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Encyclopedia > Tropical forests

Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests, also known as tropical rain forests or tropical wet forests, are a tropical and subtropical forest biome. The tropics are the geographic region of the Earth centered on the equator and limited in latitude by the two tropics: the Tropic of Cancer in the north and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere. ... Subtropical (or semitropical) areas are those adjacent to the tropics, usually roughly defined as the ranges 23. ... A forest is an area with a high density of trees (or, historically, a wooded function as carbon dioxide sinks, animal habitats, hydrologic flow modulators, and soil conservers, constituting one of the most important aspects of the Earths biosphere. ... In ecology, a biome is a major regional group of distinctive plant, and animal communities best adapted to the regions physical natural environment, latitude, altitude and terrain factors. ...


Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests are found in a belt around the equator and in the humid subtropics, and are characterized by warm, humid climates with high year-round rainfall. Tropical and subtropical regions with lower rainfall or distinct wet and dry seasons are home to Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests and Tropical and subtropical coniferous forests. Temperate rain forests also occur in certain humid temperate coastal regions. The tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forest biome is located at tropical and subtropical latitudes. ... Tropical and subtropical coniferous forests are a biome located at tropical and subtropical latitudes. ... Temperate rain forest in the Mount Hood Wilderness, Oregon, United States. ...


Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests are common in several terrestrial ecozones, including parts of the Afrotropic (equatorial Africa), Indomalaya (parts of the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia), the Neotropic (northern South America and Central America), Australasia (eastern Indonesia, New Guinea, and northern Australia), and Oceania (the tropical islands of the Pacific Ocean). About half of the world's tropical rainforests are in the South American countries of Brazil and Peru. Rain forests now cover less than 6% of Earth's land surface. Scientists estimate that more than half of all the world's plant and animal species live in tropical rain forests. Ecozones are global divisions which have their own characteristic interplay of climatic factors, morphodynamics, soil-forming processes, living conditions for plants and animals, and production potentials for agriculture and forestry. ... The Afrotropic Ecozone is Africa south of the Sahara Desert. ... Africa is the worlds second-largest and second-most populous continent, after Asia. ... The Indomalaya Ecozone was previously called the Oriental region. ... Satellite image of the Indian subcontinent Map of South Asia (see note) The Indian subcontinent is a peninsular landmass of the Asian continent occupying the Indian Plate and extending into the Indian Ocean, bordered on the north by the Eurasian Plate. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... The Neotropic ecozone is a terrestrial ecoregion which includes South America, Central America, and the Caribbean. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Map of Central America Central America is a central region of the Americas. ... The Australasia Ecozone The Australasian ecozone – is an ecological region that is coincident, but not synonymous (by some definitions), with the geographic region of Australasia. ... Oceania is the smallest of the worlds terrestrial ecozones, and unique in not including any continental land mass. ...

  • rainfall : high, year round, sometimes with seasonal variation.
  • temperature : always warm
  • soil : generally poor and leached.
  • plants : high diversity
  • animals : high diversity

Contents


Characteristics

Rainforests are characterized by high rainfall, with definitions setting minimum normal annual rainfall between 2,000 mm (about 78 inches or 2 meters) and 1700 mm (about 67 inches). The soil can be poor because high rainfall tends to leach out soluble nutrients. // Nutrients and the body A nutrient is any element or compound necessary for or contributing to an organisms metabolism, growth, or other functioning. ...


Rain forests are home to two-thirds of all the living animal and plant species on the planet. It has been estimated that many hundreds of millions of new species of plants, insects, and microorganisms are still undiscovered and as yet unnamed by science. Tropical rain forests are called the "jewel of the earth", the "Earth's lungs", and the "world's largest pharmacy" because of the large amount of natural medicines discovered there. Classes & Orders See taxonomy Insects are invertebrate animals of the Class Insecta, the largest and (on land) most widely-distributed taxon within the phylum Arthropoda. ... A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ... Bowl of Hygeia Pharmacy (from the Greek φάρμακον = drug) is the profession charged with ensuring the safe use of medication. ...


Despite the growth of flora in a rainforest, the actual quality of the soil is quite poor. Oxisols, infertile, and deeply weathered, have developed on the ancient Gondwanan shields. Rapid bacterial decay prevents the accumulation of humus. The concentration of iron and aluminium oxides by the laterization process gives the oxisols a bright red color and sometimes produces minable deposits (e.g. bauxite). On younger substrates, especially of volcanic origin, tropical soils may be quite fertile. Oxisols are an order in USA soil taxonomy, best known for their occurrence in tropical rain forest, 15-25 degrees north and south of the Equator. ... Pangaea was formed by the merging of two continents, Laurasia and Gondwana East African and Kuungan Orogens 550 Ma reconstruction showing final stages of assembly The southern supercontinent Gondwana (originally Gondwanaland) included most of the landmasses which make up todays continents of the southern hemisphere, including Antarctica, South America... Shields are shown in orange. ... Humus is a complex organic substance resulting from the breakdown of plant material in a process called humification. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Atomic mass 55. ... General Name, Symbol, Number aluminium, Al, 13 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 3, p Appearance silvery Atomic mass 26. ... Bauxite with penny Bauxite (pebbly) Bauxite is a naturally occurring, heterogeneous material composed primarily of one or more aluminium hydroxide minerals, plus various mixtures of silica, iron oxide, titania, aluminium silicates, and other impurities in minor or trace amounts. ...


The undergrowth in a rainforest is restricted in many areas by the lack of sunlight at ground level. This makes it possible for people and other animals to walk through the forest. If the leaf canopy is destroyed or thinned for any reason, the ground beneath is soon colonised by a dense tangled growth of vines, shrubs and small trees called jungle. The term vine was originally a term for the plant on which grapes grew, from the word for wine (Greek oinos), for which grapes were grown. ... A broom shrub in flower A shrub or bush is a horticultural rather than strictly botanical category of woody plant, distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and lower height, usually less than 6 m tall. ...


Trees

Rainforest on Fatu-Hiva, Marquesas Islands
Rainforest on Fatu-Hiva, Marquesas Islands

There are several common characteristics of tropical trees. Tropical species frequently possess one or more of the following attributes not commonly seen in trees of higher latitudes. Download high resolution version (1020x812, 660 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1020x812, 660 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... National motto: Mau‘u‘u ha‘e iti Official languages French, Tahitian Political status Dependent territory, administrative division of French Polynesia Capital Tai o Hae Largest City Tai o Hae Area 1,274 km² ( 492 sq. ...


Many species have broad, woody flanges (buttresses) at the base of the trunk. Originally believed to help support the tree, now it is believed that the buttresses channel stem flow and its dissolved nutrients to the roots. Large leaves are common among trees of the C layer. Young individuals of trees destined for the B and A layers may also have large leaves. When they reach the canopy new leaves will be smaller. The large leaf surface helps intercept light in the sun-dappled lower strata of the forest. Drip tips facilitate drainage of precipitation off the leaf to promote transpiration. They occur in the lower layers and among the saplings of species of the emergent layer (A layer).


Trees are often well connected in the canopy layer especially by the growth of woody climbers or lianas, plants with epiphytic adaptations, allowing them to grow on top of existing trees in the competition for sunlight. A liana is woody climber. ...


Other characteristics that are more frequent in tropical tree species than in temperate forests include:

  • Exceptionally thin bark, often only 1-2 mm thick. It is usually very smooth, although sometimes covered with spines or thorns.
  • Cauliflory, the development of flowers (and hence fruits) directly from the trunk, rather than at the tips of branches.
  • Large fleshy fruits attract birds, mammals, and even fish as dispersal agents.

For other meanings of bird, see bird (disambiguation). ... Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals primarily characterized by the presence of mammary... Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus: one of the most abundant species of fish in the world. ...

Rainforest layers

The rainforest is divided into four different parts, each with different plants and animals, adapted for life in that particular area.


Emergent layer

This layer contains the emergents—trees which tower above the canopy. The trees are usually evergreens, which are able to withstand the harsh temperatures and high winds. Eagles, butterflies, and bats inhabit this layer.


Canopy layer

Away from river banks, swamps and clearings where dense undergrowth is found, the forest floor is relatively clear of vegetation, as little sunlight penetrates to ground level. The densest areas of biodiversity are found in the forest canopy, a more or less continuous cover of foliage formed by adjacent treetops.


The canopy, by some estimates, is home to 40% of all plant species, suggesting that perhaps half of all life on Earth could be found there. A quarter of all insect species are believed to exist in the rainforest canopy.


Scientists have long suspected the richness of the canopy as a habitat, but have only recently developed practical methods of exploring it. As long ago as 1917, U.S. naturalist William Beebe declared that "another continent of life remains to be discovered, not upon the Earth, but one to two hundred feet above it, extending over thousands of square miles". 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Table of natural history, 1728 Cyclopaedia Natural history is an umbrella term for what are now usually viewed as several distinct scientific disciplines. ... William Beebe (July 29, 1877 – June 4, 1962), American naturalist, explorer, and author. ...


True exploration of this habitat only began in the 1980s, when scientists developed methods to reach the canopy, such as firing ropes into the trees using crossbows. Exploration of the canopy is still in its infancy, but other methods include the use of balloons and airships to float above the highest branches and the building of cranes and walkways planted on the forest floor. A crossbow is a weapon consisting of a bow mounted on a stock that fires arrow-like projectiles. ... Balloons are a type of lighter than air aircraft that remain aloft due to their buoyancy. ... USS Akron (ZRS-4) in flight, November 2, 1931 An airship is a buoyant aircraft that can be steered and propelled through the air. ...


Understory layer

There is a space between the canopy and the forest floor, which is known as the understorey (or understory). This is home to a number of birds, monkeys, snakes, and lizards. The leaves are much larger at this level. Insect life is also abundant. Orders Many - see section below. ... Cynomolgus Monkey at Batu Caves, Malaysia Monkeys, Mori Sosen (1749-1821) A monkey is any member of two of the three groupings of simian primates. ... Superfamilies and Families Henophidia Aniliidae Anomochilidae Boidae Bolyeriidae Cylindrophiidae Loxocemidae Pythonidae Tropidophiidae Uropeltidae Xenopeltidae Typhlopoidea Anomalepididae Leptotyphlopidae Typhlopidae Xenophidia Acrochordidae Atractaspididae Colubridae Elapidae Hydrophiidae Viperidae Snakes (from Old English snaca, and ultimately from the Proto-Indo-European base snag- or sneg-, to crawl), also known as ophidians, are cold blooded... Families Many, see text. ...


Forest floor

This region receives only 2% of the rainforest's sunlight. Thus, only specially adapted plants can grow in this region. It also contains decaying plant and animal matter, which disappears quickly due to the lack of sunlight.


Fauna

Tropical rainforests support a diverse array of fauna including mammals, reptiles, birds and invertebrates. Mammals may include primates, felids and other families. Reptiles include snakes, turtle, chameleons and other families. Birds include such families as vangidae and Cuculidae. Dozens of families of invertebrates are found in tropical rainforests. Orders Subclass Multituberculata (extinct) Plagiaulacida Cimolodonta Subclass Palaeoryctoides (extinct) Subclass Triconodonta (extinct) Subclass Eutheria (excludes extinct ancestors) Afrosoricida Anagaloidea (extinct) Artiodactyla Carnivora Cetacea Chiroptera Cimolesta (extinct) Creodonta (extinct) Condylarthra (extinct) Dermoptera Desmostylia (extinct) Dinocerata (extinct) Embrithopoda (extinct) Hyracoidea Insectivora Lagomorpha Litopterna (extinct) Macroscelidea Mesonychia (extinct) Notoungulata (extinct) Perissodactyla Pholidota Plesiadapiformes... Orders See text. ... Orders Many - see section below. ... Families 15, See classification A primate (L. prima, first) is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. ... Subfamilies Felinae Pantherinae Acinonychinae Machairodontinae (extinct) All cats are members of the family Felidae. ... Superfamilies and Families Henophidia Aniliidae Anomochilidae Boidae Bolyeriidae Cylindrophiidae Loxocemidae Pythonidae Tropidophiidae Uropeltidae Xenopeltidae Typhlopoidea Anomalepididae Leptotyphlopidae Typhlopidae Xenophidia Acrochordidae Atractaspididae Colubridae Elapidae Hydrophiidae Viperidae Snakes (from Old English snaca, and ultimately from the Proto-Indo-European base snag- or sneg-, to crawl), also known as ophidians, are cold blooded... Suborders Cryptodira Pleurodira See text for families. ... Genera Bradypodion Calumma Chamaeleo Furcifer Brookesia Rhampholeon Chameleons (family Chamaeleonidae) are squamates that belong to one of the best known lizard families. ... Genera Calicalicus Schetba Vanga Falculea Artamella Leptopterus Cyanolanius Oriolia Euryceros Tylas Hypositta Xenopirostris The vangas are a group of little-known small to medium sized passerine birds restricted to Madagascar. ... Genera See text. ...


The rainforest as a source of drugs

Tropical rain forests are called the 'world's largest pharmacy' because of the large amount of natural medicines discovered there. Nearly half of the medicines that we use come from the rainforests. For example, rain forests are responsible for containing the "basic ingredients of birth control hormones, stimulants, and tranquilizing drugs" (Banks 36). Curare (a paralyzing drug) and quinine (a malaria cure) are also found there. Scientists believe that the cures for many more diseases will be discovered there in the future. Currently, 121 prescription drugs currently sold worldwide come from plant-derived sources. And while 25% of Western pharmaceuticals are derived from rainforest ingredients, less than 1% of these tropical trees and plants have been tested by scientists. Oral contraceptives are contraceptives which are taken orally and inhibit the bodys fertility by chemical means. ... A stimulant is a drug that increases the activity of the sympathetic nervous system and produces a sense of euphoria or the feeling of being more awake. ... A sedative is a drug that depresses the central nervous system (CNS), which causes calmness, relaxation, reduction of anxiety, sleepiness, slowed breathing, slurred speech, staggering gait, poor judgment, and slow, uncertain reflexes. ... Strychnos toxifera by Koehler 1887 Curare is a substance containing the alkaloid D-tubocurarine. ... Quinine, is a natural white crystalline alkaloid having antipyretic, anti-malarial with analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties and a bitter taste. ... Red blood cell infected with Malaria, derived from mala aria (Medieval Italian for bad air) and formerly called ague or marsh fever in English, is an infectious disease which causes about 350-500 million infections with humans and approximately 1. ...


Threats

The most severe threat to the Tropical Rainforest is Human intervention. Clearing and degradation of tropical rain forests for timber, grazing land and agriculture, continues to lead towards severe soil erosion of already nutrient-poor soils. The rapid rate of clearing is destroying the homes and biodiversity in one of the most animal and plant prolific biomes on earth. Due to all of this, tropical rainforests now only cover 6% of the earth’s surface.


Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests ecoregions

Afrotropic Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests edit
Albertine Rift montane forests Democratic Republic of the Congo, Burundi, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda
Atlantic Equatorial coastal forests Angola, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon
Cameroonian Highlands forests Cameroon, Nigeria
Central Congolian lowland forests Democratic Republic of the Congo
Comoros forests Comoros
Cross-Niger transition forests Nigeria
Cross-Sanaga-Bioko coastal forests Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Nigeria
East African montane forests Kenya, Sudan, Tanzania
Eastern Arc forests Tanzania, Kenya
Eastern Congolian swamp forests Democratic Republic of the Congo
Eastern Guinean forests Benin, Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, Togo
Ethiopian montane forests Ethiopia
Granitic Seychelles forests Seychelles
Guinean montane forests Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire, Liberia, Sierra Leone
Knysna-Amatole montane forests South Africa
KwaZulu-Cape coastal forest mosaic South Africa
Madagascar lowland forests Madagascar
Madagascar subhumid forests Madagascar
Maputaland coastal forest mosaic Mozambique, Swaziland, South Africa
Mascarene forests Mauritius, Réunion
Mount Cameroon and Bioko montane forests Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea
Niger Delta swamp forests Nigeria
Nigerian lowland forests Benin, Nigeria
Northeastern Congolian lowland forests Cameroon, Central African Republic, Gabon, Republic of the Congo
Northern Zanzibar-Inhambane coastal forest mosaic Kenya, Somalia, Tanzania
Northwestern Congolian lowland forests Cameroon, Central African Republic, Gabon, Republic of the Congo
São Tomé and Príncipe moist lowland forests São Tomé and Príncipe
Southern Zanzibar-Inhambane coastal forest mosaic Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zimbabwe
Western Congolian swamp forests Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo
Western Guinean lowland forests Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire, Liberia, Sierra Leone
Australasia Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests edit
Admiralty Islands lowland rain forests Papua New Guinea
Banda Sea Islands moist deciduous forests Indonesia
Biak-Numfoor rain forests Indonesia
Buru rain forests Indonesia
Central Range montane rain forests Indonesia, Papua New Guinea
Halmahera rain forests Indonesia
Huon Peninsula montane rain forests Papua New Guinea
Japen rain forests Indonesia
Lord Howe Island subtropical forests Australia
Louisiade Archipelago rain forests Papua New Guinea
New Britain-New Ireland lowland rain forests Papua New Guinea
New Britain-New Ireland montane rain forests Papua New Guinea
New Caledonia rain forests New Caledonia
Norfolk Island subtropical forests Australia
Northern New Guinea lowland rain and freshwater swamp forests Indonesia, Papua New Guinea
Northern New Guinea montane rain forests Indonesia, Papua New Guinea
Queensland tropical rain forests Australia
Seram rain forests Indonesia
Solomon Islands rain forests Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands
Southeastern Papuan rain forests Papua New Guinea
Southern New Guinea freshwater swamp forests Indonesia, Papua New Guinea
Southern New Guinea lowland rain forests Indonesia, Papua New Guinea
Sulawesi lowland rain forests Indonesia
Sulawesi montane rain forests Indonesia
Trobriand Islands rain forests Papua New Guinea
Vanuatu rain forests Solomon Islands, Vanuatu
Vogelkop montane rain forests Indonesia
Vogelkop-Aru lowland rain forests Indonesia
Indomalaya Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests edit
Andaman Islands rain forests India
Borneo lowland rain forests Indonesia, Malaysia
Borneo montane rain forests Indonesia, Malaysia
Borneo peat swamp forests Indonesia, Malaysia
Brahmaputra Valley semi-evergreen forests India
Cardamom Mountains rain forests Cambodia, Thailand, Vietnam
Chao Phraya freshwater swamp forests Thailand
Chao Phraya lowland moist deciduous forests Thailand
Chin Hills-Arakan Yoma montane forests India, Myanmar
Christmas and Cocos Islands tropical forests Australia
Eastern highlands moist deciduous forests India
Eastern Java-Bali montane rain forests Indonesia
Eastern Java-Bali rain forests Indonesia
Greater Negros-Panay rain forests Philippines
Hainan Island monsoon rain forests China
Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests Bhutan, India, Nepal
Irrawaddy freshwater swamp forests Myanmar
Irrawaddy moist deciduous forests Myanmar
Jian Nan subtropical evergreen forests China
Kayah-Karen montane rain forests Myanmar, Thailand
Lower Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests Bangladesh, India
Luang Prabang montane rain forests Laos
Luzon montane rain forests Philippines
Luzon rain forests Philippines
Malabar Coast moist forests India
Maldives-Lakshadweep-Chagos Archipelago tropical moist forests British Indian Ocean Territory, India, Maldives
Meghalaya subtropical forests India
Mentawai Islands rain forests Indonesia
Mindanao montane rain forests Philippines
Mindanao-Eastern Visayas rain forests Philippines
Mindoro rain forests Philippines
Mizoram-Manipur-Kachin rain forests Bangladesh, India, Myanmar
Myanmar coastal rain forests Myanmar
Nansei Islands subtropical evergreen forests Japan
Nicobar Islands rain forests India
North Western Ghats moist deciduous forests India
North Western Ghats montane rain forests India
Northern Annamites rain forests Laos, Vietnam
Northern Indochina subtropical forests China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam
Northern Khorat Plateau moist deciduous forests Laos, Thailand
Northern Thailand-Laos moist deciduous forests Laos, Thailand
Northern Triangle subtropical forests Myanmar
Northern Vietnam lowland rain forests Vietnam
Orissa semi-evergreen forests India
Palawan rain forests Philippines
Peninsular Malaysian montane rain forests Malaysia, Thailand
Peninsular Malaysian peat swamp forests Malaysia, Thailand
Peninsular Malaysian rain forests Indonesia, Malaysia
Red River freshwater swamp forests Vietnam
South China Sea Islands disputed between China, Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam
South China-Vietnam subtropical evergreen forests China, Vietnam
South Taiwan monsoon rain forests Taiwan
South Western Ghats moist deciduous forests India
South Western Ghats montane rain forests India
Southern Annamites montane rain forests Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam
Southwest Borneo freshwater swamp forests Indonesia
Sri Lanka lowland rain forests Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka montane rain forests Sri Lanka
Sulu Archipelago rain forests Philippines
Sumatran freshwater swamp forests Indonesia
Sumatran lowland rain forests Indonesia
Sumatran montane rain forests Indonesia
Sumatran peat swamp forests Indonesia
Sundaland heath forests Indonesia
Sundarbans freshwater swamp forests Bangladesh, India
Taiwan subtropical evergreen forests Taiwan
Tenasserim-South Thailand semi-evergreen rain forests Malaysia' Myanmar, Thailand
Tonle Sap freshwater swamp forests Cambodia, Vietnam
Tonle Sap-Mekong peat swamp forests Cambodia, Vietnam
Upper Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests India
Western Java montane rain forests Indonesia
Western Java rain forests Indonesia
Neotropic Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests edit
Araucaria moist forests Argentina, Brazil
Atlantic Coast restingas Brazil
Bahia coastal forests Brazil
Bahia interior forests Brazil
Bolivian Yungas Bolivia, Peru
Caatinga Enclaves moist forests Brazil
Caqueta moist forests Brazil, Colombia
Catatumbo moist forests Venezuela
Cauca Valley montane forests Colombia
Cayos Miskitos-San Andrés and Providencia moist forests Colombia, Nicaragua
Central American Atlantic moist forests Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama
Central American montane forests El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua
Chiapas montane forests Mexico
Chimalapas montane forests Mexico
Chocó-Darién Moist Forests Colombia, Ecuador, Panama
Cocos Island moist forests Costa Rica
Cordillera La Costa montane forests Venezuela
Cordillera Oriental montane forests Colombia, Venezuela
Costa Rican seasonal moist forests Costa Rica, Nicaragua
Cuban moist forests Cuba
Eastern Cordillera real montane forests Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
Eastern Panamanian montane forests Colombia, Panama
Fernanda de Noronha-Atol das Rocas moist forests Brazil
Guayanan highlands forests Brazil, Colombia, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela
Guianan moist forests Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela
Gurupa varzea Brazil
Hispaniolan moist forests Dominican Republic, Haiti
Iquitos varzea Bolivia, Brazil, Peru
Isthmian-Atlantic moist forests Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama
Isthmian-Pacific moist forests Costa Rica, Panama
Jamaican moist forests Jamaica
Japurá-Solimoes-Negro moist forests Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela
Juruá-Purus moist forests Brazil
Leeward Islands moist forests Antigua, British Virgin Islands, Guadeloupe, Montserrat, Nevis, Saint Kitts, British Virgin Islands
Madeira-Tapajós moist forests Bolivia, Brazil
Magdalena Valley montane forests Colombia
Magdalena-Urabá moist forests Colombia
Marajó varzea Brazil
Maranhão Babaçu forests Brazil
Mato Grosso tropical dry forests Brazil
Monte Alegre varzea Brazil
Napo Moist Forests Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
Negro-Branco moist forests Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela
Northeastern Brazil restingas Brazil
Northwestern Andean montane forests Colombia, Ecuador
Oaxacan montane forests Mexico
Orinoco Delta swamp forests Guyana, Venezuela
Pantanos de Centla Mexico
Paramaribo swamp forests Guyana, Suriname
Parañá-Paraíba interior forests Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay
Pernambuco coastal forests Brazil
Pernambuco interior forests Brazil
Peruvian Yungas Peru
Petén-Veracruz moist forests Mexico
Puerto Rican moist forests Puerto Rico
Purus varzea Brazil
Purus-Madeira moist forests Brazil
Rio Negro campinarana Brazil, Colombia
Santa Marta montane forests Colombia
Serra do Mar coastal forests Brazil
Sierra de los Tuxtlas Mexico
Sierra Madre de Chiapas moist forest El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico
Solimões-Japurá moist forest Brazil, Colombia, Peru
South Florida rocklands United States
Southern Andean Yungas Argentina, Brazil
Southwest Amazon moist forests Bolivia, Brazil, Peru
Talamancan montane forests Costa Rica, Panama
Tapajós-Xingu moist forests Brazil
Tepuis Brazil, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela
Tocantins-Araguaia-Maranhão moist forests Brazil
Trinidad and Tobago moist forests Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidade-Martin Vaz Islands tropical forests Brazil
Uatuma-Trombetas moist forests Brazil, Guyana, Suriname
Ucayali moist forests Peru
Venezuelan Andes montane forests Colombia, Venezuela
Veracruz moist forest Mexico
Veracruz montane forests Mexico
Western Ecuador moist forests Colombia, Ecuador
Windward Islands moist forests Dominica, Grenada, Martinique, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Xingu-Tocantins-Araguaia moist forests Brazil
Yucatán moist forests Belize, Guatemala, Mexico
Oceania Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests edit
Carolines tropical moist forests Federated States of Micronesia
Central Polynesian tropical moist forests Cook Islands, Johnston Atoll, Kiribati, Palmyra Atoll
Cook Islands tropical moist forests Cook Islands
Eastern Micronesia tropical moist forests Marshall Islands, Nauru, Kiribati, Wake Island
Fiji tropical moist forests Fiji
Hawaii tropical moist forests Hawaii
Kermadec Islands subtropical moist forests New Zealand
Marquesas tropical moist forests French Polynesia
Ogasawara subtropical moist forests Japan
Palau tropical moist forests Palau
Rapa Nui and Sala-y-Gomez subtropical broadleaf forests Chile
Samoan tropical moist forests American Samoa, Western Samoa
Society Islands tropical moist forests French Polynesia
Tongan tropical moist forests Tonga
Tuamotu tropical moist forests French Polynesia
Tubuai tropical moist forests French Polynesia
Western Polynesian tropical moist forests Kiribati, Tokelau, Tuvalu
Palearctic Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests edit
Gizhou Plateau broadleaf and mixed forests China
Yunnan Plateau subtropical evergreen forests China
Terrestrial biomes
Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests · Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests · Tropical and subtropical coniferous forests · Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests · Temperate coniferous forests · Boreal forests/taiga ·Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands · Temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands · Flooded grasslands and savannas · Montane grasslands and shrublands · Tundra ·Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and shrub · Deserts and xeric shrublands · Mangrove
Ecozones
Afrotropic · Antarctic · Australasia · Indomalaya · Nearctic · Neotropic · Oceania · Palearctic

The Afrotropic Ecozone is Africa south of the Sahara Desert. ... The Cross-Niger transition forests are a tropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion of Nigeria. ... The Cross-Sanaga-Bioko coastal forests are a tropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion of west-central Africa. ... The Eastern Guinean forests are lowland forests in West Africa, from the Atlantic coast to a few hundred kilometers inland. ... The Knysna-Amatole montane forests is a subtropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion of South Africa. ... The Kwazulu-Cape coastal forest mosaic is a subtropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion of South Africa. ... The Madagascar lowland forests are a tropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion, found on the eastern coast of the island of Madagascar. ... The Madagascar subhumid forests are a tropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion which covers most of the central highlands of the island of Madagascar. ... The Maputaland coastal forest mosaic is a subtropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion of South Africa. ... The Mascarene Islands (or Mascarenhas Archipelago) is a group of islands in the Indian Ocean east of Madagascar, which includes Mauritius, Réunion, Rodrigues, and Cargados Carajos shoals. ... The Western Guinean lowland forests are a tropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion of West Africa. ... The Australasia Ecozone The Australasian ecozone – is an ecological region that is coincident, but not synonymous (by some definitions), with the geographic region of Australasia. ... The Admiralty Islands are a group of 18 islands in the Bismarck Archipelago. ... Buru Island (Operational Navigation Chart, 1967) Not for navigational use Buru is an island in the Maluku (Indonesian province) province of Indonesia. ... Halmahera (also Jilolo or Gilolo) is the largest island in the Maluku Islands. ... Lord Howe Island showing Mts Lidgbird and Gower. ... Moving westward from eastern end of the chain are the islands of Rossel and Tagula. ... The New Caledonia rain forests are a terrestrial ecoregion, located in New Caledonia in the South Pacific. ... The Queensland tropical rain forests are a terrestrial ecoregion located in northeastern Australia. ... Seram (formerly Ceram, also called Seran or Serang) is an island in the Maluku province of Indonesia. ... The Solomon Islands rain forests are a terrestrial ecoregion which includes most of the Solomon Islands (except the Santa Cruz Islands) and the islands of Bougainville and Buka, which are part of Papua New Guinea. ... The Trobriand Islands are a 170 mi² archipelago of coral atolls off the eastern coast of New Guinea. ... The Vanuatu rain forests are a terrestrial ecoregion that includes the islands of Vanuatu, as well as the Santa Cruz Islands group of the neighboring Solomon Islands. ... The Indomalaya Ecozone was previously called the Oriental region. ... Satellite photo of the Andaman Islands. ... tropical rainforests in india ... The Eastern Highlands moist deciduous forests is a tropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion of east-central India. ... The Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests is a tropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion of Bangladesh and eastern India. ... The Malabar Coast moist forests is a tropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion of southwestern India. ... The Meghalaya subtropical forests is a montane subtropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion of eastern India. ... The Mentawai Islands are a chain of islands off the west coast of Sumatra in Indonesia. ... The Ryukyu Islands (琉球列島 Ryūkyū-rettō), also known as the Nansei-shoto (南西諸島 Nansei-shotō, which translates literally as the Southwest Islands), are an island chain stretching southwestward from the island of Kyushu in Japan. ... Map of Nicobar Islands The Nicobar Islands are an island chain in the eastern Indian Ocean, and are part of India. ... The North Western Ghats moist deciduous forests is a tropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion of southwestern India. ... The North Western Ghats montane rain forests is a tropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion of southwestern India. ... The Orissa semi-evergreen forests are a tropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion of eastern India. ... The South China Sea Islands (or Nanhai Islands, simplified: 南海诸岛, traditional: 南海諸島, pinyin: NánhÇŽi ZhÅ«dÇŽo) is an archipelago of over 250 around 1-km² islands, atolls, cays, shoals, reefs, and sandbars in the South China Sea, most of which have no indigenous people. ... The South Western Ghats moist deciduous forests is a tropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion of southern India. ... The South Western Ghats montane rain forests are an ecoregion of southern India, covering the southern portion of the Western Ghats range in Kerala and Tamil Nadu, at elevations over 1000 meters. ... The Sundarbans freshwater swamp forests are a tropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion of India and Bangladesh. ... The Upper Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests is a tropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion of northern India. ... The Neotropic ecozone is a terrestrial ecoregion which includes South America, Central America, and the Caribbean. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Caatinga is in the northeastern part of Brazil. ... Nevis is an island in the Caribbean, whose name is derived from an original Spanish name given by Christopher Columbus, Nuestra Señora de las Nieves (somewhat counterintuitively, given its tropical location and climate, Our Lady of the Snows). Together with Saint Kitts it constitutes the Federation of Saint Kitts... Saint Kitts (also/previously known as Saint Christopher) is an island in the Caribbean. ... NT0160 (in blue) stretching along eastern Brazilian coast. ... The Sierra de los Tuxtlas are volcanic mountains in the Los Tuxtlas region of the state of Veracruz in Mexico. ... The Tepuis are table-like mountains found only in the Guiana highlands. ... Oceania is the smallest of the worlds terrestrial ecozones, and unique in not including any continental land mass. ... The Hawaiian Tropical Moist Forests ecoregion home to a high diversity of endemic species. ... Official language(s) English, Hawaiian Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  Ranked 43rd  - Total 10,941 sq. ... The Kermadec Islands are an island arc in the Pacific Ocean. ... The Ogasawara Islands (小笠原諸島) are an archipelago of over 30 subtropical islands some 1000 km directly south of central Tokyo, Japan. ... Easter Island and its location Easter Island (Polynesian: Rapa Nui (Great Rapa), Spanish: Isla de Pascua) is an island in the south Pacific Ocean belonging to Chile. ... The Independent State of Samoa (conventional long form) or Samoa (conventional short form) is a country comprising a group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean. ... The Palearctic or Palaearctic is one of the eight ecozones dividing the Earth surface (see map). ... In ecology, a biome is a major regional group of distinctive plant, and animal communities best adapted to the regions physical natural environment, latitude, altitude and terrain factors. ... The tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forest biome is located at tropical and subtropical latitudes. ... Tropical and subtropical coniferous forests are a biome located at tropical and subtropical latitudes. ... Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests are a temperate and humid biome. ... Temperate coniferous forests are a terrestrial biome found in temperate regions of the world with warm summers and cool winters and adequate rainfall to sustain a forest. ... The taiga is found throughout the high northern latitudes, just below the tundra, and just above the steppes. ... Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands are a grassland biome located in semi-arid to semi-humid climate regions of subtropical and tropical latitudes. ... Temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands is a group of biomes in which the climate is temperate to semi-arid. ... Flooded grasslands and savannas are a biome, generally located at subtropical and tropical latitudes, where flooding is very frequent. ... Montane grasslands and shrublands is biome defined by the World Wildlife Fund. ... In physical geography, tundra is an area where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons. ... Bush Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and shrub is a temperate biome, characterized by hot-dry summers and mild and rainy winters. ... Deserts and xeric shrublands is a biome characterized by a dry climate. ... Above and below water view at the edge of the mangal. ... Ecozones are global divisions which have their own characteristic interplay of climatic factors, morphodynamics, soil-forming processes, living conditions for plants and animals, and production potentials for agriculture and forestry. ... The Afrotropic Ecozone is Africa south of the Sahara Desert. ... Antarctica is one of eight terrestrial ecozones. ... The Australasia Ecozone The Australasian ecozone – is an ecological region that is coincident, but not synonymous (by some definitions), with the geographic region of Australasia. ... The Indomalaya Ecozone was previously called the Oriental region. ... The Nearctic is one of the eight terrestrial ecozones dividing the Earths land surface. ... The Neotropic ecozone is a terrestrial ecoregion which includes South America, Central America, and the Caribbean. ... Oceania is the smallest of the worlds terrestrial ecozones, and unique in not including any continental land mass. ... The Palearctic or Palaearctic is one of the eight ecozones dividing the Earth surface (see map). ...

See also

Trees of the world (please add to list in alphabetical order) Trees of The Americas Trees of Canada Trees of North America Trees of The Caribbean Basin Trees of Australasia List of trees of New Zealand Trees of Europe Trees of Britain and Ireland Trees of Denmark Trees of Asia...

External link

  • Worldwide Fund for Nature


  Results from FactBites:
 
A Student Guide to Tropical Forest Conservation (5254 words)
Mangrove forests grow in the swampy, intertidal margin between sea and shore and are often considered part of the rain forest complex.
Tropical forests are home for tribal hunter-gatherers whose way of life has been relatively unchanged for centuries.
Forest nurseries must be established, and planting techniques and cultural practices (spacing and thinning, pruning, fertilization, insect and disease control, and genetic improvement) must be developed.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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