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Encyclopedia > Trotskyism
Part of the Politics series on
Trotskyism

Leon Trotsky
Fourth International
The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...   (Russian: Лёв Давидович Троцкий, Lyov Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij, Trockij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Leon Davidovich Bronstein (Лёв Давидович Бронштейн), was a Ukrainian-born Jewish Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ... For other uses, see Fourth International (disambiguation). ...

Marxism
Leninism
Russian Revolution
Marxism takes its name from the praxis (the synthesis of philosophy and political action) of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism refers to various related political and economic theories elaborated by Bolshevik revolutionary leader Vladimir Lenin, and by other theorists who claim to be carrying on Lenins work. ... “Red October” redirects here. ...


Prominent Trotskyists
James P. Cannon
Tony Cliff
Pierre Frank
Ted Grant
Joseph Hansen
Gerry Healy
C. L. R. James
Pierre Lambert
Livio Maitan
Ernest Mandel
Nahuel Moreno
Max Shachtman
James Cannon in Moscow (1922) James Patrick Cannon (1890-1974) was an American Communist and Trotskyist leader. ... Tony Cliff (May 20, 1917 – May 9, 2000) was a Trotskyist revolutionary activist. ... Pierre Frank (1906-1984) was a French Trotskyist leader. ... Edward (Ted) Grant (born July 9, 1913) is a Trotskyist politician. ... Joseph Hansen (1910-1979), was an American Communist and leading figure in the Socialist Workers Party. ... Gerry Healy (December 3, 1913 - December 14, 1989) was a Trotskyist activist. ... Cyril Lionel Robert James (4 January 1901–19 May 1989) was a journalist, socialist theorist and writer. ... Pierre Lambert (born June 9, 1920) (real name Pierre Boussel) is a French Trotskyist leader. ... Livio Maitan was an Italian Trotskyist, leader of Assoziazione Bandiera Rossa. ... Ernest Mandel Ernest Ezra Mandel, also known by various pseudonyms such as Ernest Germain, Pierre Gousset, Henri Vallin, Walter etc. ... Nahuel Moreno (April 24, 1924 - January 25, 1987) (real name Hugo Bressano) was a Trotskyist leader from Argentina. ... Max Shachtman (September 10, 1904 - November 4, 1972) was an American Marxist theorist. ...


Trotskyist groups
CWI · FI(ICR) · ICFI
IMT · IST · IWL
reunified FI
This is a list of the many Trotskyist international tendencies. ... The Committee for a Workers International (CWI) is an international association of Trotskyist parties. ... The Fourth International - International Centre of Reconstruction is an international Trotskyist tendency. ... It has been suggested that Orthodox Trotskyism be merged into this article or section. ... The International Marxist Tendency (IMT) is a Trotskyist tendency based on the ideas of Ted Grant. ... The International Socialist Tendency is an international grouping of organisations around the ideas of Tony Cliff, founder of the Socialist Workers Party in the UK. It has sections across the world, however its strongest presence is in Europe, especially in the UK, Greece and Ireland. ... See also the Workers International League. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Fourth_International#From the Fourth World Congress to reunification. ...


Branches
Orthodox Trotskyism
Third camp
It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into ICFI. (Discuss) Orthodox Trotskyism is a branch of Trotskyism which aims to adhere more closely to the methods and positions of Trotsky and the early Fourth International than other Trotskyists. ... The third camp, also known as third camp socialism or third camp Trotskyism, is a branch of Trotskyism which aims to oppose both capitalism and Stalinism by supporting the organised working class as a third camp. This approach was developed by Max Shachtman and is one of the major components...


Communism Portal
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Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. Trotsky considered himself an orthodox Marxist and Bolshevik-Leninist, arguing for the establishment of a vanguard party. His politics differed sharply from those of Stalinism, most importantly in declaring the need for an international "permanent revolution". Numerous groups around the world continue to describe themselves as Trotskyist, although they have diverse interpretations of Trotsky's writings. The word "Trotskyite", although sometimes used respectfully, was historically used pejoratively by opponents of Trotskyism. Marxism takes its name from the praxis (the synthesis of philosophy and political action) of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ...   (Russian: Лёв Давидович Троцкий, Lyov Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij, Trockij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Leon Davidovich Bronstein (Лёв Давидович Бронштейн), was a Ukrainian-born Jewish Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ... Marxism takes its name from the praxis (the synthesis of philosophy and political action) of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism refers to various related political and economic theories elaborated by Bolshevik revolutionary leader Vladimir Lenin, and by other theorists who claim to be carrying on Lenins work. ... A vanguard party is a political party or grassroot organization at the forefront of a mass action, movement, or revolution. ... Joseph Stalin Stalinism is the political and economic system named after Joseph Stalin, who implemented it in the Soviet Union. ... Permanent Revolution is a term within Marxist theory, which was first used by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels between 1845 and 1850, but has since become most closely associated with Leon Trotsky. ...

Contents

Definition

Graffiti in the Basque Country: James P. Cannon, founder of American Trotskyism.
Graffiti in the Basque Country: James P. Cannon, founder of American Trotskyism.

James P. Cannon in his 1942 book History of American Trotskyism wrote that "Trotskyism is not a new movement, a new doctrine, but the restoration, the revival of genuine Marxism as it was expounded and practiced in the Russian revolution and in the early days of the Communist International." However, Trotskyism can be distinguished from other Marxist theories by four key elements. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... James Cannon in Moscow (1922) James Patrick Cannon (1890-1974) was an American Communist and Trotskyist leader. ... James Cannon in Moscow (1922) James Patrick Cannon (1890-1974) was an American Communist and Trotskyist leader. ... History of American Trotskyism, 1928-38, Report of a Participant is a biographical book written by the Communist James P. Cannon, founder and leader of the Socialist Workers Party. ...

Permanent Revolution is a term within Marxist theory, which was first used by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels between 1845 and 1850, but has since become most closely associated with Leon Trotsky. ... The two stage theory (or stagism) is the Marxist Leninist political theory which argues that under-developed countries, such as Tsarist Russia must first pass through a stage of bourgeois democracy before moving to a socialist stage. ... In the Trotskyist movement, the term political revolution refers to an unpheaval in which the government is replaced, or the form of government altered, but in which property relations are predominantly left intact. ... In Trotskyist political theory, deformed workers states are states where capitalism has been overthrown through social revolution and the property forms have changed into a collectivized planned economy, but where the working class has never held political power (as it did in Russia shortly after the Russian Revolution). ... The term social revolution may have different connotations depending on the speaker. ... The term working class is used to denote a social class. ... International Socialism redirects here. ...

Trotsky, the Russian Revolution, and Stalin

Trotsky with troops at the Polish front, during the Polish-Soviet War, 1919

Trotsky advocated proletarian revolution as set out in his theory of "permanent revolution," and he argued that in countries where the bourgeois-democratic revolution had not triumphed already (in other words, in places that had not yet implemented a capitalist democracy, such as Russia before 1917), only the proletariat were capable of achieving the tasks of that revolution. The bourgeoisie opposed the creation of any revolutionary situation, fearing to stir the large, organized proletariat. As such, it was necessary for the bourgeoisie to ally with reactionary elements in order to protect their property, and necessary for the proletariat, according to Trotsky, to create a revolution of their own to accomplish both the traditional bourgeois and the socialist revolutions. Trotsky believed that a new socialist state and economy would not be able to hold out against the pressures of a hostile capitalist world unless socialist revolutions quickly took hold in other countries as well. Trotsky in his military uniform walking with soldiers. ... Trotsky in his military uniform walking with soldiers. ... Combatants Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic Republic of Poland Ukrainian Peoples Republic Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Józef Piłsudski Edward Rydz-Śmigły Strength 950,000 combatants 5,000,000 reserves 360,000 combatants 738,000 reserves Casualties Dead estimated at 100,000... A communist revolution is a social revolution inspired by the ideas of Marxism that aims to replace capitalism with communism, normally with socialism (public ownership over the means of production) as an intermediate stage. ... Permanent Revolution is a term within Marxist theory, which was first used by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels between 1845 and 1850, but has since become most closely associated with Leon Trotsky. ... Bourgeois at the end of the thirteenth century. ... Democracy is a form of government under which the power to alter the laws and structures of government lies, ultimately, with the citizenry. ...


On the political spectrum of Marxism, Trotskyists are considered to be on the left. They supported democratic rights in the USSR, opposed political deals with the imperialist powers, and advocated a spreading of the revolution throughout Europe and the East. The Left Opposition, led by Trotsky, grew in influence throughout the 20s, until Stalin used force against them in 1928, sending Trotsky into internal exile and jailing his supporters. The Left Opposition, however, continued to work in secret within the Soviet Union. Trotsky was eventually exiled to Turkey, then Norway, and finally to Mexico. Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A political spectrum is a way of visualizing different political positions. ... Marxism takes its name from the praxis (the synthesis of philosophy and political action) of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... The Left Opposition was a faction within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during 1923-1927. ...


After 1928, Stalin used his power in the USSR to gain bureaucratic control over the various Communist Parties throughout the world, and expelled Trotskyists from their ranks. Most Trotskyists defend the economic achievements of the planned economy in the Soviet Union during the 20's and 30's, despite the "misleadership" of the Stalinist bureaucracy, and the loss of democracy. [4] However by 1928 inner party democracy, and indeed soviet democracy, which was at the foundation of Bolshevism, [5] had been destroyed within the various Communist Parties. Anyone who disagreed with the party line was labeled a Trotskyist and a fascist. The Communist Parties, such as the CPUSA, then began to support capitalist governments. Stalin did this to show that he was not a threat to capitalist rule and so hoped to avoid an invasion by the imperialist powers, as happened after the 1917 revolution. In 1937, Stalin unleashed a political terror against many of the remaining 'Old Bolsheviks' (those who had played key roles in the October Revolution in 1917). Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვი&#4314... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... The Communist Party of the United States of America (CPUSA) is one of several Marxist-Leninist groups in the United States. ... White army may refer to: The military arm of the White movement, a loose coalition of anti-Bolshevik forces in the Russian Civil War The Saudi Arabian National Guard The National Guard of Kuwait This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise... An Old Bolshevik (старый большевик) was a member of the Bolsheviks before the Russian Revolution. ... “Red October” redirects here. ...


Trotsky developed the theory that the Russian workers' state had become a "bureaucratically degenerated workers' state." Capitalist rule had not been restored, and nationalized industry and economic planning, instituted under Lenin, were still in effect. However, the state was controlled by a bureaucratic caste with interests hostile to those of the working class. Trotsky defended the Soviet Union against attack from foreign powers and against internal counter-revolution, but called for a political revolution within the USSR to restore socialist democracy. He argued that if the working class did not take power away from the Stalinist bureaucracy, the bureaucracy would restore capitalism in order to enrich itself. In the view of many Trotskyists, this is exactly what has happened since the beginning of Glasnost and Perestroika in the USSR. Some argue that the adoption of market socialism by the People's Republic of China has also led to capitalist counter-revolution. Many of Trotsky's criticisms of Stalinism were described in his book, The Revolution Betrayed. In Trotskyist political theory the term degenerated workers state has been used since the 1930s to describe the state of the Soviet Union after Stalins consolidation of power in or about 1924. ... A counterrevolutionary is anyone who opposes a revolution, particularly those who act after a revolution to try to overturn or reverse it, in full or in part. ... In the Trotskyist movement, the term political revolution refers to an unpheaval in which the government is replaced, or the form of government altered, but in which property relations are predominantly left intact. ... //   (Russian: IPA: ) is politics of maximal openness, transparency of activity of all official (governmental) institutes, and freedom of information. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Market socialism is a term used to define a number of economic system(s) in which the means of production are owned either by the state or by the workers collectively, however unlike traditional socialism there is market that is directed and guided by socialist planners. ... Joseph Stalin Stalinism is the political and economic system named after Joseph Stalin, who implemented it in the Soviet Union. ...


"Trotskyist" has been used by Stalinists to mean a traitor; in the Spanish Civil War, being called a "Trot," "Trotskyist" or "Trotskyite" by the USSR-supported elements implied that the person was some sort of fascist spy or agent provocateur. George Orwell, a prominent left-wing writer, wrote about this practice in his book Homage to Catalonia and in his essay Spilling the Spanish Beans. In his book Animal Farm, an allegory for the Russian Revolution, he represented Trotsky with the character "Snowball" and Stalin with the character "Napoleon." Emmanuel Goldstein in Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four has also been linked to Trotsky. It has been suggested that Martyrs of the Spanish Civil War be merged into this article or section. ... An agent provocateur (plural: agents provocateurs) is a person assigned to provoke unrest, violence, debate, or argument by or within a group while acting as a member of the group but covertly representing the interests of another. ... Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903[1][2] – 21 January 1950), better known by the pen name George Orwell, was an English author and journalist. ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition... Homage to Catalonia book cover Homage to Catalonia is George Orwells personal account of the Spanish Civil War, written in the first person. ... Animal Farm is a novel by George Orwell, and is regarded in the literary field as one of the most famous satirical allegories of Soviet totalitarianism. ... Snowball is a fictional pig in the book Animal Farm written by George Orwell. ... Spoiler warning: Napoleon is a fictional character in George Orwells Animal Farm. ... This article is about the character in Nineteen Eighty-Four. ... This article is about the Orwell novel. ...


Stalin put out a general call for the assassination of Trotsky. He was finally killed with an ice axe in Mexico in 1940, by Ramon Mercader, a Spanish supporter of Stalin. Ice axe 1 â€“ pick 2 â€“ head 3 â€“ adze 4 â€“ leash 5 â€“ leash stop 6 â€“ shaft with rubber grip 7 â€“ spike An ice axe is a multi-purpose mountaineering tool carried by practically every mountaineer. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Jaime Ramón Mercader del Río Hernández (February 7, 1914 - October 18, 1978) was a Spanish Communist who served as an foreign agent of the NKVD during Joseph Stalins time as ruler of the USSR. In that role, he became famous as the murderer of Stalins... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვი&#4314...


Founding of the Fourth International

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Main article: Fourth International

In 1938, Trotsky and the organisations that supported his outlook established the Fourth International. He said that only the Fourth International, basing itself on Lenin's theory of the vanguard party, could lead the world revolution, and that it would need to be built in opposition to both the capitalists and the Stalinists. At the time of the founding the Fourth International in 1938 Trotskyism was a mass political current in Vietnam, Sri Lanka and slightly later Bolivia. There was also a substantial Trotskyist movement in China which included the founding father of the Chinese Communist movement, Chen Duxiu, amongst its number. Wherever Stalinists gained power, they made it a priority to hunt down Trotskyists and treated them as the worst of enemies. Image File history File links Hammer_and_sickle. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... See also Marxian economics Marxist philosophy or Marxist theory designs work in philosophy which is strongly influenced by Karl Marxs materialist approach to theory or which is written by Marxists. ... Class struggle is class conflict looked at from a Marxist, libertarian socialist, or anarchist perspective. ... International Socialism redirects here. ... In modern usage, the term communist party is generally used to identify any political party which has adopted communist ideology. ... Marxism takes its name from the praxis (the synthesis of philosophy and political action) of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism refers to various related political and economic theories elaborated by Bolshevik revolutionary leader Vladimir Lenin, and by other theorists who claim to be carrying on Lenins work. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Manse Manse! Kim Jong Il! The Juche Idea (also Juche Sasang or Chuche; pronounced // in Korean, approximately joo-cheh) is the official state ideology of North Korea and the political system based on it. ... Left Communism is a term describing a whole range of communist viewpoints which oppose the political ideas of the Bolsheviks from a position which is asserted to be more authentically Marxist and proletarian than the views held by the Communist International after its first two Congresses. ... Council communism is a Radical Left movement originating in Germany and the Netherlands in the 1920s. ... Religious communism is a form of communism centered on religious principles. ... Anarchist communism is a form of anarchism that advocates the abolition of the State and capitalism in favor of a horizontal network of voluntary associations through which everyone will be free to satisfy his or her needs. ... See Communist League (disambiguation) for other groups of the same name. ... The International Workingmens Association (IWA), sometimes called the First International, was an international socialist organization which aimed at uniting a variety of different left-wing political groups and trade union organizations that were based on the working class and class struggle. ... The Comintern (Russian: Коммунистический Интернационал, Kommunisticheskiy Internatsional – Communist International, also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organization founded in March 1919, in the midst of the war communism period (1918-1921), by Vladimir Lenin and the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik), which intended to fight by all available means, including... For other uses, see Fourth International (disambiguation). ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818, Trier, Germany – March 14, 1883, London) was a German philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Friedrich Engels (November 28, 1820, Wuppertal – August 5, 1895, London), a 19th-century German political philosopher, developed communist theory alongside his better-known collaborator, Karl Marx, co-authoring The Communist Manifesto (1848). ... Rosa Luxemburg Rosa Luxemburg (March 5, 1870 or 1871 – January 15, 1919, in Polish Róża Luksemburg) was a Jewish Polish-born Marxist political theorist, socialist philosopher, and revolutionary. ... “Lenin” redirects here. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[2] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from...   (Russian: Лёв Давидович Троцкий, Lyov Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij, Trockij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Leon Davidovich Bronstein (Лёв Давидович Бронштейн), was a Ukrainian-born Jewish Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ... “Mao” redirects here. ... “Anarchist” redirects here. ... This article lists ideologies opposed to capitalism and describes them briefly. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... A map of countries who declared themselves to be socialist states under the Marxist-Leninist or Maoist definition (in other words, Communist states) at some point in their history. ... This article is on criticisms of communism, a branch of socialism. ... Democratic centralism is the name given to the principles of internal organization used by Leninist political parties, and the term is sometimes used as a synonym for any Leninist policy inside a political party. ... The dictatorship of the proletariat is a term employed by Karl Marx in his 1875 Critique of the Gotha Program that refers to a transition period between capitalist and communist society in which the state can be nothing but the revolutionary dictatorship of the proletariat. The term refers to a... In Western thought, the history of communism, an idea of a society based on common ownership of property, can be traced back to ancient times. ... “Leftism” redirects here. ... Luxemburgism (also written Luxembourgism) is a specific revolutionary theory within communism, based on the writings of Rosa Luxemburg. ... The new class is a term to describe the privileged ruling class of bureaucrats and Communist party functionaries which typically arises in a Stalinist communist state. ... The New Left is a term used in different countries to describe left-wing movements that occurred in the 1960s and 1970s. ... Post-Communism is a name sometimes given to the period of political and economic transition in former communist states located in parts of Europe and Asia, usually transforming into a free market capitalist and globalized economy. ... Eurocommunism was a new trend in the 1970s and 1980s within various Western European communist parties to develop a theory and practice of social transformation that was more relevant in a Western European democracy and less aligned to the partyline of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. ... Titoism is a term describing political ideology named after Yugoslav leader, Josip Broz Tito, primarily used to describe the schism between the Soviet Union and Socialist Yugoslavia after the Second World War (see Cominform) when the Communist Party of Yugoslavia refused to take further dictates from Moscow. ... Primitive communism, according to Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, is the original society of humanity. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... Joseph Stalin Stalinism is the political and economic system named after Joseph Stalin, who implemented it in the Soviet Union. ... Socialist economics is a broad, and sometimes controversial, term. ... For other uses, see Fourth International (disambiguation). ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... For other uses, see Fourth International (disambiguation). ... Chen Duxiu (October 8, 1879 – May 27, 1942) played many different roles in Chinese history. ...


The Fourth International suffered repression and disruption through the Second World War. Isolated from each other, and faced with political developments quite unlike those anticipated by Trotsky, some Trotskyist organizations decided that the USSR no longer could be called a degenerated workers state and withdrew from the Fourth International. After 1945 Trotskyism was smashed as a mass movement in Vietnam and marginalised in a number of other countries. In Trotskyist political theory, degenerated workers states are states where capitalism has been overthrown through social revolution and the property forms have changed into a collectivized planned economy, but where the working class has lost its political power and socialist democracy has been replaced by a form of dictatorship. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


The International Secretariat of the Fourth International organised an international conference in 1946, and then World Congresses in 1948 and 1951 to assess the expropriation of the capitalists in Eastern Europe and Yugoslavia, the threat of a Third World War, and the tasks for revolutionaries. The Eastern European Communist-led governments which came into being after World War II without a social revolution were described by a resolution of the 1948 congress as presiding over capitalist economies. By 1951, the Congress had concluded that they had become "deformed workers' states." As the Cold War intensified, the FI's 1951 World Congress adopted theses by Michel Pablo that anticipated an international civil war. Pablo's followers considered that the Communist Parties, insofar as they were placed under pressure by the real workers' movement, could escape Stalin's manipulations and follow a revolutionary orientation. Initially the title International Secretariat of the Fourth International was the name given to the executive committee responsible for the regular operation of the Fourth International (FI) founded in 1938. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... In Trotskyist political theory, deformed workers states are states where the bourgeoisie has been overthrown through social revolution, the industrial means of production have been largely nationalized, but where the working class has never held political power (as it did in Russia shortly after the Russian Revolution). ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Michel Pablo (August 24, 1911 - February 17, 1996 ) was the pseudonym of Michalis N. Raptis, a Greek Trotskyist leader. ...


The 1951 Congress argued that Trotskyists should start to conduct systematic work inside those Communist Parties which were followed by the majority of the working class. However, the ISFI's view that the Soviet leadership was counter-revolutionary remained unchanged. The 1951 Congress argued that the Soviet Union took over these countries because of the military and political results of World War II, and instituted nationalized property relations only after its attempts at placating capitalism failed to protect those countries from the threat of incursion by the West. Logo of the Fourth International The Fourth International was an international organisation of Trotskyist communists. ...


Pablo began expelling large numbers of people who did not agree with his thesis and who did not want to dissolve their organizations within the Communist Parties. For instance, he expelled the majority of the French section and replaced its leadership. As a result, the opposition to Pablo eventually rose to the surface, with an open letter to Trotskyists of the world, by Socialist Workers Party leader James P. Cannon. The Socialist Workers Party is a communist political party in the United States. ... James Cannon in Moscow (1922) James Patrick Cannon (1890-1974) was an American Communist and Trotskyist leader. ...


The Fourth International split in 1953 into two public factions. The International Committee of the Fourth International was established by several sections of the International as an alternative centre to the International Secretariat, in which they felt a revisionist faction led by Michel Pablo had taken power. From 1960, a number of ICFI sections started to reunify with the IS. After the 1963 reunification congress which established the reunified Fourth International, the French and British sections maintained the ICFI. It has been suggested that Orthodox Trotskyism be merged into this article or section. ... Revisionism is a word which has several meanings. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Fourth_International#From the Fourth World Congress to reunification. ...


Trotskyists Win Mass Support

Over the last 40 years, Trotskyism has developed large scale support in a number of Third World countries. In Indochina during the 1930s, Vietnamese Trotskyism led by Ta Thu Thau was a significant current, particularly in Saigon. Trotskyism can count on some tens of thousands of supporters in both Argentina and Brazil. The Sri Lankan Trotskyist party and the Bolivian Trotskyist party became the mass workers parties in those countries, prior to experiencing defeats and setbacks at a later stage. In some countries, however, there remains a large scale presence of competing Trotskyist groups. Elsewhere in the Third World support for Trotskyist ideas is more diffuse and generally confined to intellectuals, but can be found in a diluted form among some sections of various progressive movements, as in South Africa. Vietnamese Trotskyists were involved in the earliest efforts to build a revolutionary movement in Indochina. ... Tạ Thu Thâu (1906–1945) was a Trotskyist, the leader of the Fourth International in Vietnam. ... The Lanka Sama Samaja Party (literally Ceylon Equal Society Party, in Sinhala: ලංකා සම සමාජ පක්ෂය, in Tamil: லங்கா சமசமாஜக் கட்சி) is a trotskyist political party in Sri Lanka. ... The Revolutionary Workers Party (Spanish: Partido Obrero Revolucionario, POR) is a Trotskyist political party in Bolivia. ...


In France, 10% of the electorate voted in 2002 for parties calling themselves Trotskyist, and during the 1980s in Argentina, the Trotskyist party founded by Nahuel Moreno used to obtain also around 10% of the electorate, representing 3.5 million voters. For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Nahuel Moreno (April 24, 1924 - January 25, 1987) (real name Hugo Bressano) was a Trotskyist leader from Argentina. ...


No governing Communist party or successful Communist revolution has to this date professed Trotskyism, although Trotskyism's influence in some recent major social upheavals is very evident. Today Venezuelan president Hugo Chavez claims to be highly impressed by the ideas of Trotsky. A map of countries who declared themselves to be socialist states under the Marxist-Leninist or Maoist definition (in other words, Communist states) at some point in their history. ...


Trotskyism Today

There are a wide range of Trotskyist organisations around the world. These include but are not limited to:


The reunified Fourth International

The reunified Fourth International derives from the 1963 reunification of the majorities of the two public factions into which the FI split in 1953: the ISFI and the ICFI. It is often referred to as the United Secretariat of the Fourth International, the name of its leading committee before 2003. It is widely described as the largest contemporary Trotskyist organisation. [1], [2], [3]. Its best known section is the Ligue Communiste Revolutionnaire of France. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Fourth_International#From the Fourth World Congress to reunification. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Logo of the Fourth International The Fourth International was an international organisation of Trotskyist communists. ... The International Committee of the Fourth International (ICFI) was a Trotskyist international network, formed in 1953 by groups who disagreed with the course of the Fourth International under Michel Raptis (Pablo) and Ernest Mandel. ... The United Secretariat of the Fourth International (USFI) is the largest Trotskyist international organisation. ... The Revolutionary Communist League (Ligue Communiste Révolutionnaire) (LCR) is a French Trotskyist political party. ...


In many countries its sections work within working class parties, and alliances, in which Trotskyists are a minority.


Committee for a Workers' International

The CWI was founded in 1974 and now has sections in over 35 countries. Before 1997, most organisations affiliated to the CWI sought to build an entrist Marxist wing within the large social democratic parties. Since the early 1990s it has argued that most social democratic parties have moved so far to the right that there is little point trying to work within them. Instead the CWI has adopted a range of tactics, mostly seeking to build independent parties, but in some cases working within other broad working-class parties. The Committee for a Workers International (CWI) is an international association of Trotskyist parties. ... Entryism (or entrism or enterism) is a political tactic by which a smaller organisation joins a (usually hostile) larger organisation in an attempt to either gain recruits, influence or both. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ...


International Socialist Tendency

The International Socialist Tendency, led by the Socialist Workers Party, the largest Trotskyist group in Britain. The International Socialist Tendency is an international grouping of organisations around the ideas of Tony Cliff, founder of the Socialist Workers Party in the UK. It has sections across the world, however its strongest presence is in Europe, especially in the UK, Greece and Ireland. ... The Socialist Workers Party (SWP) is a political party of the far left in England It sees itself as standing in the revolutionary socialist tradition. ...


Internationalist Communist Union

In France, the LCR is rivalled by Lutte Ouvrière. That group is the French section of theInternationalist Communist Union (UCI). UCI has small sections in a handful of other countries. It focuses its activities, whether propaganda or intervention, within the industrial proletariat. Workers Struggle (Lutte Ouvrière) is the usual name under which the Communist Union (Trotskyist) (Union Communiste (Trotskyste)), a French Trotskyist political party, is known (technically, it is the name of the weekly paper edited by the party). ... The Internationalist Communist Union (in French, Union Communiste Internationaliste) is an international grouping of Trotskyist political parties, centred on Lutte Ouvrière in France. ...


International Marxist Tendency

The Committee for a Marxist International (CMI) split from CWI, when CWI abandoned entryism. Since 2006, it has been known as the International Marxist Tendency (IMT). CMI/IMT groups continue the policy of entering mainstream social democratic, communist or radical parties. In Pakistan, the group has 3 MPs elected as candidates of the Pakistan People's Party. Leading figures in CMI/IMT are Ted Grant (who died in 2006) and Alan Woods. The Committee for a Marxist International (also known as the International Marxist Tendency) is a Trotskyist tendency based on the ideas of Ted Grant and Alan Woods. ... The International Marxist Tendency (IMT) is a Trotskyist tendency based on the ideas of Ted Grant. ... The Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) is a mainstream political party in Pakistan. ... Edward (Ted) Grant (born July 9, 1913) is a Trotskyist politician. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Alan Woods is a British activist born in Swansea, South Wales in 1944 into a working-class family with a strong Communist tradition. ...


International Committee of the Fourth International

There used to be several groups claiming the name of International Committee of the Fourth International, but now only two remain. Further, only one of these ICFIs has national groups in more than one country.[citation needed] Its sections are called Socialist Equality Parties and publish the World Socialist Web Site. It has been suggested that Orthodox Trotskyism be merged into this article or section. ... The Socialist Equality Party is the name of several branches of the Trotskyist International Committee of the Fourth International (ICFI), the largest being in the United States. ... The World Socialist Web Site is the Internet center of the International Committee of the Fourth International (ICFI). ...


Others

The list of Trotskyist internationals shows that there are a large number of other multinational tendencies that stand in the tradition of Leon Trotsky. Some Trotskyist organisations are only organised in one country. This is a list of the many Trotskyist international tendencies. ...


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Trotskyism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2093 words)
Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky.
Trotsky considered himself a Bolshevik-Leninist, arguing for the establishment of a vanguard party.
Trotskyism is sometimes also used critically by those from a Stalinist or social democratic background to denote any of various political currents claiming a tradition of Marxist opposition to both Stalinism and capitalism.
Trotskyism ("Great Soviet Encyclopedia," 1947) (1467 words)
Trotsky, in essence, rejected the dictatorship of the proletariat.
In 1929, Trotsky was deported from the territory of the USSR for anti-Soviet and counterrevolutionary activity.
Trotsky is the worst enemy of all toiling humanity, Trotskyites everywhere play the role of provocateurs and spies of the counterrevolutionary bourgeoisie in the working-class movement, trying to demoralize the Communist movement.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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