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Encyclopedia > Trope

A trope is a rhetorical figure of speech that consists of a play on words, i.e. using a word in a way other than what is considered its literal or normal form. The other major category of figures of speech is the scheme, which involves changing the pattern of words in a sentence. Rhetoric (from Greek ρήτωρ, rhêtôr, orator) is one of the three original liberal arts or trivium (the other members are dialectic and grammar) in Western culture. ... A figure of speech, sometimes termed a rhetorical figure or device, or elocution, is a word or phrase that departs from straightforward, literal language. ... A figure of speech, sometimes termed a rhetorical figure or device, or elocution, is a word or phrase that departs from straightforward, literal language. ...

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Linguistic usage

Trope comes from the Greek word, tropos, which means a "turn", as in heliotrope, a flower which turns toward the sun. We can imagine a trope as a way of turning a word away from its normal meaning, or turning it into something else.


A large number of tropes have been identified, among them:

(For a more comprehensive listing, see Figure of speech) In rhetoric and cognitive linguistics, metonymy (in Greek μετά (meta) = after/later and όνομα (onoma) = name) (IPA: mə-tŏnə-mē) is the use of a single characteristic to identify a more complex entity. ... A gym with escalators. ... In language, a metaphor (from the Greek: metapherin) is a rhetorical trope defined as a direct comparison between two seemingly unrelated subjects. ... Synecdoche (pronounced sin-EK-duh-kee, IPA: ) is a figure of speech that presents a kind of metaphor in which: A part of something is used for the whole, The whole is used for a part, The species is used for the genus, The genus is used for the species... A figure of speech, sometimes termed a rhetorical figure or device, or elocution, is a word or phrase that departs from straightforward, literal language. ...


Literary usage

In literature, a trope is a familiar and repeated symbol, meme, theme, motif, style, character or thing that permeates a particular type of literature. They are usually tied heavily to genre. For example, tropes in horror literature and film include the mad scientist or a dark and stormy night. Tropes can also be plots or events, such as the science fiction trope of an alien invasion that is deterred at the last minute. This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... In literature (as well as many works of nonfiction), a theme is a main idea of a story, or the message the author is conveying. ... In literature, a motif is any recurring element that has symbolic significance. ... A genre is a division of a particular form of art according to criteria particular to that form. ... Horror fiction is, broadly, fiction in any medium intended to scare, unsettle or horrify the reader. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ...


Authors that rely on tropes as the starting points for their writing are often seen as unimaginative and dull. However, many authors have twisted tropes into new forms to great success. Stephen King has been noteworthy for taking older horror tropes and reworking them into the modern world to great effect. Tropes may also serve as guides for writers trying to strengthen the overall effectiveness of their work (i.e., asking such questions as: what trope am I working with in this poem/story?). Stephen King Stephen Edwin King (born September 21, 1947) is an American author best known for horror novels. ...


A wiki collecting tropes used in television is available at TV Tropes Wiki.


Tropes in philosophy

In Philosophy of history

The use of tropes has been extended from a linguistic usage to the field of philosophy of history by, among other theoricists, Hayden White in his Metahistory (1973). Tropes are generally understood to be styles of discourse - rather than figures of style - underlying the historian's writing of history. They are historically determined in as much as the historiography of every period is defined by a specific type of trope. The philosophy of history asks at least these questions: what is the proper unit for the study of the human past? the individual, the city or sovereign territory, the civilization, or nothing less than the whole of the species?; what broad patterns can we discern through the study of the... Hayden White is a historian in the tradition of literary criticism, perhaps most famous for his work Metahistory: The Historical Imagination in Nineteenth-Century Europe (1973). ... Historiography is the study of the way history is and has been written. ...


For Hayden White, tropes historically unfolded in this sequence: metonymy, metaphor, synecdoche and, finally, irony. Hayden White is a historian in the tradition of literary criticism, perhaps most famous for his work Metahistory: The Historical Imagination in Nineteenth-Century Europe (1973). ... In rhetoric and cognitive linguistics, metonymy (in Greek μετά (meta) = after/later and όνομα (onoma) = name) (IPA: mə-tŏnə-mē) is the use of a single characteristic to identify a more complex entity. ... In language, a metaphor (from the Greek: metapherin) is a rhetorical trope defined as a direct comparison between two seemingly unrelated subjects. ... Synecdoche (pronounced sin-EK-duh-kee, IPA: ) is a figure of speech that presents a kind of metaphor in which: A part of something is used for the whole, The whole is used for a part, The species is used for the genus, The genus is used for the species... A gym with escalators. ...


Trope theory in metaphysics

Trope theory in metaphysics is a flavor of nominalism. Here, a trope is a particular instance of a property, like the specific redness of a rose. This use of the term goes back to D. C. Williams (1953). Nominalism is the position in metaphysics that there exist no universals outside of the mind. ...


Tropes in music

In Jewish religious liturgy

The Old Testament is referred to by Jews as the Tanakh or the Hebrew Bible. The standard text accepted by mainstream Judaism is the Hebrew Masoretic Text. Words in the Masoretic Text contain three sections: the letters (consonants), vowel points, and cantillation marks, also called trope or te'amim in Hebrew. Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh, but not Old Testament, because it does not recognize the concept of a New Testament. ... 11th century Targum Tanakh [תנ״ך] (also Tanach or Tenach) is an acronym that identifies the Hebrew Bible. ... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum This article discusses usage of the term Hebrew Bible. For the article on the Hebrew Bible itself, see Tanakh. ... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... The Masoretic Text (MT) is the Hebrew text of the Tanakh approved for general use in Judaism. ... Cantillation (Hebrew: ta`amei ha-mikra or just te`amim; Yiddish trope is also commonly used in English) comprises special signs or marks in the Masoretic text of the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh) which complement the letters and vowel points. ...

Gen. 1:9 And God said, "Let the waters be collected".Letters in black, vowel points in red, trope in green
Gen. 1:9 And God said, "Let the waters be collected".
Letters in black, vowel points in red, trope in green


Image File history File links Example_of_biblical_Hebrew_trope. ...


It is generally believed that the Hebrew trope originally represented individual musical notes, the pitches of which are long forgotten. Over time, each trope has come to stand for a specific musical phrase. Different traditions, e.g., Persian, Yemenite, use different melodies. Also, although the written trope symbols are the same, different musical phrases are used for text in the Torah (the first five books of the Bible) and the Haftorah, excerpts from other parts of the Tanakh, such as the book of Isaiah. Torah (תורה) is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or law. ... The Bible (sometimes The Holy Bible, The Book, Good Book, Word of God, The Word, or Scripture), from Greek (τα) βιβλια, (ta) biblia, (the) books, is the classical name for the Hebrew Bible of Judaism or the combination of the Old Testament and New Testament of Christianity (The Bible actually refers to... The haftarah (haftara, haphtara, haphtarah; plural haftarot, haftaros, haphtarot, haphtaros) is a text selected from the books of Neviim (The Prophets) that is read publicly in the synagogue after the reading of the Torah on each Sabbath, as well as on Jewish festivals and fast days. ... 11th century Targum Tanakh [תנ״ך] (also Tanach or Tenach) is an acronym that identifies the Hebrew Bible. ... Isaiah the Prophet in Hebrew Scriptures was depicted on the Sistine Chapel ceiling by Michelangelo. ...


In Medieval music

In the Medieval era, troping was an important compositional technique. There were two basic types of tropes: textual and musical. A textual trope involved the assigning of a new text to an existing musical melisma. A musical trope was the insertion of new notes into a piece of music, creating or extending a melisma.


In 20th-century music

In serial music, a trope is an unordered collection of six different pitches, what is now called an unordered hexachord, of which there are two (complementary ones) in twelve tone equal temperament. Tropes were used by Josef Matthias Hauer in his twelve-tone technique developed simultaneously but overshadowed by Arnold Schoenberg's. In music, a hexachord is a collection of six tones. ... In traditional music theory a complement is the interval added to another, that is placed on top of another, so that their complete span is an octave. ... Equal temperament is a scheme of musical tuning in which the octave is divided into a series of equal steps (equal frequency ratios). ... Josef Mattias Hauer (March 19, 1883 – September 22, 1959) was an Austrian composer and music theorist. ... Twelve-tone technique (also dodecaphony) is a method of musical composition devised by Arnold Schoenberg. ... -1...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Trope - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (701 words)
Tropes can also be plots or events, such as the science fiction trope of an alien invasion that is deterred at the last minute.
Trope theory in metaphysics is a flavor of nominalism.
Also, although the written trope symbols are the same, different musical phrases are used for text in the Torah (the first five books of the Bible) and the Haftorah, excerpts from other parts of the Tanakh, such as the book of Isaiah.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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