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Encyclopedia > Troubadour
A troubadour composing lyrics, Germany c.1300
A troubadour composing lyrics, Germany c.1300

A troubadour was a composer and performer of songs during the European High Middle Ages. The troubadour school or tradition began in the eleventh century in the Occitan language of southern France, but it subsequently spread throughout Italy, Spain, and Portugal. Simultaneous movements, those of the trouvère and minnesinger, sprang up in northern France and Germany. Though it lasted slightly longer in Italy and Spain than in France, the art of the troubadours declined in the late thirteenth century and died out in the thirteenth. Troubadour may refer to a Troubadour, a composer and performer of songs during the High Middle Ages in Europe. ... Image File history File links Troubadour. ... Image File history File links Troubadour. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The cathedral Notre Dame de Paris, a significant architectural contribution of the High Middle Ages. ... Occitan (IPA AmE: ), known also as Lenga dòc or Langue doc (native name: occitan [1], lenga dòc [2]; native nickname: la lenga nòstra [3] i. ... This region consists of the southern part of France. ... Trouvère is the Northern French (langue doïl) version of troubador (langue doc), and refers to poet-composers who were roughly contemporary with and influenced by the troubadors but who composed their works in the northern dialects of France. ... Minnesang was the tradition of lyric and song writing in Germany which flourished in the 12th century and continued into the 14th century. ...


The texts of troubadour songs deal mainly with themes of chivalry and courtly love. Many songs addressed a married lover, perhaps due to the prevalence of arranged marriages at the time. Most were metaphysical, intellectual, and formulaic. Many were humorous or culgar satires. Works could be grouped by three styles: the trobar leu, trobar ric, and trobar clus. Likewise there were many genres, the most popular being the canso, but also the sirventes, tenso, and aubade. Bors Dilemma - he chooses to save a maiden rather than his brother Lionel Chivalry[1] is a term related to the medieval institution of knighthood. ... Court of Love in Provence in the 14th Century (after a manuscript in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris). ... The trobar leu, or light style of poetry, was the most popular style used by the troubadours. ... The trobar ric, or rich form of poetry, was a trobadour style. ... Trobar clus, or closed form, was the style of poetry used by troubadours for their more discerning audiences, and it was only truly appreciated by an elite few. ... A genre [], (French: kind or sort from Greek: γένος (genos)) is a loose set of criteria for a category of literary composition; the term is also used for any other form of art or utterance. ... The canso is a song style used by the troubadours. ... The sirventes is a form of poetry utilised by the troubadours. ... A tenso is a song style favoured by the troubadours. ... Look up Aubade in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Contents

History

The earliest troubadour whose work survives is Guilhem de Peitieus (1071–1127). Peter Dronke, author of The Medieval Lyric, however, believes that "[his] songs represent not the beginnings of a tradition but summits of achievement in that tradition."[1] His name has been preserved because he was the Duke of Aquitaine, but his work plays with already established structures; Eble II of Ventadorn is often credited as a predecessor, though none of his work survives. The first half of the twelfth century, however, saw relatively little recorded troubadours. Only in the last decades of the century did troubadour activity explode. Almost half of all troubadour works survive from the period 1180–1220.[2] William IX of Aquitaine (October 22, 1071 – February 10, 1126, also Guillaume or Guilhem dAquitaine), nicknamed the Troubador was Duke of Aquitaine and Gascony and Count of Poitiers as William VII of Poitiers between 1086 and 1126. ... Coat of arms of the duchy of Aquitaine. ... Eble II of Ventadorn was viscount of Ventadour (Corrèze, France). ...


The troubadour tradition seems to have begun in western Aquitaine (Poitou and Saintonge) and Gascony, from there spreading over into eastern Aquitaine (Limousin and Auvergne) and Provence. At its height it had become popular in Languedoc and the regions of Rouergue, Toulouse, and Quercy (c. 1200). Finally, in the early thirteenth century it began to spread into first Italy and then Catalonia, whence to the rest of Spain. This development has been called the rayonnement des troubadours.[3] Coat of arms of Richard, Earl of Cornwall, Plantagenet claimant to the county of Poitou, now favored as the coat of arms of Poitou by people in Poitou Poitou was a province of France whose capital city was Poitiers. ... Saintonge is a small region on the atlantic coast of France in the region of Poitou-Charentes (17- Charente-Maritime). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Coat of arms of Limousin Limousin (Occitan: Lemosin) is a former province of France around the city of Limoges in central France. ... Auvergne coat of arms Auvergne (Occitan: Auvèrnhe/Auvèrnha) was the name of an historically independent county in the center of France, as well as later a province of France. ... Coat of arms of Provence Provence (Provençal Occitan: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) was a Roman province and now is a region of southeastern France on the Mediterranean Sea adjacent to Italy. ... For the language called Langue doc, see Occitan language. ... Rouergue is an old province of France, bounded on the north by Auvergne, on the south and southwest by Languedoc, on the east by Gevaudan and on the west by Quercy. ... New city flag (Occitan cross) Traditional coat of arms Motto: (Occitan: For Toulouse, always more) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Midi-Pyrénées Department Haute-Garonne (31) Intercommunality Community of Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse Mayor Jean-Luc Moudenc  (UMP) (since 2004) City Statistics Land... Coat of arms of the lordship of Quercy Quercy (pronounced in French;  ) (Occitan: Carcin, pronounced , locally ) is a former province of France located in the southwest of France, bounded on the north by Limousin, on the west by Périgord and Agenais, on the south by Gascony and Languedoc, and... This article is about the Spanish autonomous community. ...


Etymology

A modern-day troubadour (Owain Phyfe) plays for an audience at a Renaissance fair in 2003.
A modern-day troubadour (Owain Phyfe) plays for an audience at a Renaissance fair in 2003.

The etymology of the word troubadour is disputed. In general, the argument breaks into two camps. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 356 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (527 × 887 pixel, file size: 113 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Troubadour Minstrel User... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 356 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (527 × 887 pixel, file size: 113 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Troubadour Minstrel User... Owain Phyfe is a vocalist, instrumentalist, composer, and the founder of Nightwatch Recording. ...


The literates in French argue that the root of the word can be found in the langue d'oc verb trobar, 'to compose, invent, or devise'. (see all French Dictionaries Académie Française, Larousse, Robert). Others posit an Arabic origin in the word tarrab, 'to sing' (see María Rosa Menocal: The culture of translation). OC redirects here. ... The Académie française In the French educational system an académie LAcadémie française, or the French Academy, is the pre-eminent French learned body on matters pertaining to the French language. ... Larousse can refer to: Grand Larousse encyclopédique Larousse Encyclopedia of Mythology Larousse Gastronomique Pierre Larousse Petit Larousse Category: ... Look up Robert in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Arabic is a Semitic language, closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... María Rosa Menocal is a renowned scholar of medieval culture and history. ...


For the French linguists, Troubadour derived from Occitan trobador, literally means "finder", the one who finds after a research. The Occitan verb trobar comes from vulgar Latin tropare verbal form for tropus «rhetoric, figure of speech», itself built on the Greek τρόπος «turn, manner».[4] Defenders of a mediolatin origin of court poesy (Reto Bezzola, Peter Dronke) and musicologists (J. Chailley) support the idea that French verb trouver (English to find), properly means «inventing a trope». The trope is a speech where the words are used with a meaning different from their common signification, as a poetic use of metaphor and metonymy. This poem was originally inserted in a serial of modulations ending a liturgic song. Then the trope became an autonomous piece organized in stanza form.[5]


Some proponents of the second theory argue, on cultural grounds, that both etymologies may well be correct, and that there may have been a conscious poetic exploitation of the phonological coincidence between trobar and the triliteral Arabic root TRB when sacred Islamic (Sufi) musical forms focused on the love theme were first exported from Al-Andalus, i.e. Moorish (Islamic) Spain, to Southern Europe. It has also been pointed out that the concepts of "finding", "music", "love", "ardour", i.e. the precise semantic field attached to the word troubadour, are allied in Arabic under a single root (WJD) that plays a major role in sufic discussions of music, and that the word troubadour may in part reflect this.[6] Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ...


The word troubadour is used to designate poet-musicians who spoke the langue d'oc; their style spread to the trouvères in the north of France, who spoke langues d'oïl. This other form is really similar to the French verb trouver meaning to find, outpointing the relevance of the Latin etymology. OC redirects here. ... Trouvère is the Northern French (langue doïl) version of troubador (langue doc), and refers to poet-composers who were roughly contemporary with and influenced by the troubadors but who composed their works in the northern dialects of France. ... The langue doïl language family in linguistics comprises Romance languages originating in territories now occupied by northern France, part of Belgium and the Channel Islands. ...


Works

Bernart de Ventadorn, medieval Occitan troubadour from a 13th century manuscript of troubadour music
Bernart de Ventadorn, medieval Occitan troubadour from a 13th century manuscript of troubadour music

Some of the troubadours' works have survived, and are currently preserved in manuscripts known as chansonniers (songbooks). Popular troubadours with surviving works include Bernart de Ventadorn, Arnaut Daniel and Jaufré Rudel. Image File history File links BernardDeVentadour. ... Image File history File links BernardDeVentadour. ... A medieval depiction of Bernart de Ventadorn. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... A medieval depiction of Bernart de Ventadorn. ... Arnaut Danièl was a Provençal troubadour of the 13th century, praised by Dante as il miglior fabbro (the better craftsman/creator, literally the best smith) and called Grand Master of Love by Petrarch. ... Jaufre Rudel dies in the arms of Hodierna of Tripoli (MS of troubadour songs, 13C North Italian, ) Jaufré Rudel, Lord of Blaye, was a troubadour of the early-mid 12th century, who probably died during the Second Crusade, in or after 1147. ...


Troubadour songs were usually monophonic. Fewer than 300 melodies out of an estimated 2500[7] survive. Most were composed by the troubadours themselves. Other troubadours set their poems to pre-existing pieces music. Raimbaut de Vaqueyras wrote his Kalenda maya (The Calends of May) to music composed by jongleurs at Montferrat. Troubadours sing tales of bravery and stories about life and death. The most common kinds of songs they sang were: morning songs; political poems; dirges; and disputes. Their favorite kinds of songs were about courtly love, war, and nature. In music, the word texture is often used in a rather vague way in reference to the overall sound of a piece of music. ... Raimbaut de Vaqueiras (floruit 1180-1205) was a Provençal troubadour and, later in his life, knight. ... For other uses, see Montferrat (disambiguation). ...


Troubadours usually followed some form of "rules", illustrated in Leys d'amors (compiled in 1340). The commonly used verse form of the troubadours was the canso, consisting of five or six stanzas with an envoi. Other variances of verse form seen in surviving works include Events Europe has about 74 million inhabitants. ... In poetry, a stanza is a unit within a larger poem. ... In poetry, an envoi is a short stanza at the end of a poem used either to address an imagined or actual person or to comment on the preceding body of the poem. ...

  • Dansa, or balada, a dance song with a refrain
  • Pastorela, telling the tale of the love request by a knight to a shepherdess
  • Alba (morning song), lovers are warned by a watchman that morning approaches and that their spouse may discover them.
  • Escondig, a lover's apology
  • Gap, a challenge, similar to sports teams chants today
  • Planh (plank), a lament
  • Sirventes, a satirical poem devised to a melody
  • Descort, discordant in verse form or feeling
  • Trobar clus, a cryptic poem
  • Jeu parti, tenso, partimen or débat, a poem in the form of a debate (usually on love) between two poets

The poetical debate often extended beyond the confines of a single poem. A difficult question of love or social behaviour, raised by one poet, would frequently arouse replies and commentaries by others. A refrain (from the Old French refraindre to repeat, likely from Vulgar Latin refringere) is the line or lines that are repeated in music or in verse; the chorus of a song. ... The pastorela is a poetic genre used by the troubadours, which was the genesis of the pastourelle. ... For other uses, see Knight (disambiguation) or Knights (disambiguation). ... Alba (Catalan for sunrise) is a subgenre of Provençal lyric poetry. ... The planh is a funeral lament used by the troubadours, modeled on the medieval Latin planctus. ... The sirventes is a form of poetry utilised by the troubadours. ... 1867 edition of Punch, a ground-breaking British magazine of popular humour, including a good deal of satire of the contemporary social and political scene. ... The descort is a song of disagreement used by the troubadours. ... Trobar clus, or closed form, was the style of poetry used by troubadours for their more discerning audiences, and it was only truly appreciated by an elite few. ... Jeu-parti [Fr. ... A tenso is a song style favoured by the troubadours. ...


Similar art forms and artists

A complementary role was filled at the same period by performers known as joglares in Occitan, jongleurs in French (minstrels in English). Jongleurs are often addressed in troubadour lyrics. Their profession was that of popular entertainer; as such jongleurs sometimes performed troubadour compositions but more often other genres, notably chansons de geste (epic narratives). In its general sense, juggling can refer to all forms of artful or skillful object manipulation. ... For the 18th century American form of music and performance known as minstrelsy, see minstrel show. ... The chansons de geste, Old French for songs of heroic deeds, are the epic poetry that appears at the dawn of French literature. ...


Troubadou in Haitian culture, is a form of music that preceded Kompa and is currently going through a revival. Kompa (sometimes written Compas Direct, konpa direk, konpa or compa) is a musical genre as well as a dance that originates from Haïti. ...


See also

A list of troubadours Aimeric de Peguilhan Arnaut Daniel Arnaut de Mareuil Bertran de Born Jehan Bodel Guillaume de Cabestang Peire Cardenal Martin Codax Ernoul le Vieux Folquet de Marselh Gaucelm Faidit Guiot de Dijon Guiraut de Bornelh Guiraut Riquier Jaufré Rudel Marcabru The monk of Montaudan Raimbaut de Vacqueiras... Provençal literature is much more easily defined than the Provençal language in which it is expressed. ... The sestina is a highly structured form of poetry, invented by the Provençal troubadour Arnaut Daniel the late 12th century. ... The kyrielle is a poetic form that originated in troubadour poetry. ... In poetry, an envoi is a short stanza at the end of a poem used either to address an imagined or actual person or to comment on the preceding body of the poem. ... Razó is an explanation, written in Occitan, of the circumstances that gave rise to a poem by a troubadour or trobairitz. ... A medieval depiction of Comtessa de Dia The trobairitz were Provençal women troubadours of the 12th and 13th centuries. ... Vida is the usual term for a brief prose biography, written in Occitan, of a troubadour or trobairitz. ...

Sources

  • Paden, William D. "Troubadours and History" (pp. 157–182). The World of Eleanor of Aquitaine: Literature and Society in Southern France between the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries, edd. Marcus Bull and Catherine Léglu. Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 2005. ISBN 1 84383 114 7.

Notes

  1. ^ Peter Dronke, The Medieval Lyric, Perennial Library, 1968. p. 111.
  2. ^ Paden, 161.
  3. ^ Paden, 163.
  4. ^ French Dictionnary, Petit Larrousse Illustré (1983)
  5. ^ Troubadour (Observatoire de terminologie littéraire, Université de Limoges, France).
  6. ^ See Idries Shah, The Sufis.
  7. ^ The Grove Concise Dictionary of Music edited by Stanley Sadie. Macmillan Press Ltd., London.

Idries Shah (16 June 1924–23 November 1996) (Persian: ادریس شاه), also known as Idris Shah, né Sayyid Idris al-Hashimi (Arabic: سيد إدريس الهاشمي), was an author in the Naqshbandi sufist tradition on works ranging from psychology and spirituality to travelogues and culture studies, and was descended from the revered family, the Sadaat of...

External links

  • Literary Encyclopedia: Troubadour.
  • Said I. Abdelwahed. Troubadour Poetry: An Intercultural Experience.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Troubadour - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (415 words)
A troubadour was a composer and performer of songs during the Middle Ages in Europe.
The earliest troubadour whose work survives is Guilhem de Peitieus (Guillaume d'Aquitaine or William IX, Duke of Aquitaine, 1071-1127).
Troubadours whose works have survived to the present day include Bernart de Ventadorn, Arnaut Daniel and Jaufré Rudel.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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