE‬ ... This article is about the Greek scholar of the third century BC. For the ancient Athenian statesman of the fifth century BC, see Eratosthenes (statesman). ... Centuries: 13th century BC - 12th century BC - 11th century BC Decades: 1230s BC 1220s BC 1210s BC 1200s BC 1190s BC - 1180s BC - 1170s BC 1160s BC 1150s BC 1140s BC 1130s BC Events and trends 1186 BC - End of the Nineteenth dynasty of Egypt, start of the Twentieth Dynasty. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“rodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1300s BC 1290s BC 1280s BC 1270s BC 1260s BC - 1250s BC - 1240s BC 1230s BC 1220s BC 1210s BC 1200s BC Events and trends September 7, 1251 BC - A solar eclipse at this date might mark the birth... Douris was a tyrant of Samos and a descendant of Alcibiades of Athens. ... Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1380s BC 1370s BC 1360s BC 1350s BC 1340s BC - 1330s BC - 1320s BC 1310s BC 1300s BC 1290s BC 1280s BC Events and Trends Significant People 1338 BC - Queen Tiy of Egypt, Chief Queen of Amenhotep III and...


In the Iliad, the Achaeans set up their camp near the mouth of the river Scamander (presumably modern Karamenderes), where they had beached their ships. The city of Troy itself stood on a hill, across the plain of Scamander, where the battles of the Trojan War took place. The site of the ancient city today is some 15 kilometers from the coast, but the ancient mouths of alleged Scamander, some 3,000 years ago, were some 5 kilometers further inland,[3][4] pouring into a bay that has since been filled with alluvial material. Recent geological findings have enabled the reconstruction of how the Trojan coastline would have looked, hence they indicate that Homeric geography of Troy is accurate.[5] The Achaeans (in Greek , Achaioi) is the collective name given to the Greek forces in Homers Iliad (used 598 times). ... In Greek mythology, Scamander (Skamandros) was an Oceanid, son of Oceanus and Tethys. ... Karamenderes is the modern name of the river Scamander, along the lower course of which, according to the Iliad, the battles of the Trojan War were fought. ... Alluvium is soil land deposited by a river or other running water. ...

Silver tetradrachm from Troy during the Hellenistic period, 188–160 BC. Head of Athena in Attic helmet. Reverse female figure and owl with inscription: ΑΘΗΝΑΣ ΙΛΙΑΔΟΣ, ΚΛΕΩΝΟΣ ΙΛΙΟΥ.
Silver tetradrachm from Troy during the Hellenistic period, 188–160 BC. Head of Athena in Attic helmet. Reverse female figure and owl with inscription: ΑΘΗΝΑΣ ΙΛΙΑΔΟΣ, ΚΛΕΩΝΟΣ ΙΛΙΟΥ.

Besides the Iliad, there are references to Troy in the other major work attributed to Homer, the Odyssey, as well as in other ancient Greek literature. The Homeric legend of Troy was elaborated by the Roman poet Virgil in his work the Aeneid. The Greeks and Romans took for a fact the historicity of the Trojan War, and in the identity of Homeric Troy with the site in Anatolia. Alexander the Great, for example, visited the site in 334 BC and made sacrifices at the alleged tombs of the Homeric heroes Achilles and Patroclus. Image File history File links Tetradrachm_from_Troy. ... Image File history File links Tetradrachm_from_Troy. ... ISO 4217 Code GRD User(s) Greece Inflation 3. ... The Hellenistic period (4th - 1st c. ... For other uses, see Athena (disambiguation). ... Attica (in Greek: Αττική, Attike; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a periphery (subdivision) in Greece, containing Athens, the capital of Greece. ... For other uses, see Owl (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Odyssey (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Virgil (disambiguation). ... Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598 Galleria Borghese, Rome The Aeneid (IPA English pronunciation: ; in Latin Aeneis, pronounced — the title is Greek in form: genitive case Aeneidos) is a Latin epic written by Virgil in the 1st century BC (between 29 and 19 BC) that tells the legendary story... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Events Alexander the Great crosses the Bosporus, invading Persia. ... For other uses, see Achilles (disambiguation). ... A cup depicting Achilles bandaging Patroklos arm, by the Sosias Painter. ...


In November 2001, geologists John C. Kraft from the University of Delaware and John V. Luce from Trinity College, Dublin presented the results[6][7][8] of investigations into the geology of the region that had started in 1977. The geologists compared the present geology with the landscapes and coastal features described in the Iliad and other classical sources, notably Strabo's Geographia. Their conclusion was that there is regularly a consistency between the location of Troy as identified by Schliemann (and other locations such as the Greek camp), the geological evidence, and descriptions of the topology and accounts of the battle in the Iliad. Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... The University of Delaware (UD) is the largest university in the U.S. state of Delaware. ... For other institutions named Trinity College, see Trinity College. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Topology is a branch of mathematics concerned with spatial properties preserved under bicontinuous deformation (stretching without tearing or gluing); these properties are the topological invariants. ...


After the 1995 find of a Luwian biconvex seal at Troy VII, there has been a heated discussion over the language that was spoken in Homeric Troy. Frank Starke of the University of Tubingen recently demonstrated that the name of Priam is connected to the Luwian compound Priimuua, which means "exceptionally courageous".[9] "The certainty is growing that Wilusa/Troy belonged to the greater Luwian-speaking community", although it's not entirely clear whether Luwian was primarily the official language or it was also in daily use.[10] The Trojan language, the language spoken in the ancient city of Troy VIIa (which was probably destroyed violently c. ... Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen (German: Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen) is a state-supported university located on the Neckar river, in the city of Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... Luwian (sometimes spelled Luwiyan) is an Anatolian language known in three forms: (1) Cuneiform Luwian, (2) Hieroglyphic-Luwian and (3), the somewhat later Lycian. ...


Archaeological Troy

Archeological plan of Hisarlik
Archeological plan of Hisarlik

The layers of ruins on the site are numbered Troy I – Troy IX, with various subdivisions: Image File history File links Plan_Troy-Hisarlik-en. ... Image File history File links Plan_Troy-Hisarlik-en. ...

  • Troy I 3000–2600 (Western Anatolian EB 1)
  • Troy II 2600–2250 (Western Anatolian EB 2)
  • Troy III 2250–2100 (Western Anatolian EB 3 [early])
  • Troy IV 2100–1950 (Western Anatolian EB 3 [middle])
  • Troy V: 20th18th centuries BC (Western Anatolian EB 3 [late]).
  • Troy VI: 17th15th centuries BC.
  • Troy VIh: late Bronze Age, 14th century BC
  • Troy VIIa: ca. 13001190 BC, most likely candidate for Homeric Troy.
  • Troy VIIb1: 12th century BC
  • Troy VIIb2: 11th century BC
  • Troy VIIb3: until ca. 950 BC
  • Troy VIII: around 700 BC
  • Troy IX: Hellenistic Ilium, 1st century BC

The archaeological site of Troy was added to the UNESCO World Heritage list in 1998. The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use) consisted of techniques for smelting copper and tin from naturally occurring outcroppings of ore, and then alloying those metals in order to cast bronze. ... (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 2064 – 1986 BC -- Twin Dynasty wars in Egypt. ... // Events 1787 - 1784 BC -- Amorite conquests of Uruk and Isin 1786 BC -- Egypt: Queen Sobekneferu died. ... // Overview Events 1700 – 1500 BC -- Hurrian conquests. ... // Overview Events 1504 BC – 1492 BC -- Egypt conquers Nubia and the Levant. ... // Overview Events 1344 BCE – 1322 BCE -- Beginning of Hittite empire Rise of the Urnfield culture Significant persons Akhenaten, Pharaoh of Egypt Tutankhamun, Pharaoh of Egypt Suppiliulima, king of the Hittites Moses Inventions, discoveries, introductions Template:DecadesAndYearsBCE Category: ‪14th century BCE‬ ... (Redirected from 1300 BC) Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1350s BC 1340s BC 1330s BC 1320s BC 1310s BC - 1300s BC - 1290s BC 1280s BC 1270s BC 1260s BC 1250s BC Events and Trends Cecrops II, legendary King of Athens dies after a reign... (Redirected from 1190 BC) Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1340s BC 1330s BC 1320s BC 1310s BC 1300s BC - 1290s BC - 1280s BC 1270s BC 1260s BC 1250s BC 1240s BC Events and Trends December 15 1290 BC - Seti I, Pharaoh of Egypt dies. ... (13th century BC - 12th century BC - 11th century BC - other centuries) (1200s BC - 1190s BC - 1180s BC - 1170s BC - 1160s BC - 1150s BC - 1140s BC - 1130s BC - 1120s BC - 1110s BC - 1100s BC - other decades) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 1200 BC - Ancient Pueblo Peoples... David and Saul (1885) by Julius Kronberg. ... Centuries: 11th century BC - 10th century BC - 9th century BC Decades: 1000s BC 990s BC 980s BC 970s BC 960s BC - 950s BC - 940s BC 930s BC 920s BC 910s BC 900s BC Events and Trends 959 BC - Psusennes II succeeds Siamun as king of Egypt. ... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 750s BC 740s BC 730s BC 720s BC 710s BC - 700s BC - 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC 660s BC 650s BC Events and Trends 708 BC - Spartan immigrants found Taras (Tarentum, the modern Taranto) colony in southern Italy. ... The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 1st century BC started on January 1, 100 BC and ended on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. The AD/BC notation does not use a year zero. ... Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ...


Troy I–V

The first city was founded in the 3rd millennium BC. During the Bronze Age, the site seems to have been a flourishing mercantile city, since its location allowed for complete control of the Dardanelles, through which every merchant ship from the Aegean Sea heading for the Black Sea had to pass. The 3rd millennium BC spans the Early to Middle Bronze Age. ... Map of the Dardanelles The Dardanelles (Turkish: Çanakkale Boğazı, Greek: Δαρδανέλλια, Dardanellia), formerly known as the Hellespont (Greek: Eλλήσποντος, Hellespontos), is a narrow strait in northwestern Turkey connecting the Aegean Sea to the Sea of Marmara. ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ...


Troy VI

Troy VI was destroyed around 1300 BC, probably by an earthquake. Only a single arrowhead was found in this layer, and no bodily remains. (Redirected from 1300 BC) Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1350s BC 1340s BC 1330s BC 1320s BC 1310s BC - 1300s BC - 1290s BC 1280s BC 1270s BC 1260s BC 1250s BC Events and Trends Cecrops II, legendary King of Athens dies after a reign... This article is about the natural seismic phenomenon. ...


Troy VII

Main article: Troy VII
Map of Troy (VII or VIII) and Other Cities within the Lydian Empire.
Map of Troy (VII or VIII) and Other Cities within the Lydian Empire.

The archaeological layer known as Troy VIIa, which has been dated on the basis of pottery styles to the mid- to late-13th century BC, is the most often-cited candidate for the Troy of Homer. It was a walled city with towers reaching a height of nine meters; the foundations of one of its bastions measure 18 meters by 18 meters. It appears to have been destroyed by a war, and there are traces of a fire. Troy VII is an archaeological layer of Troy spanning late Hittite Empire to Neo-Hittite times (ca. ... Image File history File links Map_of_Lydia_ancient_times. ... Image File history File links Map_of_Lydia_ancient_times. ... See 110 Lydia for the asteroid. ... Unfired green ware pottery on a traditional drying rack at Conner Prairie living history museum. ... This bronze ritual wine vessel, dating from the Shang Dynasty in the 13th century BC, is housed at the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution. ...


Until the 1988 excavations, the problem was that Troy VII seemed to be a hill-top fort, and not a city of the size described by Homer, but later identification of parts of the city ramparts suggests a city "at least ten times larger than earlier excavators - and thus the broader public - had supposed".[11] Manfred Korfmann estimated the area of Troy VII at 200,000 square metres or more and put its population at five to ten thousand inhabitants, which makes it "by the standards of its day a large and important city".[11] Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Troy VIIb1 (ca. 1120 BC) and Troy VIIb2 (ca. 1020 BC) appear to have been destroyed by fires. Partial human remains were found in houses and in the streets, and near the north-western ramparts a human skeleton with skull injuries and a broken jawbone. Three bronze arrowheads were found, two being in the fort and one in the city. However, only small portions of the city have been excavated, and the finds are too scarce to clearly favour destruction by war over a natural disaster. (Redirected from 1120 BC) Centuries: 13th century BC - 12th century BC - 11th century BC Decades: 1170s BC 1160s BC 1150s BC 1140s BC 1130s BC - 1120s BC - 1110s BC 1100s BC 1090s BC 1080s BC 1070s BC Events and Trends 1126 BC - Thymoetes, legendary King of Athens dies childless after... (Redirected from 1020 BC) Centuries: 12th century BC - 11th century BC - 10th century BC Decades: 1070s BC 1060s BC 1050s BC 1040s BC 1030s BC - 1020s BC - 1010s BC 1000s BC 990s BC 980s BC 970s BC Events and Trends 1027 BC - Traditional date for the end of the Shang...


Troy IX

The last city on this site, Hellenistic Ilium, was founded by Romans during the reign of the emperor Augustus and was an important trading city until the establishment of Constantinople in the fourth century as the eastern capital of the Roman Empire. In Byzantine times the city declined gradually, and eventually disappeared. The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... (3rd century - 4th century - 5th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Byzantine redirects here. ...


Excavation campaigns

Schliemann

With the rise of modern critical history, Troy and the Trojan War were consigned to the realms of legend. In the 1870s (in two campaigns, 187173 and 1878/9), however, the German, self-taught archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann excavated a hill, called Hisarlik by the Turks, near the town of Chanak (Çanakkale) in north-western Anatolia. Here he discovered the ruins of a series of ancient cities, dating from the Bronze Age to the Roman period. Schliemann declared one of these cities—at first Troy I, later Troy II—to be the city of Troy, and this identification was widely accepted at that time. Schliemann's finds at Hisarlik have become known as Priam's Treasure. They were acquired from him by the Berlin museums, but significant doubts about their authenticity persist. // The invention of the telephone (1876) by Alexander Graham Bell. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... Portrait of Heinrich Schliemann. ... For the Çanakkale meteorite of 1964, see Meteorite falls. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Image:Priams Gold. ...


Dörpfeld, Blegen

After Schliemann, the site was further excavated under the direction of Wilhelm Dörpfeld (1893/4) and later Carl Blegen (1932-8). These excavations have shown that there were at least nine cities built one on top of each other at this site. Wilhelm Dörpfeld Wilhelm Dörpfeld (or Doerpfeld) (26 December 1853 – 25 April 1940) was a German architect, best known for his contributions to classical archaeology. ... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Korfmann

In 1988 excavations were resumed by a team of the University of Tübingen and the University of Cincinnati under the direction of Professor Manfred Korfmann. Possible evidence of a battle was found in the form of arrowheads found in layers dated to the early 12th century BC. The question of Troy's status in the Bronze Age world has been the subject of a sometimes acerbic debate between Korfmann and the Tübingen historian Frank Kolb in 2001/2002. Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... A view of the campus Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen (German: Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen, sometimes called the Eberhardina) is a public university located in the city of Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... The University of Cincinnati is a coeducational public research university in Cincinnati, Ohio. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... (13th century BC - 12th century BC - 11th century BC - other centuries) (1200s BC - 1190s BC - 1180s BC - 1170s BC - 1160s BC - 1150s BC - 1140s BC - 1130s BC - 1120s BC - 1110s BC - 1100s BC - other decades) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 1200 BC - Ancient Pueblo Peoples... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


In August 2003 following a magnetic imaging survey of the fields below the fort, a deep ditch was located and excavated among the ruins of a later Greek and Roman city. Remains found in the ditch were dated to the late Bronze Age, the alleged time of Homeric Troy. It is claimed by Korfmann that the ditch may have once marked the outer defences of a much larger city than had previously been suspected.


Pernicka

In summer 2006 the excavations continued under the direction of Korfmann's colleague Ernst Pernicka, with a new digging permit.[12]


Hittite and Egyptian evidence

In the 1920s the Swiss scholar Emil Forrer claimed that placenames found in Hittite texts — Wilusa and Taruisa — should be identified with Ilium and Troia respectively. He further noted that the name of Alaksandus, king of Wilusa, mentioned in one of the Hittite texts is quite similar to the name of Prince Alexandros or Paris, of Troy. The 1920s is sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... Hittite is the extinct language once spoken by the Hittites, a people who created an empire centered on ancient Hattusas (modern BoÄŸazkale) in north-central Anatolia (modern Turkey). ...


An unnamed Hittite king wrote a letter to the king of the Ahhiyawa, treating him as an equal and implying that Miletus (Millawanda) was controlled by the Ahhiyawa, and also referring to an earlier "Wilusa episode" involving hostility on the part of the Ahhiyawa. This people has been identified with the Homeric Greeks (Achaeans). The Hittite king was long held to be Mursili II (ca 1321-1296), but since the 1980s his son Hattusili III (1265-1240) is commonly preferred, although Mursili's other son Muwatalli (ca 1296-1272) is still considered a possibility. Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people from KaneÅ¡ who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite... This article is about the ancient people of the Achaeans. ... The lower half of the benches and the remnants of the scene building of the theater of Miletus (August 2005) Miletus (Carian: Anactoria Hittite: Milawata or Millawanda, Greek: Μίλητος transliterated Miletos, Turkish: Milet) was an ancient city on the western coast of Anatolia (in what is now Aydin Province, Turkey), near... The Achaeans (in Greek , Achaioi) is the collective name given to the Greek forces in Homers Iliad (used 598 times). ... Mursili II was a king of the Hittite Empire (New kingdom) from ca. ... Hattusili III was a king of the Hittite empire (New kingdom) 1265 BC–1235 BC. He was the commander of Hittite forces in 1274 BC that defeated an Egyptian campign into Syria in the famous Battle of Kadesh. ... Muwatalli II was a king of the Hittite empire (New kingdom) from 1285 BC–1273 BC. The elder son of Mursili II, he is best known as the Hittite ruler who fought Ramesses II at the Battle of Kadesh around 1285 BC. Categories: Historical stubs | Hittite kings ...


An Egyptian inscription at Deir al-Madinah records a victory of Ramesses III over Sea Peoples, including some named Tursha (spelled [twrš3] in Egyptian script). These are probably the same as the earlier Teresh (found written as [trš.w]) of the Merneptah Stele, commemorating Merneptah’s victory in a Libyan campaign at about 1220 BC. Although this may be too early for the Trojan War, some scholars have connected the name to the city mentioned in Hittite records as Taruisas, or Troy.[13] Deir al-Madinah is the Arabic name of an Ancient Egyptian village that was home to the artisans who built the temples and tombs ordered by the pharaohs and other dignitaries during the New Kingdom period (18th to 20th dynasties) in the Valley of the Kings. ... Usermaatre Meryamun Powerful one of Maat and Ra, Beloved of Amun Nomen Ramesse Hekaiunu Ra bore him, Ruler of Heliopolis Consort(s) Iset Ta-Hemdjert, Tiye Issue Ramesses IV, Ramesses VI, Ramesses VIII, Amun-her-khepeshef, Khaemwaset, Meryamun, Meryatum, Montuherkhopshef, Pareherwenemef, Pentawer, Duatentopet (?) Father Setnakht Mother Tiye-Mereniset Died... The Budgie People is the term used for a confederacy of seafaring raiders who sailed into the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, caused political unrest, and attempted to enter or control Egyptian territory during the late 19th dynasty, and especially during Year 8 of Ramesses III of the 20th Dynasty. ... The Merneptah Stele is the reverse of a stela erected by Amenhotep III written by Merneptah. ... Merneptah (occasionally: Merenptah) was pharaoh of Ancient Egypt (1213 – 1203 BC), the fourth ruler of the 19th Dynasty. ... The fall of Troy, by Johann Georg Trautmann (1713–1769). ...


These identifications were rejected by many scholars as being improbable or at least unprovable. Trevor Bryce in 1998 championed them in his book The Kingdom of the Hittites, citing a recovered piece of the so-called Manapa-Tarhunda letter, which refers to the kingdom of Wilusa as beyond the land of the Seha (known in classical times as the Caicus) river, and near the land of Lazpa (Lesbos Island). Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... The Manapa-Tarhunta letter (CTH 191; KUB 19. ... Caicus also Caïcus (Greek: Καϊκος or Καϊκός, transliterated as Kaïkos, formerly Astraeus or Astræus) is the ancient name of a river of Asia Minor that rises in the Temnus mountains and flows through Lydia, Mysia, and Aeolis before debouching into the Elaeatic Gulf. ... Lesbos (Modern Greek: Lesvos (Λέσβος), Turkish: Midilli), is a Greek island located in the northeastern Aegean Sea. ...


Recent evidence adds weight to the theory that Wilusa is identical to archaeological Troy. Hittite texts mention a water tunnel at Wilusa, and a water tunnel excavated by Korfmann, previously thought to be Roman, has been dated to around 2600 BC. The identifications of Wilusa with archaeological Troy and of the Achaeans with the Ahhiyawa remain controversial, but gained enough popularity during the 1990s to be considered a majority opinion. Water tunnels are used to deliver water by using a below ground channel. ... (27th century BC - 26th century BC - 25th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC – Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period. ... This article is about the ancient people of the Achaeans. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ...


Homeric Ilios and historical Wilusa

The view from Hisarlık across the plain of Ilium to the Aegean Sea
The view from Hisarlık across the plain of Ilium to the Aegean Sea

The events described in Homer's Iliad, even if based on historical events that preceded its composition by some 450 years, will never be completely identifiable with historical or archaeological facts, even if there was a Bronze Age city on the site now called Troy, and even if that city was destroyed by fire or war at about the same time as the time postulated for the Trojan War. Map of the Troad (Troas) Map of Bronze Age Greece as described in Homers Iliad The extent of the historical basis of the Iliad has been debated for some time, and recent discoveries have fueled more discussion across several disciplines. ... I took this myself File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... I took this myself File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


No text or artifact has been found on site itself which clearly identifies the Bronze Age site. This is probably due to the levelling of the former hillfort during the construction of Hellenistic Ilium (Troy IX), destroying the parts that most likely contained the city archives. In 1995, a single biconvex seal of a Luwian scribe was found in one of the houses, proving the presence of written correspondence in the city, but not a single text. Our emerging understanding of the geography of the Hittite Empire makes it very likely that the site corresponds to the city of Wilusa. But even if that is accepted, it is of course no positive proof of the site's identity with Homeric (W)ilion. Image File history File links Troy_VIIb_hieroglyphic_seal_reverse. ... Luwian (sometimes spelled Luwiyan) is an Anatolian language known in three forms: (1) Cuneiform Luwian, (2) Hieroglyphic-Luwian and (3), the somewhat later Lycian. ...


A name Wilion or Troia does not appear in any of the Greek written records from the Mycenean sites. The Mycenaean Greeks of the 13th century BC had colonized the Greek mainland and Crete, and were only beginning to make forays into Anatolia, establishing a bridgehead in Miletus (Millawanda). Historical Wilusa was one of the Arzawa lands, in loose alliance with the Hittite Empire, and written reference to the city is therefore to be expected in Hittite correspondence rather than in Mycenaean palace archives. The Mycenean Period covers the latter part of the Bronze Age on the Greek mainland. ... This bronze ritual wine vessel, dating from the Shang Dynasty in the 13th century BC, is housed at the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... The lower half of the benches and the remnants of the scene building of the theater of Miletus (August 2005) Miletus (Carian: Anactoria Hittite: Milawata or Millawanda, Greek: Μίλητος transliterated Miletos, Turkish: Milet) was an ancient city on the western coast of Anatolia (in what is now Aydin Province, Turkey), near... Arzawa is a region or kingdom in what was later to be known as Lydia in Western Anatolia. ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people from Kaneš who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite...


Status of the Iliad

The dispute over the historicity of the Iliad was very heated at times. The more we know about Bronze Age history, the clearer it becomes that it is not a yes-or-no question but one of educated assessment of how much historical knowledge is present in Homer. The story of the Iliad is not an account of the war, but a tale of the wrath, vengeance and death of individual heroes that assumes common knowledge of the Trojan War which forms its background. No scholar assumes that the individual events in the tale (many of which involve divine intervention) are historical fact. On the other hand, no scholar claims that the text is entirely devoid of memories of Mycenaean times. title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ...


Iliad as essentially legendary

Some archaeologists and historians maintain that none of the events in Homer are historical. Others accept that there may be a foundation of historical events in the Homeric stories, but say that in the absence of independent evidence it is not possible to separate fact from myth in the stories.


In recent years scholars have suggested that the Homeric stories represented a synthesis of many old Greek stories of various Bronze Age sieges and expeditions, fused together in the Greek memory during the "dark ages" which followed the fall of the Mycenean civilization. In this view, no historical city of Troy existed anywhere: the name derives from a people called the Troies, who probably lived in central Greece. The identification of the hill at Hisarlik as Troy is, in this view, a late development, following the Greek colonisation of Asia Minor in the 8th century BC. The Greek Dark Ages (ca. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) Ruins of the training grounds at Olympia, Greece. ...


Iliad as essentially historical

Another view is that Homer was heir to an unbroken tradition of epic poetry reaching back some 500 years into Mycenaean times. In this view, the poem's core could reflect a historical campaign that took place at the eve of the decline of the Mycenaean civilization. Much legendary material would have been added during this time, but in this view it is meaningful to ask for archaeological and textual evidence corresponding to events referred to in the Iliad. Such a historical background gives a credible explanation for the geographical knowledge of Troy (which could, however, also have been obtained in Homer's time by visiting the traditional site of the city) and otherwise unmotivated elements in the poem (in particular the detailed Catalogue of Ships). Linguistically, a few verses of the Iliad suggest great antiquity, because they only fit the meter if projected back into Mycenaean Greek, suggesting a poetic tradition spanning the Greek Dark Ages. Even though Homer was Ionian, the Iliad reflects the geography known to the Mycenaean Greeks, showing detailed knowledge of the mainland but not extending to the Ionian islands or Anatolia, which suggests that the Iliad reproduces an account of events handed down by tradition, to which the author did not add his own geographical knowledge. Map of Homeric Greece The famous Catalogue of Ships (νεων κατολογος) is recorded as a part of Book II (verses 494–760, PP Il. ... Mycenaean is the most ancient attested form of the Greek language, spoken on the Greek mainland and on Crete in the 16th to 11th centuries BC, before the Dorian invasion. ... The Greek Dark Ages (ca. ... The Ionian Islands (Modern Greek: Ιόνια νησιά, Ionia nisia; Ancient Greek: , Ionioi Nēsoi) are a group of islands in Greece. ...


Fringe theories

See also: Where Troy Once Stood

Kenneth J. Dillon argues[14] that the Trojans were originally a steppe people related to the Magyars. After attacking and destroying the Hittite Empire, they came to control the Straits. During the Trojan War, the Greeks used a naval blockade to prevent Trojans on the European shore and on Lemnos from coming to the aid of Troy. Once Troy fell, the Trojans on the European shore fled northward and ended up as the Etruscans in Italy. A small minority of contemporary writers argue that Homeric Troy was not in Anatolia, but located elsewhere: England,[15] Croatia, and Scandinavia have been proposed. These theories have not been accepted by mainstream scholars. Where Troy Once Stood is a book by Iman Wilkens that deals with basic belief in Classical History: the assumption that Troy was in Turkey and that the Iliad and Odyssey are of Greek origin. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Extent of Etruscan civilization and the twelve Etruscan League cities. ...


Trojan language and Trojan script

The language of Trojans is unknown, although several Trojan names may be identified as Luvian. The status of the so-called Trojan script is still disputable (up to whether it was script at all or something different). Trojan script is a series of signs of unknown origin found on vessels from Troy excavated by Heinrich Schliemanns expedition. ...


The nation T-R-S is mentioned as one of the "Peoples of the Sea" in ancient Egyption inscriptions. The Sea Peoples is the term used for a mysterious confederacy of seafaring raiders who sailed into the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, invaded Cyprus, Hatti and the Levant, and attempted to enter Egyptian territory during the late 19th dynasty, and especially during Year 8 of Ramses III of the...

Reconstruction of the Trojan Horse at the site of Troy

The copyright status of this work is difficult or impossible to determine. ... The copyright status of this work is difficult or impossible to determine. ... For other uses, see Trojan Horse (disambiguation). ...

Troy in later legend

See also: Trojan War

Such was the fame of the Epic Cycle in Roman and medieval times that it was built upon to provide a starting point for various founding myths of national origins. The progenitor of all of them is undoubtedly that promulgated by Virgil in the Aeneid, tracing the ancestry of the founders of Rome, more specifically the Julio-Claudian dynasty, to the Trojan prince Aeneas. The heroes of Troy, both those noted in the epic texts or those purpose-invented, continued to perform the role of founder for the nations of Early Medieval Europe.[16] Denys Hay noted the widespread adoption of Trojan forebears as an authentication of national status, in Europe: the Emergence of an Idea (Edinburgh 1957). The Roman de Troie was common cultural ground for European governing classes,[17] for whom a Trojan pedigree was gloriously ancient, and it established the successor-kingdoms of which they were direct heirs as equals of the Romans. A Trojan pedigree justified the occupation of parts of Rome's erstwhile territories (Huppert 1965). The fall of Troy, by Johann Georg Trautmann (1713–1769). ... The Epic Cycle (Greek: Επικός Κύκλος) was a collection of Ancient Greek epic poems that related the story of the Trojan War, which includes the Kypria, the Aithiopis, the Little Iliad, the Iliou persis (The Sack of Troy), the Nostoi (Returns), and the Telegony. ... A founding myth is a story or myth surrounding the foundation of a nation-state. ... For other uses, see Virgil (disambiguation). ... Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598 Galleria Borghese, Rome The Aeneid (IPA English pronunciation: ; in Latin Aeneis, pronounced — the title is Greek in form: genitive case Aeneidos) is a Latin epic written by Virgil in the 1st century BC (between 29 and 19 BC) that tells the legendary story... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Template:Julio-Claudian Dynasty The Julio-Claudian Dynasty refers to the first five Roman Emperors: Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero. ... Benoît de Sainte-Maure (1154 – 1173) was a 12th century French poet, from Saint-Maure, Indre-et-Loire. ...


The Franks filled the lacunae of their legendary origins with Trojan and pseudo-Trojan names; in Fredegar's seventh-century chronicle of Frankish history, Priam appears as the first king of the Franks.[18] The Trojan origin of Franks and France was such an established article of faith that in 1714 the learned Nicolas Fréret was Bastilled for showing through historical criticism that the Franks had been Germanic, a sore point counter to Valois and Bourbon propaganda.[19] The Chronicle of Fredegar (died ca 660) is the main source for Western European events of the 7th century, a formative period whose scarcity of sources in part justifies the characterization of its silence as that of the Dark Ages. In the 7th century many institutions of the Middle Ages... Nicolas Fréret was a (1688-1749) French scholar. ... This article is about the building. ...


Similarly Geoffrey of Monmouth traces the legendary Kings of the Britons to a supposed descendant of Aeneas called Brutus. Snorri Sturluson, in the Prologue to his Prose Edda, converts several half-remembered characters from Troy into characters from Norse mythology, and refers to them having made a journey across Europe towards Scandinavia, setting up kingdoms as they went. Geoffrey of Monmouth (in Welsh: Gruffudd ap Arthur or Sieffre o Fynwy) (c. ... // For historical kings who used or upon whom was bestowed (often retrospectively) the title King of the Britons, see King of the Britons. ... Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598. ... Brutus of Troy or Brutus I of the Britons (Welsh: Bryttys), according to the accounts of the early Welsh historians Nennius and Geoffrey of Monmouth, was the first king of the Britons. ... A statue of Snorri Sturluson by Norwegian sculptor Gustav Vigeland was erected at Reykholt in 1947. ... The Younger Edda, known also as the Prose Edda or Snorris Edda is an Icelandic manual of poetics which also contains many mythological stories. ... Norse, Viking or Scandinavian mythology comprises the indigenous pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian peoples, including those who settled on Iceland, where most of the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ...


Tourism

Today there is a Turkish town called Truva in the vicinity of the archaeological site, but this town has grown up recently to service the tourist trade. The archaeological site is officially called Troia by the Turkish government and appears as such on many maps.


A large number of tourists visit the site each year, mostly coming from Istanbul by bus or by ferry via Çanakkale, the nearest major town about 50 km to the north-east. The visitor sees a highly commercialised site, with a large wooden horse built as a playground for children, then shops and a museum. The archaeological site itself is, as a recent writer said, "a ruin of a ruin,"[citation needed] because the site has been frequently excavated, and because Schliemann's archaeological methods were very destructive[citation needed]: in his conviction that the city of Priam would be found in the earliest layers, he demolished many interesting structures from later eras, including all of the house walls from Troy II[citation needed]. For many years also the site was unguarded and was thoroughly looted[citation needed]. However what remains, particularly if put into context by one of the knowledgeable professional guides to the site, is an illuminating insight into civilizations of the Bronze Age, if not to the legends. Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... For the Çanakkale meteorite of 1964, see Meteorite falls. ...


Notes

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
  1. ^ Troia is the preferred Latin name for the city. Ilium is a more poetic term.
  2. ^ This is the view of Strabo, XIII.1.7.
  3. ^ Geography XIII, I, 36, Strabo, tr. H. L. Jones, Loeb Classical Library.
  4. ^ Natural History, V,33, Pliny the Elder, tr. H. Rackham, W. S. Jones and D. E. Eichholz, Loeb Classical Library.
  5. ^ Trojan battlefield reconstructed
  6. ^ Confex.
  7. ^ Nature.
  8. ^ Iliad, Discovery.
  9. ^ Starke, Frank. "Troia im Kontext des historisch-politischen und sprachlichen Umfeldes Kleinasiens im 2. Jahrtausend". // Studia Troica, 1997, 7, 447-87.
  10. ^ Latacz, Joachim (2004). Troy and Homer: Towards a Solution of an Old Mystery, page 116. Oxford. 
  11. ^ a b Latacz, Joachim (2004). Troy and Homer: Towards a Solution of an Old Mystery, page 38. Oxford. 
  12. ^ Universität Tübingen setzt Ausgrabungen in Troia fort.
  13. ^ Carter-Morris, p. 34-35.
  14. ^ Scientia Preß.
  15. ^ Iman Wilkens, Where Troy Once Stood, (Groningen 2005), p. 68.
  16. ^ George Huppert, "The Trojan Franks and their Critics" Studies in the Renaissance 12 (1965), pp. 227-241.
  17. ^ A. Joly first traced the career of the Roman de Troie in Benoit de Sainte-More et le Roman de Troie (Paris 1871).
  18. ^ Exinde origo Francorum fuit. Priamo primo rege habuerant,
  19. ^ Larousse du XIXe siècle sub "Fréret", noted by Huppert 1965.

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Naturalis Historia, 1669 edition, title page. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Where Troy Once Stood is a book by Iman Wilkens that deals with basic belief in Classical History: the assumption that Troy was in Turkey and that the Iliad and Odyssey are of Greek origin. ...

References and further reading

  • Carter, Jane Burr; Morris, Sarah P. The Ages of Homer. University of Texas Press, 1995. ISBN 0292712081.
  • Easton, D.F.; Hawkins, J.D.; Sherratt, A.G.; Sherratt, E.S. "Troy in Recent Perspective", Anatolian Studies, Issue 52. (2002), pp. 75–109.
  • Latacz, Joachim (2004), written at Oxford, Troy and Homer: towards a solution of an old mystery, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0199263086
  • Fantasies of Troy: Classical Tales and the Social Imaginary in Medieval and Early Modern Europe, edited by Alan Shepard and Stephen D. Powell. Toronto: Centre for Reformation and Renaissance Studies, 2004.

Joachim Latacz (born 4 April 1934, Katowice, Poland) is a classical philologist. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:


Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Scene from southern Anatolia The History of Anatolia covers the civilizations, and states established in and around the Anatolia, a peninsula of Western Asia. ...

Epic Cycle
Cypria | Iliad | Aithiopis | Little Iliad | Iliou persis | Nostoi | Odyssey | Telegony

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