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Encyclopedia > Troubles
The "Troubles" is a term used to describe two periods of violence in Ireland during the twentieth century. This article describes the latter; for the earlier Troubles, see Anglo-Irish War and Irish Civil War.
Deaths in Northern Ireland's Troubles by area
Deaths in Northern Ireland's Troubles by area

The Troubles is a generic term used to describe a period of sporadic communal violence involving paramilitary organisations, the Royal Ulster Constabulary, the British Army and others in Northern Ireland from the late 1960s until the mid-1990s. It could also be described as a many-sided conflict, a guerrilla war or even a civil war. The Provisional IRA maintained their violent campaign was armed resistance to British occupation. They are described by many governments (including the Irish and British) as a terrorist organisation. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ... An Irish War of Independence memorial in Dublin The Anglo-Irish War (also known as the Irish War of Independence) was a guerrilla campaign mounted against the British government in Ireland by the Irish Republican Army under the proclaimed legitimacy of the First Dáil, the extra-legal Irish parliament... The Irish Civil War (June 1922–April 1923) was a conflict between supporters and opponents of the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 6, 1921, which established the Irish Free State, precursor of todays Republic of Ireland. ... modified from public domain version at wesleyjohnston. ... modified from public domain version at wesleyjohnston. ... The Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) was the police force in Northern Ireland from 1922 to 2001. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... Royal motto: Quis separabit (Latin: Who will separate?) Northern Irelands location within the UK Official languages English, Irish, Ulster Scots Capital and largest city Belfast First Minister Office suspended Area  - Total Ranked 4th 13,843 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 4th 1,685,267 122/km² NUTS 1... Conflict is a state of opposition, disagreement or incompatibility between two or more people or groups of people, which is sometimes characterized by physical violence. ... Guerrilla (also called a partisan) is a term borrowed from Spanish (from guerra meaning war) used to describe small combat groups. ... A civil war is a war in which the competing parties are segments of the same country or empire. ... The Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA) is a paramilitary group which aimed, through the use of violence, to achieve three goals: (i) British withdrawal from Ireland, (ii) the political unification of Ireland through the merger of Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland , and (iii) the creation of an all... The term terrorism is largely synonymous with political violence, and refers to a strategy of using coordinated attacks that typically fall outside the time, manner of conduct, and place commonly understood as representing the bounds of conventional warfare. ...

Contents


Background

The Troubles were another chapter in the long-running series of disputes between Ulster's Protestant and Roman Catholic communities. They were brought to an uneasy end by a peace process which included the declaration of ceasefires by some paramilitary organisations, the withdrawal of some troops from the streets and the creation of a new police force in a series of reforms, as agreed by the signatories to the Belfast Agreement (commonly known as the Good Friday Agreement). Ulster (Irish: Cúige Uladh, IPA: ) is one of the four provinces of Ireland. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... When discussing northern Irish history, the Peace Process is generally considered to cover the events leading up to the 1994 IRA ceasefire, the end of most of the violence of The Troubles, the Belfast (or Good Friday) Agreement, and subsequent political developments. ... The Belfast Agreement (also known as the Good Friday Agreement and, more rarely, as the Stormont Agreement) was a major step in the Northern Ireland peace process. ...


Though the number of active participants in the Troubles was small, and the paramilitary organisations that claimed to represent the communities were usually unrepresentative of the general population, the Troubles touched the lives of most people within Northern Ireland on a daily basis, while occasionally spreading to Great Britain and the Republic of Ireland. Almost four thousand people (most of them civilians) died as a result of the violence. Many people today have had their political, social and communal attitudes and perspectives shaped by the Troubles. A civilian is a person who is not a member of a military. ...


Though not itself part of the Troubles, the Civil Rights campaign in the mid to late 1960s in Northern Ireland, which was largely modelled on the American Civil Rights Movement of Martin Luther King and others in the United States, was seen by some in the unionist community as the starting point for the Troubles. They argue that it led to a destabilisation of government and created a void filled later by paramilitary groups. Others, mainly though not exclusively nationalist, disagree, arguing that the Civil Rights campaign was a reaction to a corrupt system of government, the failure to reform the system causing the collapse in law and order that led to the Troubles. All are agreed that the Troubles include Bloody Sunday, Bloody Friday, internment, the suspension of the unionist-controlled Stormont Home Rule government, the campaigns of violence by the various paramilitary organisations, including the Dublin and Monaghan Bombings, the La Mon bombing, the killing of Lord Mountbatten and members of his family, the assassination of Sir Christopher Ewart-Biggs, the then British Ambassador to the Republic of Ireland, the attempted assassination of Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and her cabinet in the Brighton hotel bombing, the assassination of Airey Neave and the attempted assassination of John David Taylor, the Enniskillen and Omagh bombings, the hunger strikers in the Long Kesh prison, the creation of the Peace People organisation (which won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1976), the splits in the IRA and ultimately the Belfast Agreement. Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... The civil rights movement in the United States has been a long, primarily nonviolent struggle to bring full civil rights and equality under the law to all citizens of United States. ... Martin Luther King, Jr. ... In the context of Irish politics, Unionists are people in Northern Ireland, who wish to see the continuation of the Act of Union 1800, as amended by the Government of Ireland Act 1920, under which Northern Ireland, created in that latter Act, remains part of the United Kingdom of Great... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Bloody Friday is the name given to July 21, 1972, due to bombing by the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) in and around Belfast, Northern Ireland on that day. ... The word internment is generally used to refer to the imprisonment or confinement of people, generally in prison camps or prisons, without due process of law and a trial. ... Stormont is Stormont, a suburb of Belfast Stormont Castle, a castle in the area Parliament Building of Northern Ireland, known as Stormont a nickname for the former Parliament of Northern Ireland and its unionist-dominated executive, the Government of Northern Ireland Stormont County an old county that is now a... Devolution or Home rule is the pooling of powers from central government to government at regional or local level. ... The Dublin and Monaghan Bombings on May 17, 1974 left 33 people dead and almost 300 injured, the largest number of casualties in any single day in The Troubles connected to Northern Ireland. ... Admiral of the Fleet The Right Honourable Sir Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, KG, PC, GCB, OM, GCSI, GCIE, GCVO, DSO, FRS, (25 June 1900 – 27 August 1979) was a British admiral and statesman and an uncle of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ... Christopher Ewart-Biggs (died July 21, 1976) was the British Ambassador to the Republic of Ireland. ... The Right Honourable Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925), is a British stateswoman. ... The Grand Hotel, Brighton, 2004 The Brighton hotel bombing was the bombing by the Provisional IRA of the Grand Hotel in Brighton in the early morning of October 12, 1984. ... Airey Neave in his Nazi escape uniform. ... John David Taylor, Baron Kilclooney, PC (NI), MLA (born 24 December 1937) is a former Ulster Unionist Party MP and now a life peer. ... Enniskillen (Inis Ceithleann in Irish) is the county town of Fermanagh in Northern Ireland. ... Omagh (Irish, An Ómaigh) is the county town (and largest town) of County Tyrone in Northern Ireland, it is also one of the largest settlements on the island of Ireland, situated where the rivers Drumragh and Camowen meet to form the Strule. ... Her Majestys Prison (HMP) Maze (known colloqually as The Maze) is a disused prison sited at the former RAF station at Long Kesh (it is still called Long Kesh by many Irish Republicans) near Lisburn, nine miles outside Belfast, in County Antrim, Northern Ireland. ... The Nobel Institute in Oslo, Norway. ... The Belfast Agreement (also known as the Good Friday Agreement and, more rarely, as the Stormont Agreement) was a major step in the Northern Ireland peace process. ...


Overview

The partition of Ireland

The origins of the Troubles are complex. What is clear is that its origins lie in the centuries-long debate over whether Ireland, or part of Ireland, should be part of the United Kingdom, and the anger felt by some Irish at their treatment by the British. In 1922, during widespread political violence, the Government of Ireland Act partitioned the island of Ireland into two separate regions, one of which became "Northern Ireland". According to the majority of unionists, Northern Ireland, which became a self-governing region of the United Kingdom, was governed in accordance with "democratic" principles, the rule of law and in accordance with the will of a majority within its borders to remain part of the United Kingdom. Nationalists however saw the partition of Ireland as an illegal and immoral division of the island of Ireland against the will of its people, and argued that the Northern Ireland statelet was neither legitimate nor democratic, but created with a deliberately engineered unionist majority. Each side had their own soundbites to describe their perspective. Ulster Unionist Party Prime Minister of Northern Ireland Lord Brookborough talked of a "Protestant state for a Protestant people", while a later Republic of Ireland taoiseach (prime minister) Charles Haughey described Northern Ireland as "a failed political entity". An Act to Provide for the Better Government of Ireland, more usually the Government of Ireland Act 1920 (this is its official short title; the formal citation is 10 & 11 Geo. ... In the context of Irish politics, Unionists are people in Northern Ireland, who wish to see the continuation of the Act of Union 1800, as amended by the Government of Ireland Act 1920, under which Northern Ireland, created in that latter Act, remains part of the United Kingdom of Great... Majoritarianism is a political philosophy or agenda which asserts that a majority (sometimes categorized by religion, language or some other identifying factor) of the population is entitled to a certain degree of primacy in society, and has the right to make decisions that affect the society. ... The Irish Nationalist movement began in the 18th century when Theobald Wolfe Tone attempted two uprisings in the 1790s. ... The Ulster Unionist Party (UUP, sometimes referred to as the Official Unionist Party or OUP) is a unionist political party in Northern Ireland, and was the party of government in Northern Ireland between 1921 and 1972. ... The Prime Minister of Northern Ireland was the head of the Government of Northern Ireland, appointed by the Governor of Northern Ireland under the Government of Ireland Act 1920. ... Basil Stanlake Brooke, 1st Viscount Brookeborough, KG, CBE, MC (June 9, 1888-August 18, 1973) was an Irish Unionist politician. ... The Taoiseach (plural: Taoisigh) or, more formally, An Taoiseach, is the head of government of the Republic of Ireland and the leader of the Irish cabinet1. ... Charles Haughey (Irish name Cathal Ó hEochaidh; born on September 16, 1925), was the sixth Taoiseach of the Republic of Ireland, serving three terms in office; 1979 to 1981, March 1982 to December 1982 and 1987 to 1992. ...


Religion and class

For the most part a clear divide exists in terms of religion and some times a left-right divide between the various communities. Most though not all Protestants are unionists, while most though not all Catholics are nationalists. While the mainstream organisations representing nationalists and unionists tended to be quite conservative, more politically and religious radical groups emerged associated with republicans and loyalists, with Sinn Féin adopting a Marxist perspective of the political situation, defining it in terms of "class struggle". Loyalists in the 1970s even advocated forms of an "independent Ulster" which they compared to the then apartheid-style regimes of Rhodesia and South Africa, in which one community's dominance could be ensured. There is little support for this idea today. Irish Republicanism is the nationalist belief that all of Ireland should be a united independent republic. ... In general, a loyalist is an individual who is loyal to the powers that be. ... The name Sinn Féin (pronounced in English, in Irish), which means ourselves or we ourselves (not as sometimes incorrectly translated, ourselves alone or we alone) has been applied to a series of political movements since 1905 in Ireland, each of which claims or claimed sole descent from the original... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... Class struggle is class conflict looked at from a Marxist, libertarian socialist, or anarchist perspective. ... Ulster nationalism seeks the independence of either Ulster or Northern Ireland from both the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... National motto: Sit Nomine Digna (Latin: May she be worthy of the name} Official language English. ...


Except for unionists, all other segments of the political spectrum argued that the Northern Ireland of the 1960s needed change. Moderate nationalists in the Civil Rights movement, under figures like John Hume, Gerry Fitt and Austin Currie advocated an end to the gerrymandering of local government wards to ensure Protestant majorities, and the end to discrimination over access to council housing. They pressed for wide reforms, whereas unionists saw "concessions" as part of a process whereby nationalists would bring down Northern Ireland and force Irish unity. Republicans adopted a more violent approach to force more radical change, while the Royal Ulster Constabulary, the British army and loyalists stepped up their violence to oppose it. Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... John Hume John Hume (born January 18, 1937) is an Northern Irish politician. ... Gerrard Gerry Fitt, Baron Fitt (9 April 1926 – 26 August 2005) was a Northern Irish politician. ... http://www. ... Redrawing electoral districts in this example creates a guaranteed 3-to-1 advantage for Party 1. ... To discriminate is to make a distinction. ... A United Ireland is the common demand of Irish nationalists, envisaging that the island of Ireland (currently divided into the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland) be reunited as a single political entity. ... The Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) was the police force in Northern Ireland from 1922 to 2001. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ...


The Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC), the police force in Northern Ireland, was largely, though not totally, Protestant for a number of reasons. Catholics did not join in the numbers expected by the British when the force was first created. Those that did report a "hostile to Catholics", strongly unionist working environment, in which unionist and Protestant organisations like the Orange Order and the Ulster Unionist Party had great power. Those Catholics who did join were often targeted as traitors by the various IRAs. Yet some Catholic police officers did play a part in the constabulary. One served as Chief Constable, while the current leader of the Social Democratic and Labour Party, Mark Durkan is the son of a Catholic RUC man. The Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) was the police force in Northern Ireland from 1922 to 2001. ... The Orange Order is a Protestant fraternal organisation largely based in the province of Ulster, Ireland and in western Scotland but which has a worldwide membership. ... The Ulster Unionist Party (UUP, sometimes referred to as the Official Unionist Party or OUP) is a unionist political party in Northern Ireland, and was the party of government in Northern Ireland between 1921 and 1972. ... The Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP — Irish: Páirtí Sóisialta Daonlathach an Lucht Oibre) is the smaller of the two major nationalist parties in Northern Ireland. ... John Mark Durkan (born 1960) is a Roman Catholic nationalist politician in Northern Ireland and the leader of the Social Democratic and Labour Party. ...


The lack of Catholic officers was augmented by the maintenance of the political status quo. The result was that critics of the unionist and loyalist communities saw the police force as the "Unionist police force for a Unionist state". Unlike the unarmed police force in the South, An Garda Síochána, the RUC failed to establish cross community trust, with each community blaming the other or the RUC for failings in policing. A member of the motorcycle unit of the Garda Síochána. ...


A policing review, part of the Good Friday Agreement, has led to some reforms of policing, including more rigorous accountability, measures to increase the number of Catholic officers, and the renaming of the RUC to the Police Service of Northern Ireland to avoid using the word "Royal". While most of the reforms have already been introduced, the slowness of others has led to Sinn Féin withholding its support fom the Police Service of Northern Ireland for the time being. The Belfast Agreement (also known as the Good Friday Agreement and, more rarely, as the Stormont Agreement) was signed in Belfast on April 10, 1998 by the British and Irish Governments and endorsed by most Northern Ireland political parties. ... The Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI) is the police service that covers Northern Ireland. ... The name Sinn Féin (pronounced in English, in Irish), which means ourselves or we ourselves (not as sometimes incorrectly translated, ourselves alone or we alone) has been applied to a series of political movements since 1905 in Ireland, each of which claims or claimed sole descent from the original... The Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI) is the police service that covers Northern Ireland. ...


Timeline

Deaths related to conflict (1990-2004) Number of deaths listed as "conflict-related (uncertain if conflict-related)" ( [1]). This page deals with the cessation of life. ...

Year Deaths
2004 2 (2)
2003 10 (2)
2002 11 (4)
2001 15
2000 19
1999 8
1998 53
1997 21
1996 17
1995 9
1994 60
1993 84
1992 85
1991 94
1990 76

Bloody Sunday

Main article: Bloody Sunday (1972) This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Bloody Sunday in January 1972 was one of the key events during the Troubles. From 1971 until 1975, under the Special Powers Act, hundreds of men were interned without trial (see Long Kesh). This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Special Powers act enabled the Protestants of Ireland to lock up the Catholics without trial. ... The word internment is generally used to refer to the imprisonment or confinement of people, generally in prison camps or prisons, without due process of law and a trial. ... HM Prison Maze (known colloqually as The H Blocks, Long Kesh or The Maze) is a disused prison sited at the former RAF station at Long Kesh (it is still called Long Kesh by many Irish Republicans) near Lisburn, nine miles outside Belfast, in County Antrim, Northern Ireland. ...


Situation in 2004

The governments of Ireland and the United Kingdom continued work to seek a solution. It was widely held in Britain and Northern Ireland that the Troubles came to an end in the mid-nineties with the various paramilitary cease-fires that were established. The period that came after the Troubles was the Northern Ireland peace process, the Good Friday Agreement. A paramilitary organization is a group of civilians trained and organized in a military fashion. ... When discussing northern Irish history, the Peace Process is generally considered to cover the events leading up to the 1994 IRA ceasefire, the end of most of the violence of The Troubles, the Belfast (or Good Friday) Agreement, and subsequent political developments. ... The Belfast Agreement (also known as the Good Friday Agreement and, more rarely, as the Stormont Agreement) was signed in Belfast on April 10, 1998 by the British and Irish Governments and endorsed by most Northern Ireland political parties. ...

Inter-communal tensions rise in particular during the "Marching Season" when the anti-Catholic Orange Order parade through Catholic neighbourhoods. The parades are held to commemorate William of Orange's victory in the Battle of the Boyne and the start of the Protestant Ascendancy. One particular flashpoint that has caused repeated strife is the Garvaghy Road area in Portadown, although that parade has now been banned indefinitely. Recently it is in Belfast that the disputes have occurred. Download high resolution version (361x605, 18 KB)(Note that even though the picture says Unlike the rest of this site, this map is declared to be in the public domain. ... The Orange Order is a Protestant fraternal organisation largely based in the province of Ulster, Ireland and in western Scotland but which has a worldwide membership. ... William III of England (14 November 1650–8 March 1702; also known as William II of Scotland and William of Orange) was a Dutch aristocrat and the Holy Roman Empires Prince of Orange from his birth, King of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689, and King of Scotland... William III (William of Orange) King of England, Scotland and Ireland, Stadtholder of the Netherlands The Battle of the Boyne was a turning point in the Williamite war in Ireland between the deposed King James II of England and VII of Scotland and his son-in-law and successor, William... Protestant Ascendancy refers to the political, economic and social domination of Ireland by the class of Protestant landowners, Church of Ireland clergy and professionals during the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries. ... Portadown (Port an Dúnáin in Irish) is a town in County Armagh, Northern Ireland. ... Belfast (Béal Feirste in Irish) is a city in the United Kingdom, and the second-largest city on the island of Ireland. ...


Significant groups

Some significant groups are:


Nationalist or Republican political parties

The name Sinn Féin (pronounced in English, in Irish), which means ourselves or we ourselves (not as sometimes incorrectly translated, ourselves alone or we alone) has been applied to a series of political movements since 1905 in Ireland, each of which claims or claimed sole descent from the original... Gerry Adams Gerard Gerry Adams (Irish name Gearóid Mac Ádhaimh; born October 6, 1948) is an Irish politician, Member of Parliament for West Belfast, and president of Sinn Féin. ... The Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA; more commonly referred to as the IRA, the Provos, or by some of its supporters as the army or the Ra) is an Irish Republican paramilitary organisation. ... The Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP — Irish: Páirtí Sóisialta Daonlathach an Lucht Oibre) is the smaller of the two major nationalist parties in Northern Ireland. ... John Mark Durkan (born 1960) is a Roman Catholic nationalist politician in Northern Ireland and the leader of the Social Democratic and Labour Party. ...

Unionist or loyalist political parties

The Conservative Party also organises and contests elections in Northern Ireland. The Democratic Unionist Party is a hardline Unionist party in Northern Ireland led by Ian Paisley. ... The Reverend and Right Honourable Ian Richard Kyle Paisley, MP, MLA (born 6 April 1926), known widely in Northern Ireland as Dr. Ian Paisley, is a prominent politician and church leader from Northern Ireland, and is head of the Democratic Unionist Party. ... The Free Presbyterian Church is nominally a Presbyterian denomination. ... The Progressive Unionist Party (PUP) are a small political party from Northern Ireland. ... David Ervine MLA (born July 21, 1953) is a Northern Ireland politician and the current leader of the Progressive Unionist Party. ... The Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) is a Northern Ireland loyalist paramilitary group. ... The UK Unionist Party (UKUP) is a small political party operating in Northern Ireland. ... Robert McCartney (born 1936) is a Northern Ireland unionist politician, and leader of the UK Unionist Party, and the only UKUP member of the currently-suspended Northern Ireland Assembly. ... The Ulster Unionist Party (UUP, sometimes referred to as the Official Unionist Party or OUP) is a unionist political party in Northern Ireland, and was the party of government in Northern Ireland between 1921 and 1972. ... Sir Reginald Empey (born October 26, 1947) is a Northern Ireland politician and Member of the Legislative Assembly for East Belfast. ... The Conservative Party is the largest political party on the centre-right in the United Kingdom. ...


Other parties

The Labour Party does not organise in Northern Ireland. The Liberal Democrats are associated with the Alliance Party. The Alliance Party of Northern Ireland (APNI), is a political party operating in Northern Ireland. ... The Natural Law Party is a trans-national political party with national branches in over 80 countries. ... The Northern Ireland Womens Coalition is a non-sectarian political party in Northern Ireland. ... The Labour Party is the principal centre-left political party in the United Kingdom (see British politics). ... The Liberal Democrats, often shortened to Lib Dems, are a social liberal political party based in the United Kingdom. ...


Republican paramilitary groups

See Irish Republican Army for a discussion of how some of these are related. The Continuity Irish Republican Army (CIRA) is an Irish Republican paramilitary organisation (which supporters recognise as the National Army of the 32-County Irish Republic) that split from the Provisional IRA in 1986. ... The Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) is an Irish republican paramilitary organization which was formed on December 8, 1974. ... The Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA; more commonly referred to as the IRA, the Provos, or by some of its supporters as the army or the Ra) is an Irish Republican paramilitary organisation. ... The Real Irish Republican Army, otherwise known as the Real IRA, is an Irish republican paramilitary organisation. ... The West Cork Flying Column during the War of Independence. ...


Loyalist paramilitary groups

The Loyalist Volunteer Force (LVF) is a loyalist terrorist group in Northern Ireland which broke away from the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) and was led by the late Billy Wright. ... The Orange Volunteers (OV) are a break-away Loyalist paramilitary group in Northern Ireland. ... The Red Hand Commandos (originally known simply as the Red Hand Commando) are a Northern Ireland loyalist paramilitary group with links to the Ulster Volunteer Force. ... The RHD is an extremist terrorist group formed in 1998 and composed largely of Protestant hardliners from Loyalist groups observing a cease-fire. ... The Ulster Defence Association (UDA) is a loyalist paramilitary organisation in Northern Ireland, outlawed as a terrorist group in the UK and Republic of Ireland, which is perceived by its supporters as defending the unionist community from Irish Republican Terrorism. ... The Ulster Defence Association (UDA) is a Northern Irish Loyalist paramilitary organisation outlawed as a terrorist group in the UK and Republic of Ireland, which is perceived by its supporters as defending the unionist community from Irish nationalism. ... The Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) is a loyalist paramilitary (terrorist) group in Northern Ireland. ...

Further reading

  • Greg Harkin and Martin Ingram (2004), Stakeknife: Britain's secret agents in Ireland, O'Brien Press

Steakknife (sometimes written as Steak knife or incorrectly but quite frequently as Stakeknife[1]) is the code name of a spy who infiltrated the Provisional IRA, at a high level, as a double agent working for the top secret British Force Research Unit. ...

External links

  • http://cain.ulst.ac.uk/
  • http://www.guardian.co.uk/Northern_Ireland
  • http://www.irelandstory.com (Source of images above)

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