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Encyclopedia > Tropical cyclone
Tropical cyclones
Formation and naming
Development - Structure
Naming - Seasonal lists - Full list
Effects

Effects
Watches and warnings
Storm surge - Notable storms
Retired hurricanes (Atlantic - Pacific)
Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x662, 320 KB) http://eol. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x662, 320 KB) http://eol. ... Cyclone Catarina was an extremely rare South Atlantic tropical cyclone. ... A South Atlantic tropical cyclone is an unusual weather event which occurs in the southern Atlantic Ocean, south of the equator. ... “ISS” redirects here. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 530 pixel Image in higher resolution (3032 × 2008 pixel, file size: 646 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): List of notable... Global Tropical Cyclone Tracks Cyclogenesis is the technical term describing the development or strengthening of a surface low pressure system, or cyclone, in the atmosphere. ... The eye is a region of mostly calm weather found at the center of strong tropical cyclones. ... Presently, most tropical cyclones are given a name using one of several lists of tropical cyclone names. ... Due to their long-term persistence, and the need for a unique identifier in issuing forecasts and warnings, tropical cyclones and subtropical cyclones are given names. ... This is a list of named tropical cyclones, giving all official names for tropical cyclones. ... Cyclone Catarina, a rare South Atlantic tropical cyclone viewed from the International Space Station on March 26, 2004 Hurricane and Typhoon redirect here. ... See Severe weather terminology for a comprehensive article on this term and related weather terms. ... ... This is a list of notable tropical cyclones, subdivided by basin and reason for notability. ... Tropical cyclone names may be retired (removed from the name list) in several tropical cyclone basins around the world by the World Meteorological Organization. ... This is a list of all Atlantic hurricanes that have had their names retired. ... Retired Pacific hurricanes This is a list of all Pacific hurricanes that have had their names retired. ...

Climatology and tracking
Basins - RSMCs - TCWCs - Scales
Observation - Rainfall forecasting - Rainfall climatology
Part of the Nature series: Weather

A tropical cyclone is a meteorological term for a storm system characterized by a low pressure system center and thunderstorms that produces strong wind and flooding rain. A tropical cyclone feeds on the heat released when moist air rises and the water vapor it contains condenses. They are fueled by a different heat mechanism than other cyclonic windstorms such as nor'easters, European windstorms, and polar lows, leading to their classification as "warm core" storm systems. Traditionally, areas of tropical cyclone formation are divided into seven basins. ... These centres are responsible for the distribution of information, advisories, and warnings regarding the specific program they have a part of, agreed by consensus at the World Meteorological Organization as part of the World Weather Watch. ... These five regional warning centers are part of the World Meteorological Organization tropical cyclone programme, and act to observe, name, and forecast tropical cyclones in their respective sections of the world, supplementing the work of the main Regional Specialized Meteorological Centres. ... NASA QuikSCAT image of Typhoon Nesat (2005) showing the near-surface winds generated by the storm 10 meters above the ocean. ... Surface weather map of the Labor Day Hurricane of 1935 moving up the west coast of Florida Tropical cyclone obervation has been carried out over the past couple of centuries in various ways: the passage of typhoons, hurricanes, as well as other tropical cyclones have been detected by word of... While flooding is common to tropical cyclones near a landmass, there are a few factors which lead to excessive rainfall from tropical cyclones. ... A map of all tropical cyclone tracks, encompassing the period between the years 1985 and 2005. ... “Natural” redirects here. ... For the geological process, see Weathering or Erosion. ... // Originally derived from the word huracán from the Caribbean Taino Amerindian language (and first adopted into Spanish), hurricane is commonly used to designate a severe form of tropical cyclone but may also refer to: Hurricane, the name assigned to the highest wind-speed category on the Saffir-Simpson Scale... Typhoon can refer to: Tropical cyclones in the Pacific Ocean Typhon, a monster in Greek mythology Typhoon, a class of Soviet submarines the Eurofighter Typhoon, a multirole combat aircraft. ... A shelf cloud associated with a heavy or severe thunderstorm over Enschede, Netherlands A storm is any disturbed state of an astronomical bodys atmosphere, especially affecting its surface, and strongly implying severe weather. ... A low, or a low pressure area, is a region of rising atmospheric air. ... A rolling thundercloud over Enschede, The Netherlands. ... For other uses, see Condensation (disambiguation). ... Satellite image of the intense noreaster responsible for the North American blizzard of 2006. ... A European windstorm is a severe cyclonic storm that tracks across the North Atlantic towards northwestern Europe in the winter months. ... Polar low over the Barents Sea on February 27, 1987 A polar low is a small-scale, short-lived atmospheric low pressure system (depression) that is found over the ocean areas poleward of the main polar front in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. ...


The adjective "tropical" refers to both the geographic origin of these systems, which form almost exclusively in tropical regions of the globe, and their formation in Maritime Tropical air masses. The noun "cyclone" refers to such storms' cyclonic nature, with counterclockwise rotation in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise rotation in the Southern Hemisphere. Depending on their location and strength, tropical cyclones are referred to by various other names, such as hurricane, typhoon, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, and tropical depression. A noontime scene from the Philippines on a day when the Sun is almost directly overhead. ... In meteorology, an air mass is a large volume of air having fairly uniform characteristics of temperature, atmospheric pressure, and water vapor content. ... This article is about the meteorological phenomenon. ... A clockwise motion is one that proceeds like the clocks hands: from the top to the right, then down and then to the left, and back to the top. ... Northern hemisphere highlighted in yellow. ... southern hemisphere highlighted in yellow (Antarctica not depicted). ...


While tropical cyclones can produce extremely powerful winds and torrential rain, they are also able to produce high waves and damaging storm surge. They develop over large bodies of warm water, and lose their strength if they move over land. This is the reason coastal regions can receive significant damage from a tropical cyclone, while inland regions are relatively safe from receiving strong winds. Heavy rains, however, can produce significant flooding inland, and storm surges can produce extensive coastal flooding up to 25 mi (40 km) from the coastline. Although their effects on human populations can be devastating, tropical cyclones can also relieve drought conditions. They also carry heat and energy away from the tropics and transport it towards temperate latitudes, which makes them an important part of the global atmospheric circulation mechanism. As a result, tropical cyclones help to maintain equilibrium in the Earth's troposphere, and to maintain a relatively stable and warm temperature worldwide. Rain is a type of precipitation, a product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that is deposited on the earths surface. ... ... Flooding in Amphoe Sena, Ayutthaya Province, Thailand. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... ‹ The template below (Unit of length) is being considered for deletion. ... Fields outside Benambra, Victoria suffering from drought conditions A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. ... For the usage in virology, see temperate (virology). ... Latitude, denoted φ, gives the location of a place on Earth north or south of the Equator. ... Atmospheric circulation is the large-scale movement of air, and the means (together with the ocean circulation, which is smaller [1]) by which heat is distributed on the surface of the Earth. ... Atmosphere diagram showing the mesosphere and other layers. ...


Many tropical cyclones develop when the atmospheric conditions around a weak disturbance in the atmosphere are favorable. Others form when other types of cyclones acquire tropical characteristics. Tropical systems are then moved by steering winds in the troposphere; if the conditions remain favorable, the tropical disturbance intensifies, and can even develop an eye. On the other end of the spectrum, if the conditions around the system deteriorate or the tropical cyclone makes landfall, the system weakens and eventually dissipates. Global Tropical Cyclone Tracks Cyclogenesis is the technical term describing the development or strengthening of a surface low pressure system, or cyclone, in the atmosphere. ... Atmosphere diagram showing the mesosphere and other layers. ... Eye of Category 4 Hurricane Isabel seen from the International Space Station on September 15, 2003 The eye is a region of mostly calm weather found at the center of strong tropical cyclones. ...

Contents

Physical structure

See also: Eye (cyclone)
Structure of a tropical cyclone
Structure of a tropical cyclone

All tropical cyclones are areas of low atmospheric pressure near the Earth's surface. The pressures recorded at the centers of tropical cyclones are among the lowest that occur on Earth's surface at sea level.[1] Tropical cyclones are characterized and driven by the release of large amounts of latent heat of condensation, which occurs when moist air is carried upwards and its water vapor condenses. This heat is distributed vertically around the center of the storm. Thus, at any given altitude (except close to the surface, where water temperature dictates air temperature) the environment inside the cyclone is warmer than its outer surroundings.[2] Eye of Category 4 Hurricane Isabel seen from the International Space Station on September 15, 2003 The eye is a region of mostly calm weather found at the center of strong tropical cyclones. ... Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Tropical cyclone ... Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Tropical cyclone ... A large low-pressure system swirls off the southwestern coast of Iceland, illustrating the maxim that nature abhors a vacuum. ... Diurnal (daily) rhythm of air pressure in northern Germany (black curve is air pressure) Atmospheric pressure is the pressure at any point in the Earths atmosphere. ... For considerations of sea level change, in particular rise associated with possible global warming, see sea level rise. ... The heat of vaporization is a physical property of substances. ...


Banding

Rainbands are bands of showers and thunderstorms that spiral cyclonically toward the storm center. High wind gusts and heavy downpours often occur in individual rainbands, with relatively calm weather between bands. Tornadoes often form in the rainbands of landfalling tropical cyclones.[3] Intense annular tropical cyclones are distinctive for their lack of rainbands; instead, they possess a thick circular area of disturbed weather around their low pressure center.[4] While all surface low pressure areas require divergence aloft to continue deepening, the divergence over tropical cyclones is in all directions away from the center. The upper levels of a tropical cyclone feature winds directed away from the center of the storm with an anticyclonic rotation, due to the Coriolis effect. Winds at the surface are strongly cyclonic, weaken with height, and eventually reverse themselves. Tropical cyclones owe this unique characteristic to requiring a relative lack of vertical wind shear to maintain the warm core at the center of the storm.[5][6] A squall is a sudden, sharp increase in wind speed which usually is associated with active weather, such as rain showers, thunderstorms, or heavy snow. ... Hurricane Isabel of 2003 showing annular hurricane structure. ... In meteorology, an anticyclone is a weather phenomenon associated with atmospheric high pressure. ... In the inertial frame of reference (upper part of the picture), the black object moves in a straight line. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Cirrus uncinus ice crystal plumes showing high level wind shear, with changes in wind speed and direction. ...


Eye and inner core

A strong tropical cyclone will harbor an area of sinking air at the center of circulation. If this area is strong enough, it can develop into an eye. Weather in the eye is normally calm and free of clouds, though the sea may be extremely violent.[3] The eye is normally circular in shape, and may range in size from 3 to 370 km (2–230 miles) in diameter.[7][8] Intense, mature hurricanes can sometimes exhibit an inward curving of the eyewall's top, making it resemble a football stadium; this phenomenon is thus sometimes referred to as the stadium effect.[9] Eye of Category 4 Hurricane Isabel seen from the International Space Station on September 15, 2003 The eye is a region of mostly calm weather found at the center of strong tropical cyclones. ... Eye of Category 4 Hurricane Isabel seen from the International Space Station on September 15, 2003 The eye is a region of mostly calm weather found at the center of strong tropical cyclones. ...


There are other features that either surround the eye, or cover it. The central dense overcast is the concentrated area of strong thunderstorm activity near the center of a tropical cyclone;[10] in weaker tropical cyclones, the CDO may cover the center completely.[11] The eyewall is a circle of strong thunderstorms that surrounds the eye; here is where the greatest wind speeds are found, where clouds reach the highest, and precipitation is the heaviest. The heaviest wind damage occurs where a hurricane's eyewall passes over land.[3] Associated with eyewalls are eyewall replacement cycles, which occur naturally in intense tropical cyclones. When cyclones reach peak intensity they usually—but not always—have an eyewall and radius of maximum winds that contract to a very small size, around 10–25 km (5 to 15 miles). At this point, some of the outer rainbands may organize into an outer ring of thunderstorms that slowly moves inward and robs the inner eyewall of its needed moisture and angular momentum. During this phase, the tropical cyclone weakens (i.e., the maximum winds die off somewhat and the central pressure goes up), but eventually the outer eyewall replaces the inner one completely. The storm can be of the same intensity as it was previously or, in some cases, it can be even stronger after the eyewall replacement cycle. Even if the cyclone is weaker at the end of the cycle, the storm may strengthen again as it builds a new outer ring for the next eyewall replacement.[12] Eye of Category 4 Hurricane Isabel seen from the International Space Station on September 15, 2003 “Eye of the storm” redirects here. ... Eye of Typhoon Odessa, Pacific Ocean, August 1985 The eyewall is the region of a tropical cyclone with the strongest winds, the tallest clouds, and the heaviest rain. ... Eye of Category 4 Hurricane Isabel seen from the International Space Station on September 15, 2003 The eye is a region of mostly calm weather found at the center of strong tropical cyclones. ... The radius of maximum wind, or RMW, of a tropical cyclone is defined to be the distance between the center of the cyclone and its band of strongest winds. ... This gyroscope remains upright while spinning due to its angular momentum. ...


Size

The size of a tropical cyclone is determined by measuring the distance from its center of circulation to its outermost closed isobar. If the radius is less than two degrees of latitude (120 nm, 222 km), then the cyclone is "very small" or a "midget." Radii of 2–3 degrees (120–180 nm, 222–333 km) are considered "small." Radii between 3 and 6 latitude degrees (180–360 nm, 333–666 km) are considered "average sized." Tropical cyclones are considered "large" when the closed isobar radius is 6–8 degrees of latitude (360–480 nm, 666–888 km), while "very large" tropical cyclones have a radius of greater than 8 degrees (480 nm, 888 km).[13] Other methods of determining a tropical cyclone's size include measuring the radius of gale force winds and measuring the radius of the central dense overcast. The word isobar derives from the two ancient Greek words, ισος (isos), meaning equal, and βαρος (baros), meaning weight. In meteorology, thermodynamics, and similar science (and engineering), an isobar is a contour line of equal or constant pressure on a graph, plot, or map. ... Latitude,usually denoted symbolically by the Greek letter phi, , gives the location of a place on Earth north or south of the equator. ...


Mechanics

Tropical cyclones form when the energy released by the condensation of moisture in rising air causes a positive feedback loop over warm ocean waters.
Tropical cyclones form when the energy released by the condensation of moisture in rising air causes a positive feedback loop over warm ocean waters.

A tropical cyclone's primary energy source is the release of the heat of condensation from water vapor condensing at high altitudes, with solar heating being the initial source for evaporation. Therefore, a tropical cyclone can be visualized as a giant vertical heat engine supported by mechanics driven by physical forces such as the rotation and gravity of the Earth.[14] In another way, tropical cyclones could be viewed as a special type of mesoscale convective complex, which continues to develop over a vast source of relative warmth and moisture. Condensation leads to higher wind speeds, as a tiny fraction of the released energy is converted into mechanical energy;[15] the faster winds and lower pressure associated with them in turn cause increased surface evaporation and thus even more condensation. Much of the released energy drives updrafts that increase the height of the storm clouds, speeding up condensation.[16] This provides the system with enough energy to be self-sufficient and causes a positive feedback loop that continues as long as the tropical cyclone can draw energy from its thermal reservoir, the warm water at the surface of the ocean. Factors such as a continued lack of equilibrium in air mass distribution would also give supporting energy to the cyclone. The rotation of the Earth causes the system to spin, an effect known as the Coriolis effect, giving it a cyclonic characteristic and affecting the trajectory of the storm. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Positive feedback is a type of feedback. ... The heat of vaporization is a physical property of substances. ... For other uses, see Condensation (disambiguation). ... Solar heating is a style of building construction which uses the energy of sunshine to heat a structure. ... A heat engine is a physical or theoretical device that converts thermal energy to mechanical output. ... A sphere rotating around its axis. ... Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... A Mesoscale Convective Complex (MCC) is a large Mesoscale Convective System, generally round or oval-shaped, which normally reaches peak intensity at night. ... It has been suggested that Thermal be merged into this article or section. ... Positive feedback is a type of feedback. ... CPU heat sink with fan attached A heat sink (or heatsink) is an environment or object that absorbs and dissipates heat from another object using thermal contact (either direct or radiant). ... In the inertial frame of reference (upper part of the picture), the black object moves in a straight line. ...


What primarily distinguishes tropical cyclones from other meteorological phenomena is deep convection as a driving force.[17] Because convection is strongest in a tropical climate, it defines the initial domain of the tropical cyclone. By contrast, mid-latitude cyclones draw their energy mostly from pre-existing horizontal temperature gradients in the atmosphere.[17] To continue to drive its heat engine, a tropical cyclone must remain over warm water, which provides the needed atmospheric moisture to maintain the positive feedback loop running. As a result, when a tropical cyclone passes over land, it is cut off from its heat source and its strength diminishes rapidly.[18] Convection in the most general terms refers to the internal movement of currents within fluids (i. ... Naples beach in Florida lined with coconut trees is an example of a tropical climate. ... A mid-latitude cyclone or extratropical cyclone is a weather phenomenon associated with atmospheric low pressure that takes place in the temperate region between the tropical and polar regions. ... For other uses, see Gradient (disambiguation). ...

Chart displaying the drop in surface temperature in the Gulf of Mexico as Hurricanes Katrina and Rita passed over

The passage of a tropical cyclone over the ocean can cause the upper layers of the ocean to cool substantially, which can influence subsequent cyclone development. Cooling is primarily caused by upwelling of cold water from deeper in the ocean due to the wind stresses the storm itself induces upon the sea surface. Additional cooling may come in the form of cold water from falling raindrops. Cloud cover may also play a role in cooling the ocean, by shielding the ocean surface from direct sunlight before and slightly after the storm passage. All these effects can combine to produce a dramatic drop in sea surface temperature over a large area in just a few days.[19] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1215x931, 77 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Tropical cyclone ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1215x931, 77 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Tropical cyclone ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ... This article is about the Atlantic hurricane of 2005. ... Lowest pressure 895 mbar (hPa)[1] Damages $10 billion (2005 USD)[1] Fatalities 7 direct, 113 indirect Areas affected Bahamas, Florida, Cuba, Yucatán Peninsula, Louisiana, Texas, Mississippi, Arkansas Part of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane Rita is the fourth-most intense Atlantic hurricane ever recorded and the most...


Scientists at the National Center for Atmospheric Research estimate that a tropical cyclone releases heat energy at the rate of 50 to 200 trillion joules per day.[16] For comparison, this rate of energy release is equivalent to 200 times the world-wide electrical generating capacity,[16] or to exploding a 10-megaton nuclear bomb every 20 minutes.[20] NCAR, Boulder, Colorado National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) is a U.S.-based institute whose stated mission is: NCARs flagship Mesa Laboratory is located in the outskirts of Boulder, Colorado, in a dramatic complex of buildings designed by architect I.M. Pei. ... One million million (1,000,000,000,000) is the natural number following 999,999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,000,001. ... The joule (IPA: or ) (symbol: J) is the SI unit of energy. ... A megaton or megatonne is a unit of mass equal to 1,000,000 metric tons, i. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 lifted nuclear fallout some 18 km (60,000 feet) above the epicenter. ...


While the most obvious motion of clouds is toward the center, tropical cyclones also develop an upper-level (high-altitude) outward flow of clouds. These originate from air that has released its moisture and is expelled at high altitude through the "chimney" of the storm engine.[14] This outflow produces high, thin cirrus clouds that spiral away from the center. These high cirrus clouds may be the first signs of an approaching tropical cyclone when seen from dry land.[21] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Major basins and related warning centers

Basins and WMO Monitoring Institutions[22]
Basin Responsible RSMCs and TCWCs
Northern Atlantic National Hurricane Center
Northeastern Pacific National Hurricane Center
North Central Pacific Central Pacific Hurricane Center
Northwestern Pacific Japan Meteorological Agency
Northern Indian Ocean Indian Meteorological Department
Southwestern Indian Ocean Météo-France
South and
Southwestern Pacific
Fiji Meteorological Service
Meteorological Service of New Zealand
Papua New Guinea National Weather Service
Bureau of Meteorology (Australia)
Southeastern Indian Ocean Bureau of Meteorology (Australia)
Meteorological and Geophysical Agency (Indonesia)
: Indicates a Tropical Cyclone Warning Centre
Map of the cumulative tracks of all tropical cyclones during the 1985–2005 time period. The Pacific Ocean west of the International Date Line sees more tropical cyclones than any other basin, while there is almost no activity in the Atlantic Ocean south of the Equator.
Map of the cumulative tracks of all tropical cyclones during the 1985–2005 time period. The Pacific Ocean west of the International Date Line sees more tropical cyclones than any other basin, while there is almost no activity in the Atlantic Ocean south of the Equator.

There are six Regional Specialised Meteorological Centres (RSMCs) worldwide. These organizations are designated by the World Meteorological Organization and are responsible for tracking and issuing bulletins, warnings, and advisories about tropical cyclones in their designated areas of responsibility. Additionally, there are six Tropical Cyclone Warning Centres (TCWCs) that provide information to smaller regions.[23] The RSMCs and TCWCs, however, are not the only organizations that provide information about tropical cyclones to the public. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) issues informal advisories in all basins except the Northern Atlantic and Northeastern Pacific. The Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) issues informal advisories and names for tropical cyclones that approach the Philippines in the Northwestern Pacific. The Canadian Hurricane Centre (CHC) issues advisories on hurricanes and their remnants when they affect Canada. Traditionally, areas of tropical cyclone formation are divided into seven basins. ... These centres are responsible for the distribution of information, advisories, and warnings regarding the specific program they have a part of, agreed by consensus at the World Meteorological Organization as part of the World Weather Watch. ... These five regional warning centers are part of the World Meteorological Organization tropical cyclone programme, and act to observe, name, and forecast tropical cyclones in their respective sections of the world, supplementing the work of the main Regional Specialized Meteorological Centres. ... The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 187 Member States and Territories. ... National Weather Service Logo The U.S. National Hurricane Center is the division of National Weather Services Tropical Prediction Center responsible for tracking and predicting the likely behavior of tropical depressions, tropical storms and hurricanes. ... National Weather Service Logo The U.S. National Hurricane Center is the division of National Weather Services Tropical Prediction Center responsible for tracking and predicting the likely behavior of tropical depressions, tropical storms and hurricanes. ... On September 11, 1992, Hurricane Iniki caused more than USD $3 billion of damage in Hawaii. ... Japan Meteorological Agency (気象庁) is a government agency, which is a central place responsible for gathering and reporting weather data and forecasts in Japan. ... IMD logo The India Meteorological Department is a government of India organisation that is responsible for meteorological observations, weather forecasts, detecting earthquakes etc. ... Météo-France is a French public establishment, tasked with the forecasting and study of weather in France. ... Location of Fiji in the Pacific Ocean The Fiji Meteorological Service is a Department of the government of Fiji responsible for providing weather forecasting and is based in Nadi. ... View of the MetService building in the Wellington Botanic Garden, from Tinakori Hill. ... The Bureau of Meteorology is an Australian government organisation responsible for providing weather services to Australia and surrounding areas. ... The Bureau of Meteorology is an Australian government organisation responsible for providing weather services to Australia and surrounding areas. ... Seal of Badan Meteorologi dan Geofisika Badan Meteorologi dan Geofisika (Meteorological and Geophysical Agency) or BMG is the Indonesian non-departmental government agency for meteorology, climatology, and geophysics. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (8000x4000, 5864 KB) Summary This map shows the tracks of all Tropical cyclones which formed worldwide from 1985 to 2005. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (8000x4000, 5864 KB) Summary This map shows the tracks of all Tropical cyclones which formed worldwide from 1985 to 2005. ... The International Date Line around 180° This article is about the line dividing time zones; see Dateline (disambiguation) for other meanings, including the television program. ... World map showing the equator in red In tourist areas, the equator is often marked on the sides of roads The equator marked as it crosses Ilhéu das Rolas, in São Tomé and Príncipe. ... These centres are responsible for the distribution of information, advisories, and warnings regarding the specific program they have a part of, agreed by consensus at the World Meteorological Organization as part of the World Weather Watch. ... The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 187 Member States and Territories. ... These five regional warning centers are part of the World Meteorological Organization tropical cyclone programme, and act to observe, name, and forecast tropical cyclones in their respective sections of the world, supplementing the work of the main Regional Specialized Meteorological Centres. ... The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) is a joint United States Navy–United States Air Force task force located at Naval Maritime Forecast Center in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. ... The Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration, PAGASA, is a Philippine national institution dedicated to provide flood and typhoon warnings, public weather forecasts and advisories, meteorological, astronomical, climatological, and other specialized information and services primarily for the protection of life and property and in support of economic, productivity and... The Canadian Hurricane Centre operated by Environment Canada exists to advise Canadians on the threat of hurricanes and tropical storms. ...


On March 26, 2004, Cyclone Catarina became the first recorded South Atlantic cyclone and subsequently struck southern Brazil as the equivalence of a Category 2 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. As the cyclone formed outside of the authority of another warning center, Brazilian meteorologists initially treated the system as an extratropical cyclone, though subsequently classified it as tropical.[24] March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Cyclone Catarina was an extremely rare South Atlantic tropical cyclone. ... A South Atlantic tropical cyclone is an unusual weather event which occurs in the southern Atlantic Ocean, south of the equator. ... The Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale is a scale classifying most Western Hemisphere tropical cyclones that exceed the intensities of tropical depressions and tropical storms, and thereby become hurricanes. ... A fictitious synoptic chart of an extratropical cyclone affecting the UK & Ireland. ...


Formation

Main article: Tropical cyclogenesis

Global Tropical Cyclone Tracks Cyclogenesis is the technical term describing the development or strengthening of a surface low pressure system, or cyclone, in the atmosphere. ...

Times

Worldwide, tropical cyclone activity peaks in late summer, when the difference between temperatures aloft and sea surface temperatures is the greatest. However, each particular basin has its own seasonal patterns. On a worldwide scale, May is the least active month, while September is the most active.[25] This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


In the North Atlantic, a distinct hurricane season occurs from June 1 to November 30, sharply peaking from late August through September.[25] The statistical peak of the North Atlantic hurricane season is September 10. The Northeast Pacific has a broader period of activity, but in a similar time frame to the Atlantic.[26] The Northwest Pacific sees tropical cyclones year-round, with a minimum in February and a peak in early September. In the North Indian basin, storms are most common from April to December, with peaks in May and November.[25] “Atlantic” redirects here. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In the Southern Hemisphere, tropical cyclone activity begins in late October and ends in May. Southern Hemisphere activity peaks in mid-February to early March.[25] southern hemisphere highlighted in yellow (Antarctica not depicted). ...

Season lengths and seasonal averages[25][27]
Basin Season start Season end Tropical Storms
(>34 knots)
Tropical Cyclones
(>63 knots)
Category 3+ TCs
(>95 knots)
Northwest Pacific April January 26.7 16.9 8.5
South Indian October May 20.6 10.3 4.3
Northeast Pacific May November 16.3 9.0 4.1
North Atlantic June November 10.6 5.9 2.0
Australia Southwest Pacific October May 10.6 4.8 1.9
North Indian April December 5.4 2.2 0.4

Factors

Waves in the trade winds in the Atlantic Ocean—areas of converging winds that move along the same track as the prevailing wind—create instabilities in the atmosphere that may lead to the formation of hurricanes.

The formation of tropical cyclones is the topic of extensive ongoing research and is still not fully understood. While six factors appear to be generally necessary, tropical cyclones may occasionally form without meeting all of the following conditions. In most situations, water temperatures of at least 26.5 °C (80 °F) are needed[28] down to a depth of at least 50 m (150 feet); waters of this temperature cause the overlying atmosphere to be unstable enough to sustain convection and thunderstorms.[29] Another factor is rapid cooling with height, which allows the release of the heat of condensation that powers a tropical cyclone.[28] High humidity is needed, especially in the lower-to-mid troposphere; when there is a great deal of moisture in the atmosphere, conditions are more favorable for disturbances to develop.[28] Low amounts of wind shear are needed, as high shear is disruptive to the storm's circulation.[28] Tropical cyclones generally need to form more than 500 km (310 miles) or 5 degrees of latitude away from the equator, allowing the Coriolis effect to deflect winds blowing towards the low pressure center and creating a circulation.[28] Lastly, a formative tropical cyclone needs a pre-existing system of disturbed weather, although without a circulation no cyclonic development will take place.[28] Image File history File links http://earthobservatory. ... Image File history File links http://earthobservatory. ... Annual mean sea surface temperature for the World Ocean. ... The heat of vaporization is a physical property of substances. ... Atmosphere diagram showing the mesosphere and other layers. ... Cirrus uncinus ice crystal plumes showing high level wind shear, with changes in wind speed and direction. ... Latitude,usually denoted symbolically by the Greek letter phi, , gives the location of a place on Earth north or south of the equator. ... World map showing the equator in red In tourist areas, the equator is often marked on the sides of roads The equator marked as it crosses Ilhéu das Rolas, in São Tomé and Príncipe. ... In the inertial frame of reference (upper part of the picture), the black object moves in a straight line. ...


Locations

Most tropical cyclones form in a worldwide band of thunderstorm activity called by several names: the Intertropical Discontinuity (ITD), the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), or the monsoon trough. Another important source of atmospheric instability is found in tropical waves, which cause about 85% of intense tropical cyclones in the Atlantic ocean,[30] and become most of the tropical cyclones in the Eastern Pacific basin.[31][32] The thunderstorms of the Intertropical Convergence Zone form a line across the eastern Pacific Ocean. ... The Glossary of Meteorology defines a monsoon trough simply: A line in a weather map showing the locations of minimum sea level pressure in a monsoon region. ... Tropical waves, also known as easterly waves, are elongated areas of relatively low air pressure, oriented north to south, causing areas of cloudiness and thunderstorms. ...


Tropical cyclones originate on the eastern side of oceans, but move west, intensifying as they move. Most of these systems form between 10 and 30 degrees away of the equator, and 87% form no farther away than 20 degrees of latitude, north or south. Because the Coriolis effect initiates and maintains tropical cyclone rotation, tropical cyclones rarely form or move within about 5 degrees of the equator, where the Coriolis effect is weakest.[33] However, it is possible for tropical cyclones to form within this boundary as Tropical Storm Vamei did in 2001 and Cyclone Agni in 2004. World map showing the equator in red In tourist areas, the equator is often marked on the sides of roads The equator marked as it crosses Ilhéu das Rolas, in São Tomé and Príncipe. ... In the inertial frame of reference (upper part of the picture), the black object moves in a straight line. ... Lowest pressure 1006 hPa (mbar) Fatalities None Damage Unknown Areas affected Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia Part of the 2001 Pacific typhoon season 2001 North Indian cyclone season Tropical Storm Vamei (international designation: 0126, JTWC designation: 32W, sometimes called Typhoon Vamei; formerly had the alternate name Tropical Storm 05B) was the 26th... Cyclone Agni existed closer to the equator than any other tropical cyclone in recorded history, breaking the record of Typhoon Vamei just 3 years before. ...


Movement and track

Steering winds

Although tropical cyclones are large systems generating enormous energy, their movements over the Earth's surface are controlled by large-scale winds—the streams in the Earth's atmosphere. The path of motion is referred to as a tropical cyclone's track and has been analogized by Dr. Neil Frank, former director of the National Hurricane Center, to "leaves carried along by a stream."[34] National Weather Service Logo The U.S. National Hurricane Center is the division of National Weather Services Tropical Prediction Center responsible for tracking and predicting the likely behavior of tropical depressions, tropical storms and hurricanes. ...


Tropical systems, while generally located equatorward of the 20th parallel, are steered primarily westward by the east-to-west winds on the equatorward side of the subtropical ridge—a persistent high pressure area over the world's oceans.[34] In the tropical North Atlantic and Northeast Pacific oceans, trade winds—another name for the westward-moving wind currents—steer tropical waves westward from the African coast and towards the Caribbean Sea, North America, and ultimately into the central Pacific ocean before the waves dampen out.[31] These waves are the precursors to many tropical cyclones within this region.[30] In the Indian Ocean and Western Pacific (both north and south of the equator), tropical cyclogenesis is strongly influenced by the seasonal movement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone and the monsoon trough, rather than by easterly waves.[35] World map showing the equator in red In tourist areas, the equator is often marked on the sides of roads The equator marked as it crosses Ilhéu das Rolas, in São Tomé and Príncipe. ... The subtropical ridge is a large belt of high pressure situated around 30ºN in the Northern Hemisphere and 30ºS in the Southern Hemisphere. ... The trade winds are a pattern of wind found in bands around Earths equatorial region. ... ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... The thunderstorms of the Intertropical Convergence Zone form a line across the eastern Pacific Ocean. ... The Glossary of Meteorology defines a monsoon trough simply: A line in a weather map showing the locations of minimum sea level pressure in a monsoon region. ...


Coriolis effect

Infrared image of Cyclone Monica near peak intensity, showing clockwise rotation due to the Coriolis effect.

The Earth's rotation imparts an acceleration known as the Coriolis effect, Coriolis acceleration, or colloquially, Coriolis force. This acceleration causes cyclonic systems to turn towards the poles in the absence of strong steering currents.[36] The poleward portion of a tropical cyclone contains easterly winds, and the Coriolis effect pulls them slightly more poleward. The westerly winds on the equatorward portion of the cyclone pull slightly towards the equator, but, because the Coriolis effect weakens toward the equator, the net drag on the cyclone is poleward. Thus, tropical cyclones in the Northern Hemisphere usually turn north (before being blown east), and tropical cyclones in the Southern Hemisphere usually turn south (before being blown east) when no other effects counteract the Coriolis effect. Image File history File links Cyclone_Monica. ... Image File history File links Cyclone_Monica. ... Lowest pressure 905 hPa (mbar) Damages Pending assessment Fatalities None recorded Areas affected Far North Queensland, coastal Northern Territory Part of the 2005-06 Southern Hemisphere tropical cyclone season Cyclone Monica, also designated Severe Tropical Cyclone Monica, was a tropical cyclone that affected northern Australia from April 17, 2006 until... The Clockwise direction A clockwise motion is one that proceeds like the clocks hands: from the top to the right, then down and then to the left, and back to the top. ... In the inertial frame of reference (upper part of the picture), the black object moves in a straight line. ... In the inertial frame of reference (upper part of the picture), the black object moves in a straight line. ... Northern hemisphere highlighted in yellow. ... southern hemisphere highlighted in yellow (Antarctica not depicted). ...


The Coriolis effect also initiates cyclonic rotation, but it is not the driving force that brings this rotation to high speeds - that force is the heat of condensation.[16] The heat of vaporization is a physical property of substances. ...


Interaction with the mid-latitude westerlies

Storm track of Typhoon Ioke, showing recurvature off the Japanese coast in 2006
Storm track of Typhoon Ioke, showing recurvature off the Japanese coast in 2006

When a tropical cyclone crosses the subtropical ridge axis, its general track around the high-pressure area is deflected significantly by winds moving towards the general low-pressure area to its north. When the cyclone track becomes strongly poleward with an easterly component, the cyclone has begun recurvature.[37] A typhoon moving through the Pacific Ocean towards Asia, for example, will recurve offshore of Japan to the north, and then to the northeast, if the typhoon encounters winds blowing northeastward toward a low-pressure system passing over China or Siberia. Many tropical cyclones are eventually forced toward the northeast by extratropical cyclones, which move from west to east to the north of the subtropical ridge. An example of a tropical cyclone in recurvature was Typhoon Ioke in 2006, which took a similar trajectory.[38] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x633, 34 KB) Summary Hurricane Ioke (2006) track. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x633, 34 KB) Summary Hurricane Ioke (2006) track. ... Lowest pressure 920 hPa (mbar) Damages Unknown Fatalities 0 Areas affected Johnston Atoll, Wake Island, Minami Torishima, southwestern and south-central Alaska Part of the 2006 Pacific hurricane season and the 2006 Pacific typhoon season Hurricane Ioke (also Typhoon Ioke, international designation 0612, JTWC designation 01C also sometimes called Super... The 2006 Pacific hurricane season was an event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation. ... The subtropical ridge is a large belt of high pressure situated around 30ºN in the Northern Hemisphere and 30ºS in the Southern Hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... “Siberian” redirects here. ... A fictitious synoptic chart of an extratropical cyclone affecting the UK & Ireland. ... Lowest pressure 920 hPa (mbar) Damages Unknown Fatalities 0 Areas affected Johnston Atoll, Wake Island, Minami Torishima, southwestern and south-central Alaska Part of the 2006 Pacific hurricane season and the 2006 Pacific typhoon season Hurricane Ioke (also Typhoon Ioke, international designation 0612, JTWC designation 01C also sometimes called Super...


Landfall

See also: List of notable tropical cyclones and Unusual areas of tropical cyclone formation

Officially, landfall is when a storm's center (the center of its circulation, not its edge) crosses the coastline.[39] Storm conditions may be experienced on the coast and inland hours before landfall; in fact, a tropical cyclone can launch its strongest winds over land, yet not make landfall; if this occurs, then it is said that the storm made a direct hit on the coast.[39] Due to this definition, the landfall area experiences half of a land-bound storm by the time the actual landfall occurs. For emergency preparedness, actions should be timed from when a certain wind speed or intensity of rainfall will reach land, not from when landfall will occur.[39] This is a list of notable tropical cyclones, subdivided by basin and reason for notability. ... Global Tropical Cyclone Tracks Cyclogenesis is the technical term describing the development or strengthening of a surface low pressure system, or cyclone, in the atmosphere. ... Hurricane Charley making landfall on August 13, 2004 at its peak intensity. ...


Interactions between typhoons

When two cyclones approach one another, their centers will begin orbiting cyclonically about a point between the two systems. The two vortices will be attracted to each other, and eventually spiral into the center point and merge. When the two vortices are of unequal size, the larger vortex will tend to dominate the interaction, and the smaller vortex will orbit around it. This phenomenon is called the Fujiwhara effect, after Dr. Sakuhei Fujiwhara. The Fujiwhara effect or Fujiwhara interaction is a type of interaction between two nearby cyclonic vortices. ...


Dissipation

Factors

Tropical Storm Franklin, an example of a strongly sheared tropical cyclone in the Atlantic Basin during 2005
Tropical Storm Franklin, an example of a strongly sheared tropical cyclone in the Atlantic Basin during 2005

A tropical cyclone can cease to have tropical characteristics through several different ways. One such way is if it moves over land, thus depriving it of the warm water it needs to power itself, quickly losing strength. Most strong storms lose their strength very rapidly after landfall and become disorganized areas of low pressure within a day or two, or evolve into extratropical cyclones. While there is a chance a tropical cyclone could regenerate if it managed to get back over open warm water, if it remains over mountains for even a short time, it can rapidly lose its structure. Many storm fatalities occur in mountainous terrain, as the dying storm unleashes torrential rainfall, leading to deadly floods and mudslides, similar to those that happened with Hurricane Mitch in 1998. Additionally, dissipation can occur if a storm remains in the same area of ocean for too long, mixing the upper 30 meters (100 feet) of water. This occurs because the cyclone draws up colder water from deeper in the sea through upwelling, and causes the water surface to become too cool to support the storm. Without warm surface water, the storm cannot survive.[40] Image File history File links retrived from ((http://www. ... Image File history File links retrived from ((http://www. ... B C D E F G H I 10 J K L M N O P R 19 S T 22 V W Αα Ββ Γγ Δδ Εε Ζζ Categories: | | ... Windshear is a measure of the variation of wind speed & direction with height, or horizontal distance. ... Atlantic hurricane refers to a tropical cyclone that forms in the Atlantic Ocean north of the equator, usually in the Northern Hemisphere summer or autumn. ... The 2005 Atlantic hurricane season was the most active Atlantic hurricane season in recorded history, shattering previous records on repeated occasions. ... A fictitious synoptic chart of an extratropical cyclone affecting the UK & Ireland. ... Flooding in Amphoe Sena, Ayutthaya Province, Thailand. ... Mudslide in La Conchita, California A mudslide is a landslide of mud. ... Lowest pressure 905 mbar (hPa; 26. ... Upwelling is an oceanographic phenomenon that involves wind-driven motion of dense, cooler, and usually nutrient-rich water towards the ocean surface, replacing the warmer, usually nutrient-deplete surface water. ...


A tropical cyclone can dissipate when it moves over waters significantly below 26.5 °C. This will cause the storm to lose its tropical characteristics (i.e. thunderstorms near the center and warm core) and become a remnant low pressure area, which can persist for several days. This is the main dissipation mechanism in the Northeast Pacific ocean.[41] Weakening or dissipation can occur if it experiences vertical wind shear, causing the convection and heat engine to move away from the center; this normally ceases development of a tropical cyclone.[42] Additionally, its interaction with the main belt of the Westerlies, by means of merging with a nearby frontal zone, can cause tropical cyclones to evolve into extratropical cyclones. This transition can take 1–3 days.[43] Even after a tropical cyclone is said to be extratropical or dissipated, it can still have tropical storm force (or occasionally hurricane force) winds and drop several inches of rainfall. In the Pacific ocean and Atlantic ocean, such tropical-derived cyclones of higher latitudes can be violent and may occasionally remain at hurricane-force wind speeds when they reach the west coast of North America. These phenomena can also affect Europe, where they are known as European windstorms; Hurricane Iris's extratropical remnants became one in 1995.[44] Additionally, a cyclone can merge with another area of low pressure, becoming a larger area of low pressure. This can strengthen the resultant system, although it may no longer be a tropical cyclone.[42] Cirrus uncinus ice crystal plumes showing high level wind shear, with changes in wind speed and direction. ... Extratropical is a term used in advisories and tropical summaries to indicate that a cyclone has lost its tropical characteristics. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... A European windstorm is a severe cyclonic storm that tracks across the North Atlantic towards northwestern Europe in the winter months. ... Lowest pressure 965 mbar (hPa) Damage unknown Fatalities 5 direct Areas affected Leeward Islands, Western Europe Part of the 1995 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane Iris was the ninth named tropical cyclone and fifth hurricane of an active 1995 Atlantic hurricane season. ...


Artificial dissipation

In the 1960s and 1970s, the United States government attempted to weaken hurricanes through Project Stormfury by seeding selected storms with silver iodide. It was thought that the seeding would cause supercooled water in the outer rainbands to freeze, causing the inner eyewall to collapse and thus reducing the winds. The winds of Hurricane Debbie—a hurricane seeded in Project Stormfury—dropped as much as 30%, but Debby regained its strength after each of two seeding forays. In an earlier episode in 1947, disaster struck when a hurricane east of Jacksonville, Florida promptly changed its course after being seeded, and smashed into Savannah, Georgia.[45] Because there was so much uncertainty about the behavior of these storms, the federal government would not approve seeding operations unless the hurricane had a less than 10% chance of making landfall within 48 hours, greatly reducing the number of possible test storms. The project was dropped after it was discovered that eyewall replacement cycles occur naturally in strong hurricanes, casting doubt on the result of the earlier attempts. Today, it is known that silver iodide seeding is not likely to have an effect because the amount of supercooled water in the rainbands of a tropical cyclone is too low.[46] The government of the United States, established by the United States Constitution, is a federal republic of 50 states, a few territories and some protectorates. ... Project Stormfury was an attempt to weaken hurricanes by using cloud seeding in the eyewall of these storms. ... Cessna 210 with cloud seeding equipment Cloud seeding, a form of weather modification, is the attempt to change the amount or type of precipitation that falls from clouds, by dispersing substances into the air that serve as cloud condensation or ice nuclei. ... Silver iodide (AgI) is a chemical compound used in photography, an antiseptic in medicine, rainmaking and cloud seeding. ... Supercooling is the process of chilling a liquid below its freezing point, without it becoming solid. ... First storm formed: July 25, 1969 Last storm dissipated: Nov. ... “Jacksonville” redirects here. ... This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedias quality standards. ... Eye of Category 4 Hurricane Isabel seen from the International Space Station on September 15, 2003 The eye is a region of mostly calm weather found at the center of strong tropical cyclones. ...


Other approaches have been suggested over time, including cooling the water under a tropical cyclone by towing icebergs into the tropical oceans.[47] Other ideas range from covering the ocean in a substance that inhibits evaporation,[48] dropping large quantities of ice into the eye at very early stages of development (so that the latent heat is absorbed by the ice, instead of being converted to kinetic energy that would feed the positive feedback loop),[47] or blasting the cyclone apart with nuclear weapons.[15] Project Cirrus even involved throwing dry ice on a cyclone.[49] These approaches all suffer from one flaw above many others: tropical cyclones are simply too large for any of them to be practical.[50] Icebergs at Cape York, Greenland Iceberg at Cape York, Greenland Iceberg, Témpanos, Patagonia, Argentina. ... The heat of vaporization is a physical property of substances. ...


Effects

The aftermath of Hurricane Katrina in Gulfport, Mississippi. Katrina was the costliest tropical cyclone in United States history.
The aftermath of Hurricane Katrina in Gulfport, Mississippi. Katrina was the costliest tropical cyclone in United States history.

Tropical cyclones out at sea cause large waves, heavy rain, and high winds, disrupting international shipping and, at times, causing shipwrecks.[51] Tropical cyclones stir up water, leaving a cool wake behind them,[19] which causes the region to be less favourable for subsequent tropical cyclones. On land, strong winds can damage or destroy vehicles, buildings, bridges, and other outside objects, turning loose debris into deadly flying projectiles. The storm surge, or the increase in sea level due to the cyclone, is typically the worst effect from landfalling tropical cyclones, historically resulting in 90% of tropical cyclone deaths.[52] The broad rotation of a landfalling tropical cyclone, and vertical wind shear at its periphery, spawns tornadoes. Tornadoes can also be spawned as a result of eyewall mesovortices, which persist until landfall.[53] ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (3008x2000, 2706 KB) Hurricane Katrina damage in Long Beach, Mississippi, which is west of Gulfport and east of Pass Christian. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (3008x2000, 2706 KB) Hurricane Katrina damage in Long Beach, Mississippi, which is west of Gulfport and east of Pass Christian. ... This article is about the Atlantic hurricane of 2005. ... Location of Gulfport in the State of Mississippi Coordinates: , Country United States State Mississippi County Harrison Founded Incorporated Government  - Mayor Brent Warr Area  - City  64. ... Cyclone Catarina, a rare South Atlantic tropical cyclone viewed from the International Space Station on March 26, 2004 Hurricane and Typhoon redirect here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... ... . ... Eye of Category 4 Hurricane Isabel seen from the International Space Station on September 15, 2003 The eye is a region of mostly calm weather found at the center of strong tropical cyclones. ...


Within the last two centuries, tropical cyclones have been responsible for the deaths of about 1.9 million persons worldwide. Large areas of standing water caused by flooding lead to infection, as well as contributing to mosquito-borne illnesses. Crowded evacuees in shelters increase the risk of disease propagation.[54] Tropical cyclones significantly interrupt infrastructure, leading to power outages, bridge destruction, and hamper reconstruction efforts.[54][55]-1...


Although cyclones take an enormous toll in lives and personal property, they may be important factors in the precipitation regimes of places they impact, as they may bring much-needed precipitation to otherwise dry regions.[56] Tropical cyclones also help maintain the global heat balance by moving warm, moist tropical air to the middle latitudes and polar regions.[57] The storm surge and winds of hurricanes may be destructive to human-made structures, but they also stir up the waters of coastal estuaries, which are typically important fish breeding locales. Tropical cyclone destruction spurs redevelopment, greatly increasing local property values.[58] The middle latitudes are the areas between 30 and 60 degrees north latitude and 30 and 60 degrees south, or, roughly, the earths temperate zones between the tropics and the Arctic and Antarctic. ... For other meanings, see Estuary (disambiguation) Rio de la Plata estuary An estuary is a semi-enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. ...


Observation and forecasting

Observation

Sunset view of Hurricane Isidore's rainbands photographed at 7,000 feet (2.1 km).
Sunset view of Hurricane Isidore's rainbands photographed at 7,000 feet (2.1 km).

Intense tropical cyclones pose a particular observation challenge, as they are a dangerous oceanic phenomenon, and weather stations, being relatively small, are rarely available on the site of the storm itself. Surface observations are generally available only if the storm is passing over an island or a coastal area, or if there is a nearby ship. Usually, real-time measurements are taken in the periphery of the cyclone, where conditions are less catastrophic and its true strength cannot be evaluated. For this reason, there are teams of meteorologists that move into the path of tropical cyclones to help evaluate their strength at the point of landfall. Surface weather map of the Labor Day Hurricane of 1935 moving up the west coast of Florida Tropical cyclone obervation has been carried out over the past couple of centuries in various ways: the passage of typhoons, hurricanes, as well as other tropical cyclones have been detected by word of... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2160x1440, 219 KB) The NOAA emblem is the property of the U.S. Government and a trademark of the United States Department of Commerce. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2160x1440, 219 KB) The NOAA emblem is the property of the U.S. Government and a trademark of the United States Department of Commerce. ... Hurricane Isidore was the ninth named storm out of twelve to hit during the 2002 Atlantic hurricane season. ... A technician examines a weather stations anemometer. ...


Tropical cyclones far from land are tracked by weather satellites capturing visible and infrared images from space, usually at half-hour to quarter-hour intervals. As a storm approaches land, it can be observed by land-based Doppler radar. Radar plays a crucial role around landfall because it shows a storm's location and intensity minute by minute. GOES-8, a United States weather satellite. ... The optical spectrum (light or visible spectrum) is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye. ... Image of two girls in mid-infrared (thermal) light (false-color) Infrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength longer than that of visible light, but shorter than that of radio waves. ... Doppler Effect Doppler radar uses the Doppler effect to measure the radial velocity of targets in the antennas directional beam. ...


In-situ measurements, in real-time, can be taken by sending specially equipped reconnaissance flights into the cyclone. In the Atlantic basin, these flights are regularly flown by United States government hurricane hunters.[59] The aircraft used are WC-130 Hercules and WP-3D Orions, both four-engine turboprop cargo aircraft. These aircraft fly directly into the cyclone and take direct and remote-sensing measurements. The aircraft also launch GPS dropsondes inside the cyclone. These sondes measure temperature, humidity, pressure, and especially winds between flight level and the ocean's surface. A new era in hurricane observation began when a remotely piloted Aerosonde, a small drone aircraft, was flown through Tropical Storm Ophelia as it passed Virginia's Eastern Shore during the 2005 hurricane season. A similar mission was also completed successfully in the western Pacific ocean. This demonstrated a new way to probe the storms at low altitudes that human pilots seldom dare.[60] In situ is a Latin phrase meaning in the place. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The WC-130 Hercules is a high-wing, medium-range aircraft flown by the Air Force Reserve Command for weather reconnaissance missions. ... Categories: Stub | Special-purpose aircraft ... A schematic diagram showing the operation of a turboprop engine. ... A device created by National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) to more accurately track tropical storm conditions. ... Aerosonde may be: the Insitu Aerosonde, a UAV Aerosonde Ltd, an Australian manufacturer of UAVs, including the above aircraft This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

A general decrease in error trends in tropical cyclone path prediction is evident since the 1970s
A general decrease in error trends in tropical cyclone path prediction is evident since the 1970s

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1210x950, 45 KB) From http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1210x950, 45 KB) From http://www. ...

Forecasting

See also: Tropical cyclone forecasting, Tropical cyclone prediction model, and Tropical cyclone rainfall forecasting

Because of the forces that affect tropical cyclone tracks, accurate track predictions depend on determining the position and strength of high- and low-pressure areas, and predicting how those areas will change during the life of a tropical system. The deep layer mean flow is considered to be the best tool in determining track direction and speed. If storms are significantly sheared, use of wind speed measurements at a lower altitude, such as at the 700 hpa pressure surface (3000 meters or 10000 feet above sea level) will produce better predictions. Tropical forecasters also consider smoothing out short-term wobbles of the storm center in order [vague] a best practice, as it allows them to determine a more accurate trajectory.[61] High-speed computers and sophisticated simulation software allow forecasters to produce computer models that predict tropical cyclone tracks based on the future position and strength of high- and low-pressure systems. Combining forecast models with increased understanding of the forces that act on tropical cyclones, as well as with a wealth of data from Earth-orbiting satellites and other sensors, scientists have increased the accuracy of track forecasts over recent decades.[62] However, scientists say they are less skillful at predicting the intensity of tropical cyclones.[63] They attribute the lack of improvement in intensity forecasting to the complexity of tropical systems and an incomplete understanding of factors that affect their development. Tropical cyclone forecasting is the science and art of forecasting where a tropical cyclones center, and its effects, are expected to be at some point in the future. ... Average trends in forecast errors by the National Hurricane Center A tropical cyclone forecast model is a computer program that uses meteorological data to forecast the motion and intensity of tropical cyclones. ... While flooding is common to tropical cyclones near a landmass, there are a few factors which lead to excessive rainfall from tropical cyclones. ... A millibar (mbar, also mb) is 1/1000th of a bar, a unit for measurement of pressure. ... Average trends in forecast errors by the National Hurricane Center A tropical cyclone forecast model is a computer program that uses meteorological data to forecast the motion and intensity of tropical cyclones. ...


Classifications, terminology, and naming

Intensity classifications

Three tropical cyclones at different stages of development. The weakest (left), demonstrates only the most basic circular shape. A stronger storm (top right) demonstrates spiral banding and increased centralization, while the strongest (lower right) has developed an eye.
Three tropical cyclones at different stages of development. The weakest (left), demonstrates only the most basic circular shape. A stronger storm (top right) demonstrates spiral banding and increased centralization, while the strongest (lower right) has developed an eye.

Tropical cyclones are classified into three main groups, based on intensity: tropical depressions, tropical storms, and a third group of more intense storms, whose name depends on the region. For example, if a tropical storm in the Northwestern Pacific reaches hurricane-strength winds on the Beaufort scale, it is referred to as a typhoon; if a tropical storm passes the same benchmark in the Northeast Pacific Basin, or in the Atlantic, it is called a hurricane.[39] Neither "hurricane" nor "typhoon" is used in the South Pacific. NASA QuikSCAT image of Typhoon Nesat (2005) showing the near-surface winds generated by the storm 10 meters above the ocean. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (7200x9000, 7786 KB) Summary File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tropical cyclone ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (7200x9000, 7786 KB) Summary File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tropical cyclone ... A squall is a sudden, sharp increase in wind speed which usually is associated with active weather, such as rain showers, thunderstorms, or heavy snow. ... Eye of Category 4 Hurricane Isabel seen from the International Space Station on September 15, 2003 The eye is a region of mostly calm weather found at the center of strong tropical cyclones. ... The Beaufort scale is an empirical measure for describing wind intensity based mainly on observed sea conditions. ... A Pacific hurricane is a tropical cyclone that develops in the northeastern part of the Pacific Ocean. ... Atlantic hurricane refers to a tropical cyclone that forms in the Atlantic Ocean north of the equator, usually in the Northern Hemisphere summer or autumn. ...


Additionally, as indicated in the table below, each basin uses a separate system of terminology, making comparisons between different basins difficult. In the Pacific Ocean, hurricanes from the Central North Pacific sometimes cross the International Date Line into the Northwest Pacific, becoming typhoons (such as Hurricane/Typhoon Ioke in 2006); on rare occasions, the reverse will occur.[64] It should also be noted that typhoons with sustained winds greater than 130 knots (240 km/h or 150 mph) are called Super Typhoons by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center.[65] NASA QuikSCAT image of Typhoon Nesat (2005) showing the near-surface winds generated by the storm 10 meters above the ocean. ... The International Date Line around 180° This article is about the line dividing time zones; see Dateline (disambiguation) for other meanings, including the television program. ... Lowest pressure 920 hPa (mbar) Damages Unknown Fatalities 0 Areas affected Johnston Atoll, Wake Island, Minami Torishima, southwestern and south-central Alaska Part of the 2006 Pacific hurricane season and the 2006 Pacific typhoon season Hurricane Ioke (also Typhoon Ioke, international designation 0612, JTWC designation 01C also sometimes called Super... A knot is a unit of speed abbreviated kt or kn. ... Kilometres per hour (American spelling: kilometers per hour) is a unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector). ... Miles per hour is a unit of speed, expressing the number of international miles covered per hour. ...


A tropical depression is an organized system of clouds and thunderstorms with a defined, closed surface circulation and maximum sustained winds of less than 17 m/s (33 kt, 38 mph, or 62 km/h). It has no eye and does not typically have the organization or the spiral shape of more powerful storms. However, it is already a low-pressure system, hence the name "depression."[14] The practice of the Philippines is to name tropical depressions from their own naming convention when the depressions are within the Philippines' area of responsibility.[66] Metre per second (U.S. spelling: meter per second) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds. ... A knot is a unit of speed abbreviated kt or kn. ... Miles per hour is a unit of speed, expressing the number of international miles covered per hour. ... Kilometres per hour (American spelling: kilometers per hour) is a unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector). ... Eye of Category 4 Hurricane Isabel seen from the International Space Station on September 15, 2003 The eye is a region of mostly calm weather found at the center of strong tropical cyclones. ...


A tropical storm is an organized system of strong thunderstorms with a defined surface circulation and maximum sustained winds between 17 and 32 m/s (34–63 kt, 39–73 mph, or 62–117 km/h). At this point, the distinctive cyclonic shape starts to develop, although an eye is not usually present. Government weather services, other than the Philippines, first assign names to systems that reach this intensity (thus the term named storm).[14]


A hurricane or typhoon (sometimes simply referred to as a tropical cyclone, as opposed to a depression or storm) is a system with sustained winds of at least 33 m/s (64 kt, 74 mph, or 118 km/h).[14] A cyclone of this intensity tends to develop an eye, an area of relative calm (and lowest atmospheric pressure) at the center of circulation. The eye is often visible in satellite images as a small, circular, cloud-free spot. Surrounding the eye is the eyewall, an area about 16–80 km (10–50 mi) wide in which the strongest thunderstorms and winds circulate around the storm's center. Maximum sustained winds in the strongest tropical cyclones have been estimated at about 85 m/s (165 kt, 190 mph, 305 km/h).[67] Eye of Typhoon Odessa, Pacific Ocean, August 1985 The eyewall is the region of a tropical cyclone with the strongest winds, the tallest clouds, and the heaviest rain. ... ‹ The template below (Unit of length) is being considered for deletion. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... A thunderstorm, also called an electrical storm or lightning storm, is a form of weather characterized by the presence of lightning and its attendant thunder produced from a cumulonimbus cloud. ...

Tropical Cyclone Classifications (all winds are 10-minute averages)
Beaufort scale 10-minute sustained winds (knots) N Indian Ocean
IMD
SW Indian Ocean
MF
Australia
BOM
SW Pacific
FMS
NW Pacific
JMA
NW Pacific
JTWC
NE Pacific &
N Atlantic
NHC & CPHC
0–6 <28 Depression Trop. Disturbance Tropical Low Tropical Depression Tropical Depression Tropical Depression Tropical Depression
7 28–29 Deep Depression Depression
30–33 Tropical Storm Tropical Storm
8–9 34–47 Cyclonic Storm Moderate Tropical Storm Trop. Cyclone (1) Tropical Cyclone Tropical Storm
10 48–55 Severe Cyclonic Storm Severe Tropical Storm Tropical Cyclone (2) Severe Tropical Storm
11 56–63 Typhoon Hurricane (1)
12 64–72 Very Severe Cyclonic Storm Tropical Cyclone Severe Tropical Cyclone (3) Typhoon
73–85 Hurricane (2)
86–89 Severe Tropical Cyclone (4) Major Hurricane (3)
90–99 Intense Tropical Cyclone
100–106 Major Hurricane (4)
107–114 Severe Tropical Cyclone (5)
115–119 Very Intense Tropical Cyclone Super Typhoon
>120 Super Cyclonic Storm Major Hurricane (5)

The Beaufort scale is an empirical measure for describing wind intensity based mainly on observed sea conditions. ... IMD logo The India Meteorological Department is a government of India organisation that is responsible for meteorological observations, weather forecasts, detecting earthquakes etc. ... Météo-France is a French public establishment, tasked with the forecasting and study of weather in France. ... The Bureau of Meteorology is an Executive Agency of the Australian Government responsible for providing weather services to Australia and surrounding areas. ... Location of Fiji in the Pacific Ocean The Fiji Meteorological Service is a Department of the government of Fiji responsible for providing weather forecasting and is based in Nadi. ... Japan Meteorological Agency (&#27671;&#35937;&#24193;) is a government agency, which is a central place responsible for gathering and reporting weather data and forecasts in Japan. ... The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) is a joint United States Navy–United States Air Force task force located at Naval Maritime Forecast Center in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. ... National Weather Service Logo The U.S. National Hurricane Center is the division of National Weather Services Tropical Prediction Center responsible for tracking and predicting the likely behavior of tropical depressions, tropical storms and hurricanes. ... On September 11, 1992, Hurricane Iniki caused more than USD $3 billion of damage in Hawaii. ...

Origin of storm terms

Taipei 101 endures a typhoon in 2005

The word typhoon, used today in the Northwest Pacific, has two possible and equally plausible origins. The first is from the Chinese 大風 (Cantonese: daaih fūng; Mandarin: dà fēng) which means "great wind."[68] (The Chinese term as 颱風 or 台风 táifēng, and 台風 taifū in Japanese, has an independent origin traceable variously to 風颱, 風篩 or 風癡 hongthai, going back to Song 宋 (960-1278) and Yuan 元(1260-1341) dynasties. The first record of the character 颱 appeared in 1685's edition of Summary of Taiwan 臺灣記略).[69] Alternatively, the word may be derived from Urdu, Persian and Arabic ţūfān[69] (طوفان), which in turn originates from Greek tuphōn (Τυφών), a monster in Greek mythology responsible for hot winds.[70] The related Portuguese word tufão, used in Portuguese for any tropical cyclone, is also derived from Greek tuphōn. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Taipei 101 (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: TáibÄ›i YÄ«língyÄ«; Wade-Giles: Tai-pei I-ling-i) is a 101-floor landmark skyscraper located in the capital of Taipei, Taiwan. ... This article is on all of the Yue dialects. ... This article is on all of the Northern Chinese dialects. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The phrase Zaban-e Urdu-e Mualla written in Urdu Urdu () is an Indo-European language of the Indo-Aryan family that developed under Persian, Turkish, Arabic, Hindi, and Sanskrit influence in South Asia during the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire (1200-1800). ... “Farsi” redirects here. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Zeus darting his lightning at Typhon, Chalcidian black-figured hydria, ca. ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ...


The word hurricane, used in the North Atlantic and Northeast Pacific, is derived from the name of a native Caribbean Amerindian storm god, Huracan, via Spanish huracán.[71] (Huracan is also the source of the word Orcan, another word for the European windstorm. These events should not be confused.) Huracan became the Spanish term for hurricanes probably because of this. “West Indian” redirects here. ... Native Americans (also Indians, Aboriginal Peoples, American Indians, First Nations, Alaskan Natives, or Indigenous Peoples of America) are the indigenous inhabitants of The Americas prior to the European colonization, and their modern descendants. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... In Maya mythology, Huracan (one legged) was a wind, storm and fire god and one of the creator deities who participated in all three attempts at creating humanity. ... A European windstorm is a severe cyclonic storm that tracks across the North Atlantic towards northwestern Europe in the winter months. ...


Naming

Storms reaching tropical storm strength were initially given names to eliminate confusion when there are multiple systems in any individual basin at the same time which assists in warning people of the coming storm.[72] In most cases, a tropical cyclone retains its name throughout its life; however, under special circumstances, tropical cyclones may be renamed while active. These names are taken from lists which vary from region to region and are drafted a few years ahead of time. The lists are decided upon, depending on the regions, either by committees of the World Meteorological Organization (called primarily to discuss many other issues), or by national weather offices involved in the forecasting of the storms. Each year, the names of particularly destructive storms (if there are any) are "retired" and new names are chosen to take their place. Presently, most tropical cyclones are given a name using one of several lists of tropical cyclone names. ... Due to their long-term persistence, and the need for a unique identifier in issuing forecasts and warnings, tropical cyclones and subtropical cyclones are given names. ... Presently, most tropical cyclones are given a name using one of several lists of tropical cyclone names. ... The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 187 Member States and Territories. ...


Notable tropical cyclones

Tropical cyclones that cause extreme destruction are rare, though when they occur, they can cause great amounts of damage or thousands of fatalities. This is a list of notable tropical cyclones, subdivided by basin and reason for notability. ... This is a list of notable Atlantic hurricanes, subdivided by reason for notability. ... This is a list of notable Pacific hurricanes, subdivided by reason for notability. ...


The 1970 Bhola cyclone is the deadliest tropical cyclone on record, killing over 300,000 people[73] and potentially as many as 1 million[74] after striking the densely populated Ganges Delta region of Bangladesh on November 13, 1970. Its powerful storm surge was responsible for the high death toll.[73] The North Indian cyclone basin has historically been the deadliest basin, with several cyclones since 1900 killing over 100,000 people, all in Bangladesh.[54][75] Elsewhere, Typhoon Nina killed 29,000 in China due to a 2000-year flood which caused 62 dams including the Banqiao Dam to fail; another 145,000 died during the subsequent famine and epidemic.[76] The Great Hurricane of 1780 is the deadliest Atlantic hurricane on record, killing about 22,000 people in the Lesser Antilles.[77] A tropical cyclone does need not be particularly strong to cause memorable damage, primarily if the deaths are from rainfall or mudslides. Tropical Storm Thelma in November 1991 killed thousands in the Philippines,[78] while in 1982, the unnamed tropical depression that eventually became Hurricane Paul killed around 1,000 people in Central America.[79] Lowest pressure 966 hPa (mbar) Fatalities 300,000-500,000 (Deadliest tropical cyclone of all time) Damage $86. ... Ganges River Delta, Bangladesh and India The Ganges Delta (or the Bengal Delta) is a river delta in the South Asia region of Bengal, consisting of Bangladesh and the state of West Bengal, India. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Cumulative track map of all North Indian ocean cyclones from 1970 to 2005 The following is a list of North Indian Ocean cyclone seasons. ... Super Typhoon Nina was short lived but intense supertyphoon that caused major damage and deaths in China, mainly from the collapse of the Banqiao Dam. ... A one-hundred year flood is calculated to be the maximum level of flood water expected to occur on average once every one hundred years. ... The Banqiao Reservoir Dam (Chinese: ; pinyin: BÇŽnqiáo Shuǐkù Dàbà) and Shimantan Reservoir Dam (Chinese: ; pinyin: Shímàntān Shuǐkù Dàbà) are among 62 dams in Zhumadian Prefecture of Chinas Henan Province that failed catastrophically in 1975 during Typhoon Nina. ... Lowest pressure Unknown Damage Not available Fatalities 22,000+ direct (Deadliest Atlantic hurricane of all time) Areas affected Lesser Antilles, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Bermuda, possibly Florida Part of the 1780 Atlantic hurricane season The Great Hurricane of 1780, also known as the Hurricane San Calixto II,[1] is the... Atlantic hurricane refers to a tropical cyclone that forms in the Atlantic Ocean north of the equator, usually in the Northern Hemisphere summer or autumn. ... Location of the Lesser Antilles (green) in relation to the rest of the Caribbean Islands of the Lesser Antilles The Lesser Antilles, also known as the Caribbees,[1] are part of the Antilles, which together with the Bahamas and Greater Antilles form the West Indies. ... Tropical Storm Thelma (Pagasa name: Uring) was the deadliest tropical storm of the 1991 Pacific typhoon season, killing more than 6,000 people as it crossed the Philippines. ... Hurricane Paul was the second deadliest Eastern Pacific tropical cyclone of all time, killing over 1000 people in Central America only as a tropical depression. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ...


Hurricane Katrina is estimated as the costliest tropical cyclone worldwide,[80] causing $81.2 billion in property damage (2005 USD)[81] with overall damage estimates exceeding $100 billion (2005 USD).[80] Katrina killed at least 1,836 people after striking Louisiana and Mississippi as a major hurricane in August 2005.[81] The Galveston Hurricane of 1900 is the deadliest natural disaster in the United States, killing an estimated 6,000 to 12,000 people in Galveston, Texas. Hurricane Iniki in 1992 was the most powerful storm to strike Hawaii in recorded history, hitting Kauai as a Category 4 hurricane, killing six people, and causing U.S. $3 billion in damage.[82] Other destructive Eastern Pacific hurricanes include Pauline and Kenna, both causing severe damage after striking Mexico as major hurricanes.[83][84] In March 2004, Cyclone Gafilo struck northeastern Madagascar as a powerful cyclone, killing 74, affecting more than 200,000, and becoming the worst cyclone to affect the nation for over 20 years.[85] This article is about the Atlantic hurricane of 2005. ... Official language(s) de jure: none de facto: English & French Capital Baton Rouge Largest city New Orleans [1] Area  Ranked 31st  - Total 51,885 sq mi (134,382 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 16  - Latitude 29°N to 33°N  - Longitude 89°W... This article is about the U.S. state. ... NASA QuikSCAT image of Typhoon Nesat (2005) showing the near-surface winds generated by the storm 10 meters above the ocean. ... Lowest pressure 936 mbar (hPa; 27. ... Galveston redirects here. ... Lowest pressure 938 mbar (hPa; 27. ... Official language(s) English, Hawaiian Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  Ranked 43rd  - Total 10,931 sq mi (29,311 km²)  - Width n/a miles (n/a km)  - Length 1,522 miles (2,450 km)  - % water 41. ... Kauai (Hawaiian IPA pron. ... A Pacific hurricane is a tropical cyclone that develops in the northeastern part of the Pacific Ocean. ... The name Pauline has been used for four tropical cyclones in the Eastern Pacific Ocean. ... Lowest pressure 913 mbar (hPa; 26. ... Cyclone Gafilo was a powerful tropical cyclone which struck Madagascar in March 2004, causing devastating damage. ...

The relative sizes of Typhoon Tip, Cyclone Tracy, and the United States.
The relative sizes of Typhoon Tip, Cyclone Tracy, and the United States.

The most intense storm on record was Typhoon Tip in the northwestern Pacific Ocean in 1979, which reached a minimum pressure of 870 mbar (25.69 inHg) and maximum sustained wind speeds of 165 knots (190 mph, 305 km/h).[86] Tip, however, does not solely hold the record for fastest sustained winds in a cyclone. Typhoon Keith in the Pacific and Hurricanes Camille and Allen in the North Atlantic currently share this record with Tip.[87] Camille was the only storm to actually strike land while at that intensity, making it, with 165 knots (190 mph, 305 km/h) sustained winds and 210 mph (335 km/h) gusts, the strongest tropical cyclone on record at landfall.[88] Typhoon Nancy in 1961 had recorded wind speeds of 185 knots (215 mph, 345 km/h), but recent research indicates that wind speeds from the 1940s to the 1960s were gauged too high, and this is no longer considered the storm with the highest wind speeds on record.[67] Similarly, a surface-level gust caused by Typhoon Paka on Guam was recorded at 205 knots (235 mph, 380 km/h). Had it been confirmed, it would be the strongest non-tornadic wind ever recorded on the Earth's surface, but the reading had to be discarded since the anemometer was damaged by the storm.[89] Illustrating the extremes in tropical cyclone sizes. ... Lowest pressure 870 hPa (mbar) (Worldwide record low) Fatalities 86 direct, 13 indirect Damage Unknown Areas affected Guam, Japan Part of the 1979 Pacific typhoon season For other storms of the same name, see Typhoon Tip (disambiguation). ... Lowest pressure 950 hPa (mbar)[1] Damage $4 billion (1998 AUD)[2] $2. ... Lowest pressure 870 hPa (mbar) (Worldwide record low) Fatalities 86 direct, 13 indirect Damage Unknown Areas affected Guam, Japan Part of the 1979 Pacific typhoon season For other storms of the same name, see Typhoon Tip (disambiguation). ... A millibar (mbar, also mb) is 1/1000th of a bar, a unit for measurement of pressure. ... Inches of mercury or inHg is a non SI unit for pressure. ... The 1997 Pacific typhoon season has no official bounds; it ran year-round in 1997, but most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between June and December. ... Lowest pressure 905 mbar (hPa; 26. ... Hurricane Allen was the strongest hurricane of the 1980 Atlantic hurricane season. ... Super Typhoon Nancy (18W) was a powerful tropical cyclone of the 1961 Pacific typhoon season. ... ... A tornado in central Oklahoma. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... A hemispherical cup anemometer of the type invented in 1846 by John Thomas Romney Robinson An anemometer is a device for measuring the velocity or the pressure of the wind, and is one instrument used in a weather station. ...


In addition to being the most intense tropical cyclone on record, Tip was the largest cyclone on record, with tropical storm-force winds 2,170 km (1,350 miles) in diameter. The smallest storm on record, Cyclone Tracy, was roughly 100 km (60 miles) wide before striking Darwin, Australia in 1974.[90] Lowest pressure 950 hPa (mbar)[1] Damage $4 billion (1998 AUD)[2] $2. ... Darwin is the capital city of the Australian Territory of the Northern Territory. ...


Hurricane John is the longest-lasting tropical cyclone on record, lasting 31 days in 1994. Prior to the advent of satellite imagery in 1961, however, many tropical cyclones were underestimated in their durations.[91] John is the second longest-tracked tropical cyclone in the Northern Hemisphere on record, behind Typhoon Ophelia of 1960 which had a path of 8,500 miles (12,500 km). Reliable data for Southern Hemisphere cyclones is unavailable.[92] Lowest pressure ≤929 mbar (hPa) Damages $15 million (1994 USD) $19 million (2005 USD) Fatalities 0 Areas affected Hawaii, Johnston Atoll Part of the 1994 Pacific hurricane season 1994 Pacific typhoon season Hurricane John (also Typhoon John) formed during the 1994 Pacific hurricane season and became both the longest-lasting... Pacific Hurricane Seasons 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 The 1994 Pacific hurricane season officially started May 15, 1994 in the eastern Pacific, and June 1, 1994 in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30, 1994. ... The 1960 Pacific typhoon season has no official bounds; it ran year-round in 1960, but most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between June and December. ...


Long term activity trends

Atlantic Multidecadal Cycle since 1950, using accumulated cyclone energy (ACE)
Atlantic Multidecadal Cycle since 1950, using accumulated cyclone energy (ACE)
See also: Atlantic hurricane reanalysis

While the number of storms in the Atlantic has increased since 1995, there is no obvious global trend; the annual number of tropical cyclones worldwide remains about 87 ± 10. However, the ability of climatologists to make long-term data analysis in certain basins is limited by the lack of reliable historical data in some basins, primarily in the Southern Hemisphere.[93] In spite of that, there is some evidence that the intensity of hurricanes is increasing. Kerry Emanuel stated, "Records of hurricane activity worldwide show an upswing of both the maximum wind speed in and the duration of hurricanes. The energy released by the average hurricane (again considering all hurricanes worldwide) seems to have increased by around 70% in the past 30 years or so, corresponding to about a 15% increase in the maximum wind speed and a 60% increase in storm lifetime."[94] Image File history File links NOAA_ACE_index_1950-2004_RGB.svg‎ File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tropical cyclone Wikipedia:Graphic Lab/Images to improve ... Image File history File links NOAA_ACE_index_1950-2004_RGB.svg‎ File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tropical cyclone Wikipedia:Graphic Lab/Images to improve ... Reanalyzed 1911 Atlantic hurricane season Atlantic hurricane reanalysis is an ongoing project within the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration which seeks to correct and add new information about past Atlantic tropical cyclones. ... Kerry Emanuel is an American Professor of Meteorology currently working at MIT in Boston. ...


Atlantic storms are becoming more destructive financially, since five of the ten most expensive storms in United States history have occurred since 1990. This can be attributed to the increased intensity and duration of hurricanes striking North America,[94] and to a greater degree, the number of people living in susceptible coastal areas, following increased development in the region since the last surge in Atlantic hurricane activity in the 1960s.


Often in part because of the threat of hurricanes, many coastal regions had sparse population between major ports until the advent of automobile tourism; therefore, the most severe portions of hurricanes striking the coast may have gone unmeasured in some instances. The combined effects of ship destruction and remote landfall severely limit the number of intense hurricanes in the official record before the era of hurricane reconnaissance aircraft and satellite meteorology. Although the record shows a distinct increase in the number and strength of intense hurricanes, therefore, experts regard the early data as suspect.[95]


The number and strength of Atlantic hurricanes may undergo a 50-70 year cycle, also known as the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Although more common since 1995, few above-normal hurricane seasons occurred during 1970-1994.[96] Destructive hurricanes struck frequently from 1926-60, including many major New England hurricanes. A record 21 Atlantic tropical storms formed in 1933, a record only recently exceeded in 2005, which saw 28 storms. Tropical hurricanes occurred infrequently during the seasons of 1900-1925; however, many intense storms formed during 1870-1899. During the 1887 season, 19 tropical storms formed, of which a record 4 occurred after 1 November and 11 strengthened into hurricanes. Few hurricanes occurred in the 1840s to 1860s; however, many struck in the early 1800s, including an 1821 storm that made a direct hit on New York City. Some historical weather experts say these storms may have been as high as Category 4 in strength.[97] Upper: AMO index: the ten-year running mean of detrended Atlantic sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA, °C) north of the equator. ... ... The 2005 Atlantic hurricane season was the most active Atlantic hurricane season in recorded history, shattering previous records on repeated occasions. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale is a scale classifying most Western Hemisphere tropical cyclones that exceed the intensities of tropical depressions and tropical storms, and thereby become hurricanes. ...


These active hurricane seasons predated satellite coverage of the Atlantic basin. Before the satellite era began in 1960, tropical storms or hurricanes went undetected unless a ship reported a voyage through the storm or a storm hit land in a populated area.[95] The official record, therefore, could miss storms in which no ship experienced gale-force winds, recognized it as a tropical storm (as opposed to a high-latitude extra-tropical cyclone, a tropical wave, or a brief squall), returned to port, and reported the experience.


Global warming

See also: Global warming

The U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory performed a simulation to determine if there is a statistical trend in the frequency or strength of cyclones over time. The simulation concluded "the strongest hurricanes in the present climate may be upstaged by even more intense hurricanes over the next century as the earth's climate is warmed by increasing levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere."[98] Global mean surface temperatures 1850 to 2006 Mean surface temperature anomalies during the period 1995 to 2004 with respect to the average temperatures from 1940 to 1980 Global warming is the observed increase in the average temperature of the Earths atmosphere and oceans in recent decades and the projected... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... The Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) is a laboratory in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)/Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR). ... This article is about the field of statistics. ... Look up trend, trendy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In an article in Nature, Kerry Emanuel stated that potential hurricane destructiveness, a measure combining hurricane strength, duration, and frequency, "is highly correlated with tropical sea surface temperature, reflecting well-documented climate signals, including multidecadal oscillations in the North Atlantic and North Pacific, and global warming." Emanuel predicted "a substantial increase in hurricane-related losses in the twenty-first century."[99]. Similarly, P.J. Webster and others published an article in Science examining the "changes in tropical cyclone number, duration, and intensity" over the last 35 years, the period when satellite data has been available. Their main finding was although the number of cyclones decreased throughout the planet excluding the north Atlantic Ocean, there was a great increase in the number and proportion of very strong cyclones.[100] Nature is one of the most prominent scientific journals, first published on 4 November 1869. ... Kerry Emanuel is an American Professor of Meteorology currently working at MIT in Boston. ... Science is the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). ...


The strength of the reported effect is surprising in light of modeling studies[101] that predict only a one half category increase in storm intensity as a result of a ~2 °C global warming. Such an response would have predicted only a ~10% increase in Emanuel's potential destructiveness index during the twentieth century rather than the ~75-120% increase he reported.[99] Secondly, after adjusting for changes in population and inflation, and despite a more than 100% increase in Emanuel's potential destructiveness index, no statistically significant increase in the monetary damages resulting from Atlantic hurricanes has been found.[102]


Both Emanuel and Webster et al. consider sea surface temperatures to be vital in the development of cyclones. Though neither study can directly link hurricanes with global warming, the increase in sea surface temperatures is believed to be due to both global warming and nature variability, e.g. the hypothesized Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), though an exact attribution has not been defined.[103] However, recent temperatures are the warmest ever observed for many ocean basins.[99] Visualisation of the SST of the ocean just before Hurricane Bob (August 14, 1991) Sea surface temperature (SST) is the water temperature at 1 meter below the sea surface. ... Upper: AMO index: the ten-year running mean of detrended Atlantic sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA, °C) north of the equator. ...


In February 2007, the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change released its fourth assessment report on climate change. The report noted many observed changes in the climate, including atmospheric composition, global average temperatures, ocean conditions, among others. The report concluded the observed increase in tropically intensity is larger than climate models predict. Additionally, the report considered that it is likely that storm intensity will continue to increase through the 21st century, and declared it more likely than not that there has been some human contribution to the increases in tropical cyclone intensity.[104] However, there is no universal agreement about the magnitude of the effects anthropogenic global warming has on tropical cyclone formation, track, and intensity. For example, critics such as Chris Landsea assert that man-made effects would be "quite tiny compared to the observed large natural hurricane variability."[105] A statement by the American Meteorological Society on February 1, 2007 stated that trends in tropical cyclone records offer "evidence both for and against the existence of a detectable anthropogenic signal" in tropical cyclogenesis.[106] Albeit many aspects of a link between tropical cyclones and global warming are still being "hotly debated",[107] a point of agreement is that no individual tropical cyclone or season can be attributed to global warming.[107][103] The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... IPCC is the science authority for the UNFCCC The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established in 1988 by two United Nations organizations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), to evaluate the risk of climate change brought on by humans, based mainly on... Climate Change 2007, the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), is the fourth in a series of such reports. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ... Christopher Landsea is a research meteorologist with Hurricane Research Division of Atlantic Oceanographic & Meteorological Laboratory at NOAA. He is a member of the American Geophysical Union and the American Meteorological Society. ... The American Meteorological Society promotes the development and dissemination of information and education on the atmospheric and related oceanic and hydrologic sciences and the advancement of their professional applications. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Global Tropical Cyclone Tracks Cyclogenesis is the technical term describing the development or strengthening of a surface low pressure system, or cyclone, in the atmosphere. ...


Related cyclone types

See also: Cyclone, Extratropical cyclone, and Subtropical cyclone

In addition to tropical cyclones, there are two other classes of cyclones within the spectrum of cyclone types. These kinds of cyclones, known as extratropical cyclones and subtropical cyclones, can be stages a tropical cyclone passes through during its formation or dissipation.[108] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (6000x6000, 4673 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Subtropical cyclone Tropical cyclone ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (6000x6000, 4673 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Subtropical cyclone Tropical cyclone ... Lowest pressure 960 mbar (hPa) Damage $340,000 (2002 USD) $390,000 (2006 USD) (includes indirect wind damage) Fatalities 1 direct, 3 indirect Areas affected North Carolina, Virginia, New Jersey, New England, Atlantic Canada Part of the 2002 Atlantic hurricane season This article is about the Atlantic hurricane in 2002. ... The 2002 Atlantic hurricane season officially began on June 1, 2002, and lasted until November 30, 2002. ... This article is about the meteorological phenomenon. ... A fictitious synoptic chart of an extratropical cyclone affecting the UK & Ireland. ... Image:Http://upload. ... A fictitious synoptic chart of an extratropical cyclone affecting the UK & Ireland. ... Image:Http://upload. ... Global Tropical Cyclone Tracks Cyclogenesis is the technical term describing the development or strengthening of a surface low pressure system, or cyclone, in the atmosphere. ...


An extratropical cyclone is a storm that derives energy from horizontal temperature differences, which are typical in higher latitudes. A tropical cyclone can become extratropical as it moves toward higher latitudes if its energy source changes from heat released by condensation to differences in temperature between air masses;[2] additionally, although not as frequently, an extratropical cyclone can transform into a subtropical storm, and from there into a tropical cyclone. From space, extratropical storms have a characteristic "comma-shaped" cloud pattern. Extratropical cyclones can also be dangerous when their low-pressure centers cause powerful winds and very high seas. For other uses, see Comma. ...


A subtropical cyclone is a weather system that has some characteristics of a tropical cyclone and some characteristics of an extratropical cyclone. They can form in a wide band of latitudes, from the equator to 50°. Although subtropical storms rarely have hurricane-force winds, they may become tropical in nature as their cores warm.[109] From an operational standpoint, a tropical cyclone is usually not considered to become subtropical during its extratropical transition.[110] For the geological process, see Weathering or Erosion. ... Latitude,usually denoted symbolically by the Greek letter phi, , gives the location of a place on Earth north or south of the equator. ... World map showing the equator in red In tourist areas, the equator is often marked on the sides of roads The equator marked as it crosses Ilhéu das Rolas, in São Tomé and Príncipe. ...


Tropical cyclones in popular culture

In popular culture, tropical cyclones have made appearances in different types of media, including films, books, television, music, and electronic games. The media can have tropical cyclones that are entirely fictional, or can be based on real events.[111] For example, George Rippey Stewart's Storm, a best-seller published in 1941, is thought to have influenced meteorologists into giving female names to Pacific tropical cyclones.[112] Another example is the hurricane in The Perfect Storm, which describes the sinking of the Andrea Gail by the 1991 Halloween Nor'easter.[113] Also, hypothetical hurricanes have been featured in parts of the plots of series such as The Simpsons, Invasion, Family Guy, Seinfeld, CSI Miami, and Dawson's Creek. The 2004 film The Day After Tomorrow includes several mentions of actual tropical cyclones as well as featuring fantastical "hurricane-like" non-tropical arctic storms. The appearances of tropical cyclones in popular culture spans many genres of media. ... Popular culture, sometimes called pop culture, consists of widespread cultural elements in any given society. ... “Moving picture” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Book (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... Formally, a computer game is a game composed of a computer-controlled virtual universe that players may interact with in order to achieve a goal (or set of goals). ... For other uses, see Fiction (disambiguation). ... George Rippey Stewart (1895&#8209;1980) was an American etymologist, an expert on names, and a professor at the University of California. ... The novel Storm was written by George Rippey Stewart in 1941. ... A bestseller is a book that is identified as extremely popular by its inclusion on a list of top-sellers. ... The Perfect Storm is a 2000 film adapted from the book of the same title by Sebastian Junger. ... The F/V Andrea Gail was a commercial fishing vessel which was lost at sea during the so-called Perfect Storm of 1991. ... Lowest pressure 980 mbar (hPa) as tropical system 972 mbar (hPa) as extratropical system Damages $1. ... The appearances of tropical cyclones in popular culture spans many genres of media. ... Simpsons redirects here. ... Invasion is an American science fiction television series that aired on ABC for only one season beginning in September 2005 before it was cancelled. ... Family Guy is an Emmy award winning American animated television series about a nuclear family in the fictional town of Quahog (IPA or ), Rhode Island. ... This article is about the sitcom. ... CSI: Miami is a spinoff of the popular CBS network series CSI: Crime Scene Investigation. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Dawsons Creek Dawsons Creek was an American primetime television drama which aired from January 20, 1998, to May 14, 2003, on The WB Television Network. ... The Day After Tomorrow is a 2004 apocalyptic science-fiction film that depicts catastrophic effects of global warming and boasts high-end special effects, bending the lines between science, reality, and science fiction. ...


See also

Tropical cyclones Portal
Annual seasons
Forecasting and preparation

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x662, 320 KB) http://eol. ... ... The 2007 Atlantic hurricane season is an ongoing event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation. ... The following is a list of Pacific hurricane seasons. ... The 2007 Pacific hurricane season is an ongoing event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation. ... The following is a list of Pacific typhoon seasons. ... Wikinews has related news: Hurricane season, 2007 The 2007 Pacific typhoon season has no official bounds; it runs year-round in 2007, but most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between May and November. ... Cumulative track map of all North Indian ocean cyclones from 1970 to 2005 The following is a list of North Indian Ocean cyclone seasons. ... North Indian cyclone seasons 1995-1999 2000-2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 The 2007 North Indian Ocean cyclone season is an ongoing event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation. ... The following is a list of Southern Hemisphere cyclone seasons. ... The 2007-08 Southern Hemisphere tropical cyclone season is made up of three different basins and respective seasons; the 2007-08 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season west of 90°E, 2007-08 Australian region cyclone season between 90°E and 160°E, and 2007-08 South Pacific cyclone season... Catastrophe modeling (also known as cat modeling) is the process of using computer-assisted calculations to estimate the losses that could be sustained by a portfolio of properties due to a catastrophic event such as a hurricane or earthquake. ... Hurricane preparedness includes actions taken before a tropical cyclone strikes to mitigate the damage and personal danger such storms can cause. ... Tornadoes, cyclones, and other strong winds damage or destroy many buildings. ... See Severe weather terminology for a comprehensive article on this term and related weather terms. ... This article is about the meteorological phenomenon. ... In meteorology, an anticyclone (that is, opposite to a cyclone) is a weather phenomenon in which there is a descending movement of the air and a high pressure area over the part of the planets surface affected by it. ... A fictitious synoptic chart of an extratropical cyclone affecting the UK & Ireland. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Supercell. ... Polar cyclones (also known as Arctic Cyclones) are vast areas of low pressure. ... Polar low over the Barents Sea on February 27, 1987 A polar low is a small-scale, short-lived atmospheric low pressure system (depression) that is found over the ocean areas poleward of the main polar front in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. ... Image:Http://upload. ...

Notes

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Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A Corner of Main Quad The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC, U of I, or simply Illinois), is the oldest and largest campus in the University of Illinois system. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... National Weather Service Logo The U.S. National Hurricane Center is the division of National Weather Services Tropical Prediction Center responsible for tracking and predicting the likely behavior of tropical depressions, tropical storms and hurricanes. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Monthly Weather Review is a publication of the American Meteorological Society. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Dr. Lixion Avila Dr. Lixion Avila is a weather forecaster with the National Hurricane Center. ... Monthly Weather Review is a publication of the American Meteorological Society. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The American Meteorological Society promotes the development and dissemination of information and education on the atmospheric and related oceanic and hydrologic sciences and the advancement of their professional applications. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) is a laboratory in National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrations Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR). ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Weather Service (NWS) is one of the six scientific agencies that make up the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of the United States government. ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) is a laboratory in National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrations Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR). ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is an agency of the United States Department of Commerce. ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (91st in leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... The Bureau of Meteorology is an Australian government organisation responsible for providing weather services to Australia and surrounding areas. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (91st in leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) is a laboratory in National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrations Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR). ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the American space agency. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... UCAR is a nonprofit corporation formed in 1959 by research institutions with doctoral programs in the atmospheric and related sciences. ... The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) is a laboratory in National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrations Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR). ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) is a laboratory in National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrations Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR). ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 187 Member States and Territories. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) is a laboratory in National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrations Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR). ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... National Weather Service Logo The U.S. National Hurricane Center is the division of National Weather Services Tropical Prediction Center responsible for tracking and predicting the likely behavior of tropical depressions, tropical storms and hurricanes. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) is a laboratory in National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrations Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR). ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) is a laboratory in National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrations Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR). ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) is a laboratory in National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrations Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR). ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Dr. Lixion Avila Dr. Lixion Avila is a weather forecaster with the National Hurricane Center. ... Monthly Weather Review is a publication of the American Meteorological Society. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) is a laboratory in National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrations Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR). ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Christopher Landsea is a research meteorologist with Hurricane Research Division of Atlantic Oceanographic & Meteorological Laboratory at NOAA. He is a member of the American Geophysical Union and the American Meteorological Society. ... Monthly Weather Review is a publication of the American Meteorological Society. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Bureau of Meteorology is an Australian government organisation responsible for providing weather services to Australia and surrounding areas. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) is a laboratory in National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrations Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR). ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Millersville University of Pennsylvania is a public university in Millersville, Pennsylvania, USA, 3 miles (5 km) southwest of Lancaster. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Texas A&M University, often called A&M or TAMU, is a coeducational public research university located in College Station, Texas. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... On September 11, 1992, Hurricane Iniki caused more than USD $3 billion of damage in Hawaii. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... National Weather Service Logo The U.S. National Hurricane Center is the division of National Weather Services Tropical Prediction Center responsible for tracking and predicting the likely behavior of tropical depressions, tropical storms and hurricanes. ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Bust of Thomas Edison at the front gate of the Naval Research Laboratory. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... National Weather Service Logo The U.S. National Hurricane Center is the division of National Weather Services Tropical Prediction Center responsible for tracking and predicting the likely behavior of tropical depressions, tropical storms and hurricanes. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Location in Virginia Coordinates: , Country State Founded 1718 Government  - Mayor William D. Euille Area  - City  15. ... Time-Life is a book, music, and video marketer, that since 2003 has been combined with catalog reseller Lillian Vernon as a subsidiary of Direct Holdings Worldwide, and is no longer owned by its former parent Time Warner. ... The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) is a laboratory in National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrations Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR). ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) is a laboratory in National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrations Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR). ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) is a laboratory in National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrations Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR). ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) is a laboratory in National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrations Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR). ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) is a laboratory in National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrations Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR). ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government responsible for energy policy and nuclear safety. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Sun Herald is a U.S. newspaper based in Biloxi, Mississippi, that serves readers along the Mississippi Gulf Coast. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... USN redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... National Weather Service Logo The U.S. National Hurricane Center is the division of National Weather Services Tropical Prediction Center responsible for tracking and predicting the likely behavior of tropical depressions, tropical storms and hurricanes. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... National Weather Service Logo The U.S. National Hurricane Center is the division of National Weather Services Tropical Prediction Center responsible for tracking and predicting the likely behavior of tropical depressions, tropical storms and hurricanes. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... On September 11, 1992, Hurricane Iniki caused more than USD $3 billion of damage in Hawaii. ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Microsoft Office PowerPoint is a presentation program developed by Microsoft for its Microsoft Office system. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) is a laboratory in National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrations Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR). ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 11 is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) is a laboratory in National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrations Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR). ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the American space agency. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... December 10 is the 344th day (345th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, 21 days before the next year. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (AHD) is an American dictionary of the English language published by Boston publisher Houghton-Mifflin, the first edition of which appeared in 1969. ... Dictionary. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) is a laboratory in National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrations Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR). ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, which is usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... National Weather Service Logo The U.S. National Hurricane Center is the division of National Weather Services Tropical Prediction Center responsible for tracking and predicting the likely behavior of tropical depressions, tropical storms and hurricanes. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (91st in leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) is a joint United States Navy–United States Air Force task force located at Naval Maritime Forecast Center in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (91st in leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... Monthly Weather Review is a publication of the American Meteorological Society. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (91st in leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... National Weather Service Logo The U.S. National Hurricane Center is the division of National Weather Services Tropical Prediction Center responsible for tracking and predicting the likely behavior of tropical depressions, tropical storms and hurricanes. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... On September 11, 1992, Hurricane Iniki caused more than USD $3 billion of damage in Hawaii. ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (91st in leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... National Weather Service Logo The U.S. National Hurricane Center is the division of National Weather Services Tropical Prediction Center responsible for tracking and predicting the likely behavior of tropical depressions, tropical storms and hurricanes. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (91st in leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... James Franklin (middle), with Scott Gudes (left) and retired Air Force General Jack Kelly, director of NWS. James L. Franklin, Ph. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... National Weather Service Logo The U.S. National Hurricane Center is the division of National Weather Services Tropical Prediction Center responsible for tracking and predicting the likely behavior of tropical depressions, tropical storms and hurricanes. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (91st in leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... The National Weather Service (NWS) is one of the six scientific agencies that make up the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of the United States government. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) is a laboratory in National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrations Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR). ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Christopher Landsea is a research meteorologist with Hurricane Research Division of Atlantic Oceanographic & Meteorological Laboratory at NOAA. He is a member of the American Geophysical Union and the American Meteorological Society. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Science is the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... Kerry Emanuel is an American Professor of Meteorology currently working at MIT in Boston. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Bureau of Meteorology is an Australian government organisation responsible for providing weather services to Australia and surrounding areas. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The speedy deletion of this page is contested. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Columbia University is a private research university in the United States and a member of the prestigious Ivy League. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) is a laboratory in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)/Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR). ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Kerry Emanuel is an American Professor of Meteorology currently working at MIT in Boston. ... Nature is one of the most prominent scientific journals, first published on 4 November 1869. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // 1400 - Owain Glyndŵr declared Prince of Wales by his followers. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Science is the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Stefan Rahmstorf (born February 22, 1960) is a German oceanographer and climatologist. ... Michael Mann is the name of: Michael Mann (film director) (born 1943) Michael Mann (scientist), climate researcher. ... Dr. Gavin A. Schmidt is a climatologist and climate modeller at the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS). ... 2000/06 near Lescun William Michael Connolley (April 12, 1964 - ) is a climate modeller. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... RealClimate is a commentary site (blog) on climatology by a group of climate scientists for the interested public and journalists. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) is a laboratory in National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrations Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR). ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The American Meteorological Society promotes the development and dissemination of information and education on the atmospheric and related oceanic and hydrologic sciences and the advancement of their professional applications. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 187 Member States and Territories. ... December 11 is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) is a laboratory in National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrations Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR). ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (91st in leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) is a laboratory in National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrations Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR). ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 10 is the 344th day (345th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, 21 days before the next year. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The U.S. National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) in Asheville, North Carolina is the worlds largest active archive of weather data. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Look up Tropical cyclone in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Tropical cyclones
Learning resources
  • Surviving a hurricane - A guide for children and youth
  • WMO guide on cyclone terminology
  • Summary of cyclone terminology from NOAA FAQ
  • NOVA scienceNOW: Hurricanes
  • Mariner's Guide for Hurricane AwarenessPDF (1.23 MiB)
  • World Meteorological Organization Severe Weather Information Center - Shows all current tropical systems worldwide and their tracks
  • Tropical Storms Worldwide - by Hawaii University
  • FEMA for Kids: Hurricanes
Regional specialised meteorological centers
  • US National Hurricane Center - North Atlantic, Eastern Pacific
  • Central Pacific Hurricane Center - Central Pacific
  • Japan Meteorological Agency - NW Pacific
  • India Meteorological Department - Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea
  • Météo-France - La Reunion - South Indian Ocean from Africa to 90° E
  • Fiji Meteorological Service - South Pacific east of 160°, north of 25° S
Past storms
  • Global climatology of tropical cyclones
  • Unisys historical and contemporary hurricane track data
  • United States Tropical Cyclone Rainfall Climatology - Nearly 30 years of tropical cyclone histories with an emphasis on storm total rainfall, in color, up to present. Broken up by year, region, by point of landfall, and North American countries impacted
  • Global ISCCP B1 Browse System Satellite Archive
  • Digital Typhoon: Typhoon Images and Information

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A mebibyte (a contraction of mega binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, abbreviated MiB. 1 MiB = 220 bytes = 1,048,576 bytes = 1,024 kibibytes 1 MiB = 1024 (= 210) kibibytes (KiB), and 1024 MiB equal one gibibyte (GiB). ... Look up Bay of Bengal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Arabian Sea (Arabic: بحر العرب; transliterated: Bahr al-Arab) is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui, the north-east point of Somalia...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Glossary of NHC Terms (2067 words)
In comparison to tropical cyclones, such systems have a relatively broad zone of maximum winds that is located farther from the center, and typically have a less symmetric wind field and distribution of convection.
A tropical cyclone in which the maximum sustained surface wind speed (using the U.S. 1-minute average) is 33 kt (38 mph or 62 km/hr) or less.
A tropical cyclone in which the maximum sustained surface wind speed (using the U.S. 1-minute average) ranges from 34 kt (39 mph or 63 km/hr) to 63 kt (73 mph or 118 km/hr).
What is a tropical cyclone? (854 words)
Tropical cyclones with a maximum wind speed of less than 60 km/h are called tropical depressions; when the maximum wind speed ranges between 60 and 110 km/h, they are tropical storms, and when the maximum wind speed exceeds 110 km/h, they are called tropical cyclones.
The centre, or eye, of a tropical cyclone is relatively calm and warm.
Although tropical cyclones occur in definite regions of the world (see figure 3 - 713 sec to download) and generally moves in a westerly direction, their precise tracks are erratic and very difficult to predict.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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