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Encyclopedia > Tropical cyclone naming
Tropical cyclones
Formation and naming
Development - Structure
Naming - Seasonal lists - Full list
Effects

Effects
Watches and warnings - Storm surge
Notable storms - Retired hurricanes
Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 530 pixel Image in higher resolution (3032 × 2008 pixel, file size: 646 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): List of notable... Cyclone Catarina, a rare South Atlantic tropical cyclone viewed from the International Space Station on March 26, 2004 Hurricane and Typhoon redirect here. ... Global Tropical Cyclone Tracks Cyclogenesis is the technical term describing the development or strengthening of a surface low pressure system, or cyclone, in the atmosphere. ... Eye of Category 4 Hurricane Isabel seen from the International Space Station on September 15, 2003 The eye is a region of mostly calm weather found at the center of strong tropical cyclones. ... Due to their long-term persistence, and the need for a unique identifier in issuing forecasts and warnings, tropical cyclones are given names. ... This is a list of named tropical cyclones, giving all official names for tropical cyclones. ... Cyclone Catarina, a rare South Atlantic tropical cyclone viewed from the International Space Station on March 26, 2004 Hurricane and Typhoon redirect here. ... See Severe weather terminology for a comprehensive article on this term and related weather terms. ... ... This is a list of notable tropical cyclones, subdivided by basin and reason for notability. ... Tropical cyclones in the Atlantic or Eastern Pacific basins may have their names retired by the World Meteorological Organization for various reasons, such as damage or fatalities. ...

Climatology and tracking
Basins - RSMCs - TCWCs - Scales

Observation - Rainfall forecasting - Rainfall climatology Traditionally, areas of tropical cyclone formation are divided into seven basins. ... These centres are responsible for the distribution of information, advisories, and warnings regarding the specific program they have a part of, agreed by consensus at the World Meteorological Organization as part of the World Weather Watch. ... These five regional warning centers are part of the World Meteorological Organization tropical cyclone programme, and act to observe, name, and forecast tropical cyclones in their respective sections of the world, supplementing the work of the main Regional Specialized Meteorological Centres. ... NASA QuikSCAT image of Typhoon Nesat (2005) showing the near-surface winds generated by the storm 10 meters above the ocean. ... Surface weather map of the Labor Day Hurricane of 1935 moving up the west coast of Florida Tropical cyclone obervation has been carried out over the past couple of centuries in various ways: the passage of typhoons, hurricanes, as well as other tropical cyclones have been detected by word of... A map of all tropical cyclone tracks, encompassing the period between the years 1985 and 2005. ...

Presently, most tropical cyclones are given a name using one of several lists of tropical cyclone names. Storms reaching tropical storm strength were initially given names to eliminate confusion when there are multiple systems in any individual basin at the same time which assists in warning people of the coming storm.[1] In most cases, a tropical cyclone retains its name throughout its life; however, under special circumstances, tropical cyclones may be renamed while active. These names are taken from lists which vary from region to region and are drafted a few years ahead of time. The lists are decided upon, depending on the regions, either by committees of the World Meteorological Organization (called primarily to discuss many other issues), or by national weather offices involved in the forecasting of the storms. Each year, the names of particularly destructive storms (if there are any) are "retired" and new names are chosen to take their place. Cyclone Catarina, a rare South Atlantic tropical cyclone viewed from the International Space Station on March 26, 2004 Hurricane and Typhoon redirect here. ... Due to their long-term persistence, and the need for a unique identifier in issuing forecasts and warnings, tropical cyclones are given names. ... Due to their long-term persistence, and the need for a unique identifier in issuing forecasts and warnings, tropical cyclones are given names. ... The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 187 Member States and Territories. ...

Contents

Naming schemes

In the North Atlantic and Northeastern Pacific worlds, feminine and masculine names are alternated in alphabetic order during a given season. The gender of the season's first storm also alternates year to year. Six lists of names are prepared in advance, and each list is used once every six years. Five letters — "Q," "U," "X," "Y" and "Z" — are omitted in the North Atlantic; only "Q" and "U" are omitted in the Northeastern Pacific. This allows for 21 names in the North Atlantic and 24 names in Northeastern Pacific.[2] Names of storms may be retired by request of affected countries if they have caused extensive damage. The affected countries then decide on a replacement name of the same gender, and if possible, the same language as the name being retired.[3] If there are more than 21 named storms in an Atlantic season or 24 named storms in an Eastern Pacific season, the rest are named as letters from the Greek alphabet. This was first necessary during the 2005 Atlantic season when the list was exhausted.[4] The World Meteorological Organization determined storm names with Greek letters would not be retired in a meeting in the spring of 2006. In the event a storm reached the magnitude that might otherwise have lead to retirement, the storm would be listed with the retired names with a footnote indicating the Greek letter would still be available for future storms.[5] The Greek alphabet is an alphabet that has been used to write the Greek language since about the 9th century BCE. It was the first alphabet in the narrow sense, that is, a writing system using a separate symbol for each vowel and consonant alike. ... The 2005 Atlantic hurricane season was the most active Atlantic hurricane season in recorded history, shattering previous records on repeated occasions. ... The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 187 Member States and Territories. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...


In the Central North Pacific region, the name lists are maintained by the Central Pacific Hurricane Center in Honolulu, Hawaii. Four lists of Hawaiian names are selected and used in sequential order without regard to year.[2] On September 11, 1992, Hurricane Iniki caused more than USD $3 billion of damage in Hawaii. ... Honolulu redirects here. ... The Hawaiian language is an Austronesian language that takes its name from that of the largest island in the tropical North Pacific archipelago where it developed. ...


In the Northwestern Pacific, name lists are maintained by the WMO Typhoon Committee. Five lists of names are used, with each of the 14 nations on the Typhoon Committee submitting two names to each list.[2] Names are used in the order of the countries' English names, sequentially without regard to year. Since 1981, the numbering system had been the primary system to identify tropical cyclone among Typhoon Committee members and it is still in use. International numbers are assigned by Japan Meteorological Agency on the order that a tropical storm forms while different internal numbers may be assigned by different NMCs. The Typhoon "Songda" in September 2004 was internally called the typhoon number 18 in Japan but typhoon number 19 in China. Internationally, it is recorded as the TY Songda (0418) with "04" taken from the year.[6] Names are retired from the lists upon request. The most common reason is to memorialize the extensive damage caused by the storm. When names are retired, the contributing member should propose new names. A possible way to do so is through local name nomination contests, which were done in Hong Kong[7] and China.[8] Japan Meteorological Agency (気象庁) is a government agency, which is a central place responsible for gathering and reporting weather data and forecasts in Japan. ...


The Australian Bureau of Meteorology maintains three lists of names, one for each of the Western, Northern and Eastern Australian regions. These lists are in alphabetical order and alternate gender, but are used sequentially rather than switched each year. There are also Fiji region and Papua New Guinea region names agreed upon WMO RA V Tropical Cyclone Committee members.[2] The Bureau of Meteorology is an Australian government organisation responsible for providing weather services to Australia and surrounding areas. ...


The RA I Tropical Cyclone Committee for the South-West Indian Ocean creates the lists of names for the Southwestern Indian Ocean. The committee adopted two separate lists of names for the 2006-07 and 2007-08 tropical cyclone seasons at its October 2005 meeting in Gaborone, Botswana. Nominations for the lists were submitted by Mauritius, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa, Swaziland, Zimbabwe, Tanzania, Botswana, Comoros, Lesotho, and Madagascar. If a tropical disturbance reaches "moderate tropical storm" status west of 55 degrees east longitude, then the Sub-regional Tropical Cyclone Advisory Centre in Madagascar assigns the appropriate name to the storm. If a tropical disturbance reaches "moderate tropical storm" status between 55 and 90 degrees east longitude, then the Sub-regional Tropical Cyclone Advisory Centre in Mauritius assigns the appropriate name to the storm.[9]


History of tropical cyclone naming

For several hundred years after Europeans arrived in the West Indies, hurricanes there were named after the saint's day on which the storm struck. If a second storm struck on the same saint's day later, it would be referred to as segundo (Spanish for "the second"), as with Hurricane San Felipe Segundo. The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organising a liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with a saint, and referring to the day as the saints day of that saint. ... Lowest pressure 929 mbar (hPa; 27. ...


The practice of giving storms people's names was introduced by Clement Lindley Wragge, an Anglo-Australian meteorologist at the end of the 19th century. He used female names, the names of politicians who had offended him, and names from history and mythology.[10][11] During World War II, tropical cyclones were given feminine names, mainly for the convenience of forecasters and in a somewhat ad hoc manner. In addition, George R. Stewart's 1941 novel Storm helped to popularize the concept of giving names to tropical cyclones.[12] Portrait of Clement Lindley Wragge. ... Meteorology is the scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Ad hoc is a Latin phrase which means for this [purpose]. It generally signifies a solution that has been tailored to a specific purpose, such as a tailor-made suit, a handcrafted network protocol, and specific-purpose equation and things like that. ... George R. Stewarts books about U.S. highways were based on his cross-country drives in 1924, 1949 and 1950. ... The novel Storm was written by George Rippey Stewart in 1941. ...


From 1950 through 1952, names from the Joint Army/Navy Phonetic Alphabet were used for storms in the North Atlantic.[13] The modern naming convention was in response to the need for unambiguous radio communications with ships and aircraft. As transportation traffic increased and meteorological observations improved in number and quality, several typhoons, hurricanes, or cyclones might have to be tracked at any given time. To help in their identification, the practice of systematically naming tropical storms and hurricanes was initiated in 1953 by the United States National Hurricane Center. Naming is now maintained by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Joint Army/Navy Phonetic Alphabet was developed in 1941 and was used by all branches of the United States military until the promulgation of the NATO phonetic alphabet in 1956, which replaced it. ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... The US National Hurricane Center is the division of National Weather Services Tropical Prediction Center responsible for tracking and predicting the likely behavior of tropical depressions, tropical storms and hurricanes. ... The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 187 Member States and Territories. ...


In keeping with the common English language practice of referring to named inanimate objects such as boats, trains, etc., using the female pronoun "she," names used were exclusively feminine.[11] The first storm of the year was assigned a name beginning with the letter "A," the second with the letter "B," etc. Because tropical storms and hurricanes are often destructive, some considered this practice sexist. The WMO responded to these concerns in 1979 with the introduction of masculine names to the nomenclature. It was also in 1979 that the practice of preparing a list of names before the season began. The names are usually of English, French, or Spanish origin in the Atlantic basin, because these are the three predominant languages of the region that the storms typically affect. In the southern hemisphere, male names were given to cyclones starting in 1975.[11] The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... It has been suggested that Sex discrimination be merged into this article or section. ... For the song by The Smashing Pumpkins, see 1979 (song). ...


Renaming of tropical cyclones

In most cases, a tropical cyclone retains its name throughout its life. However, a tropical cyclone may be renamed in several occasions.

  1. A tropical storm enters the southwestern Indian Ocean from the east
    In the southwestern Indian Ocean, Météo-France in Réunion names a tropical storm once it crosses 90°E from the east, even though it has been named. In this case it will be given a hyphenated name by RSMC La Réunion for a period of about 24 hours.[14] Examples include Cyclone Adeline-Juliet in early 2005 and Intense Tropical Cyclone Bertie-Alvin in late 2005.
  2. A tropical storm crosses from the Atlantic into the Pacific, or vice versa
    It was the policy of National Hurricane Center (NHC) to rename a tropical storm which crossed from Atlantic into Pacific, or vice versa. Examples include Hurricane Cesar-Douglas in 1996, Hurricane Joan-Miriam in 1988,[15] and Hurricane Cosme-Allison in 1989.[16] Should a tropical cyclone during its passage over Mexico or Central America maintain its area of low pressure without dissipation into the adjacent tropical cyclone basin, it retains its name. However, a new name is given if the original surface circulation dissipates.[17] Up to now, there has been no tropical cyclone retaining its name during the passage from the Northeast Pacific to the Atlantic basin, or vice versa, since the policy change in 2001.
  3. Uncertainties of the continuation
    When the remnants of a tropical cyclone redevelop, the redeveloping system will be treated as a new tropical cyclone if there are uncertainties of the continuation, even though the original system may contribute to the forming of the new system. One example is Tropical Depression 10-Tropical Depression 12 (which became Hurricane Katrina) from 2005.[18]
  4. Human errors
    Sometimes, there may be human faults leading to the renaming of a tropical cyclone. This is especially true if the system is poorly organized or if it passes from the area of responsibility of one forecaster to another. Examples include Tropical Storm Ken-Lola in 1989[19] and Tropical Storm Upana-Chanchu in 2000.[20]

Météo-France is a French public establishment, tasked with the forecasting and study of weather in France. ... The 2004-05 Southern Hemisphere tropical cyclone season ran from July 1, 2004 to June 30, 2005, reaching its peak mid-February to early March. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... National Weather Service Logo The U.S. National Hurricane Center is the division of National Weather Services Tropical Prediction Center responsible for tracking and predicting the likely behavior of tropical depressions, tropical storms and hurricanes. ... Hurricane Cesar was the third named storm of the 1996 Atlantic hurricane season. ... ... This article is about the tropical storm of 1989. ... 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The 2005 Atlantic hurricane season officially began June 1, 2005 and officially ended on November 30, 2005 although effectively the season persisted into January of 2006 due to continued storm activity. ... Lowest pressure 902 mbar (hPa; 26. ... The 1989 Pacific typhoon season has no official bounds; it ran year-round in 1989, but most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between June and December. ... The 1989 Pacific typhoon season has no official bounds; it ran year-round in 1989, but most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between June and December. ... The 2000 Pacific hurricane season was an ongoing event in tropical cyclone meteorology. ...

See also

Due to their long-term persistence, and the need for a unique identifier in issuing forecasts and warnings, tropical cyclones are given names. ... This is a list of named tropical cyclones, giving all official names for tropical cyclones. ... Surface weather map of the Labor Day Hurricane of 1935 moving up the west coast of Florida Tropical cyclone obervation has been carried out over the past couple of centuries in various ways: the passage of typhoons, hurricanes, as well as other tropical cyclones have been detected by word of...

References

  1. ^ National Hurricane Center. Worldwide Tropical Cyclone Names. Retrieved on 2006-12-28.
  2. ^ a b c d Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, Hurricane Research Division. Frequently Asked Questions: What are the upcoming tropical cyclone names?. NOAA. Retrieved on 2006-12-11.
  3. ^ Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, Hurricane Research Division. Frequently Asked Questions: What names have been retired in the Atlantic and East Pacific basin?. NOAA. Retrieved on 2006-12-14.
  4. ^ Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, Hurricane Research Division. Frequently Asked Questions: What happens if they run out of names on the list?. NOAA. Retrieved on 2006-12-14.
  5. ^ Tropical Cyclone Programme (April 4, 2006). RA IV Hurricane Committee Twenty-eighth Session report. World Meterological Organization. Retrieved on 2007-02-23.
  6. ^ Tropical Cyclone Programme (2005). Typhoon Committee Operational Manual Meteorological Component p. 12. World Meterological Organization. Retrieved on 2007-02-24. “Each tropical cyclone should be identified by ... the 4-digit number in brackets, whose number will consist of a year identification and a serial number identification (in two digits each)”
  7. ^ Hong Kong Observatory (November 24, 2005). Change of Tropical Cyclone Names: "Dolphin" and "Lionrock" to replace "Yanyan" and "Tingting". Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Retrieved on 2006-12-01.
  8. ^ China Meteorological Administration (March 24, 2006). Press Conference ---- "Naming the Typhoon", CMA in 2006 WMD. Government of the People's Republic of China. Retrieved on 2006-12-13.
  9. ^ Tropical Cyclone Programme (2006). Tropical Cyclone Operational Plan for the South-West Indian Ocean. World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved on 2006-09-08.
  10. ^ Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, Hurricane Research Division. Frequently Asked Questions: Why are tropical cyclones named?. NOAA. Retrieved on 2006-07-25.
  11. ^ a b c Bureau of Meteorology. When did the naming of cyclones begin?. Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved on 2006-03-31.
  12. ^ Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, Hurricane Research Division. Frequently Asked Questions: What fictional books, plays, and movies have been written involving tropical cyclones?. NOAA. Retrieved on 2006-07-25.
  13. ^ Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, Hurricane Research Division. Frequently Asked Questions: When is hurricane season?. NOAA. Retrieved on 2006-07-25.
  14. ^ Mauritius Meteorological Services. Classifications of Tropical Cyclones in the South-West Indian Ocean. Republic of Mauritius. Retrieved on 2006-12-21.
  15. ^ Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, Hurricane Research Division. Frequently Asked Questions: What tropical storms and hurricanes have moved from the Atlantic to the Northeast Pacific or vice versa?. NOAA. Retrieved on 2006-07-25.
  16. ^ Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, Hurricane Research Division. Frequently Asked Questions: What happens to the name of the tropical cyclone if it moves from the Atlantic regions to the Northeast Pacific, or vice versa?. NOAA. Retrieved on 2006-11-12.
  17. ^ Franklin, James (October 5, 2003). Tropical Storm Larry Discussion No. 16, 11:00 a.m. EDT. National Hurricane Center. Retrieved on 2006-03-31.
  18. ^
  19. ^ Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Tropical Storm Ken-Lola (13W-14W) (PDF). 1989 Annual Tropical Cyclone Report. Retrieved on 2006-03-30.
  20. ^ Padgett, Gary (October 4, 2000). Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary for July 2000. Retrieved on 2000-03-30.
For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 28 is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 3 days remaining. ... The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) is a laboratory in National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrations Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR). ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 11 is the 345th day (346th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) is a laboratory in National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrations Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR). ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 14 is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) is a laboratory in National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrations Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR). ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 14 is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... April 4 is the 94th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (95th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 187 Member States and Territories. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 187 Member States and Territories. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... February 24 is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... November 24 is the 328th day (329th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the Peoples Republic of China (Chinese: 中華人民共和國香港特別行政區政府; see pronunciation; conventional short name Hong Kong Government, 香港政府), led by the Chief Executive is responsible for the administration of Hong Kong. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 1 is the 335th (in leap years the 336th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... March 24 is the 83rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (84th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... State power within the government of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) is divided among three bodies: the Communist Party of China, the state, and the Peoples Liberation Army, (PLA). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 13 is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 187 Member States and Territories. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 8 is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years). ... The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) is a laboratory in National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrations Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR). ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 25 is the 206th day (207th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 159 days remaining. ... The Bureau of Meteorology is an Australian government organisation responsible for providing weather services to Australia and surrounding areas. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (91st in leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) is a laboratory in National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrations Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR). ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 25 is the 206th day (207th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 159 days remaining. ... The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) is a laboratory in National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrations Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR). ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 25 is the 206th day (207th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 159 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 21 is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) is a laboratory in National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrations Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR). ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 25 is the 206th day (207th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 159 days remaining. ... The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) is a laboratory in National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrations Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR). ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 12 is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 49 days remaining. ... James Franklin (middle), with Scott Gudes (left) and retired Air Force General Jack Kelly, director of NWS. James L. Franklin, Ph. ... October 5 is the 278th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (279th in leap years). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... National Weather Service Logo The U.S. National Hurricane Center is the division of National Weather Services Tropical Prediction Center responsible for tracking and predicting the likely behavior of tropical depressions, tropical storms and hurricanes. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (91st in leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) is a joint United States Navy–United States Air Force task force located at Naval Pacific Meteorology and Oceanography Center in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... March 30 is the 89th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (90th in leap years). ... October 4 is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 30 is the 89th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (90th in leap years). ...

 
 

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