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Encyclopedia > Trojan War
The fall of Troy, by Johann Georg Trautmann (1713–1769). From the collections of the granddukes of Baden, Karlsruhe.
The fall of Troy, by Johann Georg Trautmann (1713–1769). From the collections of the granddukes of Baden, Karlsruhe.

In Greek mythology, the Trojan War was waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans after Paris of Troy stole Helen from her husband Menelaus, the king of Sparta. The war is among the most important events in Greek mythology, and was narrated in many works of Greek literature, including the Iliad and the Odyssey by Homer. The Iliad relates a part of the last year of the siege of Troy, while the Odyssey describes the journey home of Odysseus, one of the Achaean leaders. Other parts of the war were told in a cycle of epic poems, which has only survived in fragments. Episodes from the war provided material for Greek tragedy and other works of Greek literature, and for Roman poets like Virgil and Ovid. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x789, 101 KB) Johann Georg Trautmann (1713–1769): Blick auf das brennende Troja Oil on canvas, 54,5 x 68 cm. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x789, 101 KB) Johann Georg Trautmann (1713–1769): Blick auf das brennende Troja Oil on canvas, 54,5 x 68 cm. ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... For other uses of Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ... The Achaeans (in Greek , Achaioi) is the collective name given to the Greek forces in Homers Iliad (used 598 times). ... See List of King Priams children Statue of Paris in the British Museum This article is about the prince of Troy. ... Helen of Troy redirects here. ... Menelaus regains Helen, detail of an Attic red-figure crater, ca. ... For modern day Sparta, see Sparti (municipality). ... // Main article: Ancient Greek literature Ancient Greek literature refers to literature written in Ancient Greek from the oldest surviving written works in the Greek language until the 4th century and the rise of the Byzantine Empire. ... title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ... For other uses, see Odyssey (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Odysseus (disambiguation). ... The Epic Cycle (Greek: Επικός Κύκλος) was a collection of Ancient Greek epic poems that related the story of the Trojan War, which includes the Kypria, the Aithiopis, the Little Iliad, the Iliou persis (The Sack of Troy), the Nostoi (Returns), and the Telegony. ... Tragedy is one of the oldest forms of drama. ... Latin literature, the body of written works in the Latin language, remains an enduring legacy of the culture of ancient Rome. ... For other uses, see Virgil (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ovid (disambiguation) Publius Ovidius Naso (March 20, 43 BC – 17 AD) was a Roman poet known to the English-speaking world as Ovid who wrote on topics of love, abandoned women and mythological transformations. ...


The war originated from a quarrel between the goddesses Athena, Hera and Aphrodite, after Eris, the goddess of strife and discord, gave them a golden apple, sometimes known as the Apple of Discord, marked "for the fairest". The goddesses went to Paris, who judged that Aphrodite, as the "fairest", should receive the apple. In exchange, Aphrodite made Helen, the most beautiful of all women, fall in love with Paris, who took her to Troy. Agamemnon, king of Mycenae and the brother of Helen's husband Menelaus, led an expedition of Achaean troops to Troy and besieged the city for ten years. After the deaths of many heroes, including the Achaeans Achilles and Ajax, and the Trojans Hector and Paris, the city fell to the ruse of the Trojan Horse. The Achaeans slaughtered the Trojans and desecrated the temples, thus earning the gods' wrath. Few of the Achaeans returned safely to their homes and many founded colonies in distant shores. The Romans later traced their origin to Aeneas, one of the Trojans, who was said to have led the surviving Trojans to Italy. For other uses, see Athena (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hera (disambiguation). ... The Birth of Venus, (detail) by Sandro Botticelli, 1485 For other uses, see Aphrodite (disambiguation). ... Eris (ca. ... // The Golden apple is an element that appears in some countries legends or fairy tales. ... An apple of discord is a reference to the Golden Apple of Discord which, according to Greek mythology, the goddess Eris (Gr. ... The Judgment of Paris, Peter Paul Rubens, ca 1636 (National Gallery, London) For the wine-tasting event known as The Judgment of Paris, see Paris Wine Tasting of 1976 The Judgement of Paris is a story from Greek mythology, in which the legendary roots of the Trojan War can be... Helen of Troy redirects here. ... This article is about a character in Greek mythology. ... A clay tablet with writing in Linear B from Mycenae. ... Menelaus regains Helen, detail of an Attic red-figure crater, ca. ... For other uses, see Achilles (disambiguation). ... Ajax Ajax or Aias (ancient Greek: ) was a mythological Greek hero, the son of Telamon and Periboea and king of Salamis. ... For other uses, see Hector (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Trojan Horse (disambiguation). ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598. ...


The Ancient Greeks thought the Trojan War was a historical event that had taken place in the 13th or 12th century BC, and believed that Troy was located in modern day Turkey near the Dardanelles. By modern times both the war and the city were widely believed to be non-historical. In 1870, however, the German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann excavated a site in this area which he identified as Troy; this claim is now accepted by most scholars.[1] Whether there is any historical reality behind the Trojan War is an open question. Many scholars believe that there is a historical core to the tale, though this may simply mean that the Homeric stories are a fusion of various tales of sieges and expeditions by Mycenaean Greeks during the Bronze Age. Those who believe that the stories of the Trojan War derive from a specific historical conflict usually date it to the 12th or 11th centuries BC, often preferring the dates given by Eratosthenes, 1194–1184 BC, which roughly corresponds with archaeological evidence of a catastrophic burning of Troy VIIa. The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... The Republic of Turkey is a country located in Southwest Asia with a small part of its territory (3%) in southeastern Europe. ... The Dardanelles, a long narrow strait dividing the Balkans (Europe) along the Gallipoli peninsula from Asia Minor. ... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... Portrait of Heinrich Schliemann. ... A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ... Mycenaean Greece, the last phase of the Bronze Age in ancient Greece, is the historical setting of the epics of Homer and much other Greek mythology. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... This article is about the Greek scholar of the third century BC. For the ancient Athenian statesman of the fifth century BC, see Eratosthenes (statesman). ... Seal found in the Troy VIIb layer, featuring Luwian hieroglyphs. ...

Topics in Greek mythology
Gods
Heroes
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Contents

The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... The ancient Greeks proposed many different ideas about the primordial gods in their mythology. ... This article is about the race of Titans in Greek mythology. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... Twelve Olympians, also known as the Dodekatheon (Greek: Δωδεκάθεον < δωδεκα, dodeka, twelve + θεον, theon, of the gods), in Greek religion, were the principal gods of the Greek pantheon, residing atop Mount Olympus. ... Pan (Greek , genitive ) is the Greek god of shepherds and flocks, of mountain wilds, hunting and rustic music: paein means to pasture. ... In Greek mythology, a nymph is any member of a large class of female nature entities, either bound to a particular location or landform or joining the retinue of a god or goddess. ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... This article is about the ancient deity. ... The ancient Greeks had a very small number of see gods. ... For other uses, see Chthon (disambiguation). ... Alcides redirects here. ... Hercules and the Hydra by Antonio Pollaiuolo The Twelve Labours (Greek: dodekathlos) of Heracles (Latin: Hercules) are a series of archaic episodes connected by a later continuous narrative, concerning a penance carried out by Heracles, the greatest of the Greek heroes. ... For other uses, see Achilles (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Odysseus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Odyssey (disambiguation). ... This article is about the hero from Greek mythology. ... Jason returns with the golden Fleece on an Apulian red-figure calyx krater, ca. ... Perseus with the head of Medusa, by Antonio Canova, completed 1801 (Vatican Museums) Perseus, Perseos, or Perseas (Greek: Περσεύς, Περσέως, Περσέας), the legendary founder of Mycenae and of the Perseid dynasty there, was the first of the mythic heroes of Greek mythology whose exploits in defeating various archaic monsters provided the founding myths... For other uses, see Medusa (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Greek mythological monster. ... For other uses, see Oedipus (disambiguation). ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Επτά επί Θήβας The Seven Against Thebes is a mythic narrative that finds its classic statement in the play by Aeschylus (467 BCE) concerning the battle between the Seven led by Polynices and the army of Thebes headed by Eteocles and his supporters, traditional Theban... Theseus (Greek ) was a legendary king of Athens, son of Aethra, and fathered by Aegeus and Poseidon, with whom Aethra lay in one night (By some accounts, this was presented as a rape). ... This article is about the mythological monster. ... Triptolemus (threefold warrior; also Buzyges), in Greek mythology always connected with Demeter of the Eleusinian Mysteries, might be accounted the son of King Celeus of Eleusis in Attica, or, according to Apollodorus (Library I.v. ... The Eleusinian Mysteries (Greek: Ἐλευσίνια Μυστήρια) were initiation ceremonies held every year for the cult of Demeter and Persephone based at Eleusis in ancient Greece. ... A mystery religion is any religion with an arcanum, or body of secret wisdom. ... A bald, bearded, horse-tailed satyr balances a winecup on his erect penis, a trick worthy of note, on an Attic red-figured psykter, ca. ... This article is about the mythological creatures. ... Dragons play a role in Greek mythology. ... Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs and rituals practiced in Ancient Greece in form of cult practices, there for the practical counterpart of Greek mythology. ...

Sources

The events of the Trojan War are found in many works of Greek literature and depicted in numerous works of Greek art. There is no single, authoritative text which tells the entire events of the war. Instead, the story is assembled from a variety of sources, some of which report contradictory versions of the events. The most important literary sources are the two epic poems traditionally credited to Homer, the Iliad and the Odyssey, composed sometime between the ninth and sixth centuries BC. Each poem narrates only a part of the war. The Iliad covers a short period in the last year of the siege of Troy, while the Odyssey concerns Odysseus's return to his home island of Ithaca, following the sack of Troy. // Main article: Ancient Greek literature Ancient Greek literature refers to literature written in Ancient Greek from the oldest surviving written works in the Greek language until the 4th century and the rise of the Byzantine Empire. ... Greece has a rich and varied artistic history, spanning some 5000 years and beginning in the Cycladic and Minoan prehistorical civilization, giving birth to Western classical art in the ancient period (further developing this during the Hellenistic Period), to taking in the influences of Eastern civilizations and the new religion... For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ... For other uses, see Odyssey (disambiguation). ... For other places or objects named Ithaca, see Ithaca (disambiguation). ...


Other parts of the Trojan War were told in the poems of the Epic Cycle, also known as the Cyclic Epics: the Cypria, Aethiopis, Little Iliad, Iliou Persis, Nostoi, and Telegony. Though these poems survive only in fragments, their content is known from a summary included in Proclus' Chrestomathy.[2] The authorship of the Cyclic Epics is uncertain. It is generally thought that the poems were written down in the seventh and sixth century BC, after the composition of the Homeric poems, though it is widely believed that they were based on earlier traditions.[3] Both the Homeric epics and the Epic Cycle take origin from oral tradition. Even after the composition of the Iliad, Odyssey, and the Cyclic Epics, the myths of the Trojan War were passed on orally, in many genres of poetry and through non-poetic storytelling. Events and details of the story that are only found in later authors may have been passed on through oral tradition and could be as old as the Homeric poems. Visual art, such as vase-painting, was another medium in which myths of the Trojan War circulated.[4] The Epic Cycle (Greek: Επικός Κύκλος) was a collection of Ancient Greek epic poems that related the story of the Trojan War, which includes the Kypria, the Aithiopis, the Little Iliad, the Iliou persis (The Sack of Troy), the Nostoi (Returns), and the Telegony. ... The Cypria is one of the lost sections of the eight volume cycle that told the full story of the Trojan War. ... The Aithiopis (Greek: Αἰθιοπίς; Latin: Aethiopis) is a lost epic of ancient Greek literature. ... The Little Iliad (Greek: Ἰλιὰς μικρά, Ilias mikra; Latin: Ilias parva) is a lost epic of ancient Greek literature. ... The Iliou persis (Greek: ; also known as Iliupersis, esp. ... The Nostoi (Greek: Νόστοι; also known as Nosti in Latin; English: Returns;) is a lost epic of ancient Greek literature. ... The Telegony (Greek: Τηλεγόνεια, Telegoneia; Latin: Telegonia) is a lost epic of ancient Greek literature. ... Eutychius Proclus (Latin; Greek Eutychios Proklos) was a grammarian who flourished in the 2nd century CE. He was born at Sicca in Africa. ... Chrestomathy (Greek, from the words khrestos, useful, and mathein, to know) is a selection of linguistic writings which can help you to learn a language. ... Oral tradition or oral culture is a way of transmitting history, literature or law from one generation to the next in a civilization without a writing system. ...


In later ages playwrights, historians, and other intellectuals would create works inspired by the Trojan War. The three great tragedians of Athens, Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides, wrote many dramas that portray episodes from the Trojan War. Among Roman writers the most important is the 1st century BC poet Virgil. In Book 2 of the Aeneid, Aeneas narrates the sack of Troy; this section of the poem is thought to rely on material from the Cyclic Epic Iliou Persis. A playwright, also known as a dramatist, is a person who writes dramatic literature or drama. ... This is a list of historians. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... This article is about the ancient Greek playwright. ... This article is about the Greek tragedian. ... A statue of Euripides. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 1st century BC started on January 1, 100 BC and ended on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. The AD/BC notation does not use a year zero. ... For other uses, see Virgil (disambiguation). ... Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598 Galleria Borghese, Rome The Aeneid (IPA English pronunciation: ; in Latin Aeneis, pronounced — the title is Greek in form: genitive case Aeneidos) is a Latin epic written by Virgil in the 1st century BC (between 29 and 19 BC) that tells the legendary story... Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598. ... The Iliou persis (Greek: ; also known as Iliupersis, esp. ...


Legend

The following summary of the Trojan War follows the order of events as given in Proclus' summary, along with the Iliad, Odyssey, and Aeneid, supplemented with details drawn from other authors.


Origins of the war

The plan of Zeus

For the foundation of Troy and her first fall to Heracles, see Troy: "Legendary Troy".

According to Greek mythology, Zeus had become king of the gods by overthrowing his father Cronus; Cronus in turn had overthrown his father Ouranos. Zeus was not faithful to his wife and sister Hera, and had many relationships from which many children were born. Since Zeus believed that there were too many people populating the earth, he envisaged the notion of Momus[5] or Themis,[6] which was to use the Trojan war as a means to depopulate the Earth, especially of his demigod descendants.[7] For other uses of Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... Cronus is not to be confused with Chronos, the personification of time. ... For other uses, see Uranus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hera (disambiguation). ... For the Scottish artist and singer see Momus (artist) Momus or Momos (μῶμος), in Greek mythology the god of satire, mockery, writers, poets, a spirit of evil-spirited blame and unfair criticism. ... In Greek mythology, Hesiod mentions Themis among the six sons and six daughters—of whom Cronos was one—of Gaia and Ouranos, that is, of Earth with Sky. ...


The marriage of Peleus and Thetis, the Apple of Discord, and the Judgement of Paris

See also Judgement of Paris.

Zeus came to learn from either Themis[8] or Prometheus, after Heracles had released him from Caucasus,[9] that, like his father Cronus, one of his sons would overthrow him. Another prophecy stated that a son of the sea-nymph Thetis, with whom Zeus had an affair, would become greater than his father.[10] Possibly for one or both of these reasons,[11] Thetis was betrothed to an elderly human king, Peleus son of Aiakos, either upon Zeus' orders,[12] or because she wished to please Hera, who had raised her.[13] All of the gods were invited to Peleus and Thetis' wedding and brought gifts,[14] except Eris ("Discord"), who was stopped at the door by Hermes, on Zeus' order.[15] Insulted, she threw from the door a gift of her own:[16] a golden apple (το μήλον της έριδος) on which were inscribed the words Tēi Kallistēi ("To the fairest"). The apple was claimed by Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite. They quarreled bitterly over it, and none of the other gods would venture an opinion favoring one, for fear of earning the enmity of the other two. Eventually, Zeus ordered Hermes to lead the three goddesses to Paris, a prince of Troy, who, unaware of his ancestry, was being raised as a shepherd in Mount Ida,[17] because of a prophecy that he would be the downfall of Troy.[18] The goddesses appeared to him naked, and because he was unable to decide between them, they resorted to bribes. Athena offered Paris wisdom, skill in battle, and the abilities of the greatest warriors; Hera offered him political power and control of all of Asia, and Aphrodite offered him the love of the most beautiful woman in the world, Helen of Sparta. Paris awarded the apple to Aphrodite, and, after several adventures, returned to Troy, where he was recognized by his royal family. The Judgment of Paris, Peter Paul Rubens, ca 1636 (National Gallery, London) For the wine-tasting event known as The Judgment of Paris, see Paris Wine Tasting of 1976 The Judgement of Paris is a story from Greek mythology, in which the legendary roots of the Trojan War can be... In Greek mythology, Hesiod mentions Themis among the six sons and six daughters—of whom Cronos was one—of Gaia and Ouranos, that is, of Earth with Sky. ... In Greek mythology, Prometheus (Ancient Greek: , forethought)[1] is a Titan known for his wily intelligence, who stole fire from Zeus and gave it to mortals for their use. ... Alcides redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... This article is about the Greek sea nymph. ... Peleus consigns Achilles to Chirons care, white-ground lekythos by the Edinburgh Painter, ca. ... In Greek mythology, Aeacus, or Aiakos (bewailing or earth borne) was king in the island of Aegina in the Saronic Gulf and was so far-famed for the righteous sense of piety and justice with which he ruled over his people that his judgment was sought all over Hellas, so... Eris (ca. ... For other uses, see Hermes (disambiguation). ... // The Golden apple is an element that appears in some countries legends or fairy tales. ... For other uses, see Hera (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Athena (disambiguation). ... The Birth of Venus, (detail) by Sandro Botticelli, 1485 For other uses, see Aphrodite (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hermes (disambiguation). ... For other uses of Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ... Shepherd in FăgăraÅŸ Mountains, Romania. ... Two sacred mountains are called Mount Ida in Greek mythology, equally named Mount of the Goddess. ... For other uses, see Prophecy (disambiguation). ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ... In Greek mythology, Helen (Greek: , HelénÄ“), better known as Helen of Troy, was the daughter of Zeus and Leda and the wife of Menelaus, king of Sparta. ...


Peleus and Thetis bore a son, whom they named Achilles. It was foretold that he would either die of old age after an uneventful life, or die young in a battlefield and gain immortality through poetry.[19] Furthermore, when Achilles was nine years old, Calchas had prophesied that Troy could not again fall without his help.[20] A number of sources credit Thetis with attempting to make Achilles immortal when he was an infant. Some of these state that she held him over fire every night to burn away his mortal parts and rubbed him with ambrosia during the day, but that Peleus discovered her actions and stopped them.[21] According to some versions of this story, Thetis had already destroyed several sons in this manner, and Peleus' action therefore saved his son's life.[22] Other sources state that Thetis bathed Achilles in the River Styx, the river that runs to the under world, making him invulnerable wherever he had touched the water.[23] Because she had held him by the heel, that part remained a mortal not a god, hence the expressions "Achilles heel" for an isolated weakness. He grew up to be the greatest of all mortal warriors. After Calchas' prophesy, Thetis hid Achilles in Skyros at the court of king Lycomedes, where he was disguised as a girl.[24] For other uses, see Achilles (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, Kalchas Thestórides (son of Thestor), or Calchas (brazen) for short, a loyal Argive, was a powerful seer, a gift of Apollo: as an augur, Calchas had no rival in the camp (Iliad i, E.V. Rieu translation) Calchas prophesized that in order to gain a favourable... In ancient Greek mythology, Ambrosia (Greek ) is sometimes the food, sometimes the drink, of the gods, often depicted as conferring immortality on whoever consumes it. ... In Greek mythology, Styx (Στυξ) is the name of a river which formed the boundary between Earth and the Underworld, Hades. ... In Greek mythology, Achilles is made invulnerable by being dipped in the river Styx by his mother, Thetis. ... Skyros (Greek: Σκύρος) is the southernmost island of the Sporades, a Greek archipelago in the Aegean Sea. ... In Greek mythology, Lycomedes (also known as Lycurgus) was the King of Skyros during the Trojan War. ...


Elopement of Paris and Helen

The most beautiful woman in the world was Helen, one of the daughters of Tyndareus, king of Sparta. Her mother was Leda, who had been either raped or seduced by Zeus in the form of a swan.[25] Accounts differ over which of Leda's four children, two pairs of twins, were fathered by Zeus and which by Tyndareus. However, Helen is usually credited as Zeus' daughter,[26] and sometimes Nemesis is credited as her mother.[27] Helen had scores of suitors, and her father was unwilling to choose one for fear the others would retaliate violently. Helen of Troy redirects here. ... In Greek mythology, Tyndareus (or Tyndareos) was a Spartan king, son of Oebalus (or Perieres) and Gorgophone (or Bateia), husband of Leda and father of Helen, Polydeuces (Pollux), Castor, Clytemnestra, Timandra, Phoebe and Philonoe. ... Leda and the Swan, 16th-century copy after the lost painting by Michelangelo Leda with the Swan, by Correggio In Greek mythology, Leda (Λήδα) was daughter of the Aetolian king Thestius, and wife of the king Tyndareus, of Sparta. ... For other uses, see Swan (disambiguation). ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Helen of Troy redirects here. ...


Finally, one of the suitors, Odysseus of Ithaca, proposed a plan to solve the dilemma. In exchange for Tyndareus' support of his own suit towards Penelope,[28] he suggested that Tyndareus require all of Helen's suitors to promise that they would defend the marriage of Helen, regardless of whom he chose. The suitors duly swore the required oath on the severed pieces of a horse, although not without a certain amount of grumbling.[29] For other uses, see Odysseus (disambiguation). ... For other places or objects named Ithaca, see Ithaca (disambiguation). ... The Vatican Penelope: a Roman marble copy of an Early Classical 6th-century Greek work (Vatican Museums) For other uses, see Penelope (disambiguation). ...


Tyndareus chose Menelaus. Menelaus was a political choice on her father's part. He had wealth and power. He had humbly not petitioned for her himself, but instead sent his brother Agamemnon on his behalf. He had promised Aphrodite a hecatomb, a sacrifice of 100 oxen, if he won Helen, but forgot about it and earned her wrath.[30] Menelaus inherited Tyndareus' throne of Sparta with Helen as his queen when her brothers, Castor and Pollux, became gods,[31] and when Agamemnon married Helen's sister Clytemnestra and took back the throne of Mycenae.[32] Menelaus regains Helen, detail of an Attic red-figure crater, ca. ... This article is about a character in Greek mythology. ... In Ancient Greece, a Hecatomb was the sacrifice to the gods of 100 cattle (hecaton = one hundred). ... Kastor redirects here. ... Clytemnestra trying to awake the Erinyes while her son is being purified by Apollo, Apulian red-figure krater, 480–470 BC, Louvre (Cp 710) After the murder (1882 painting) Clytemnestra (or Clytaemestra) ‘‘(Eng. ...


On a diplomatic mission to Sparta, Paris fell in love with Helen. Menelaus had left for Crete[33] to bury his uncle, Crateus.[34] Paris, with Aphrodite's help, kidnapped[35] or seduced her[36] and sailed to Troy carrying off part of Menelaus' treasure. Hera, still jealous over his judgement, sent a storm.[33] The storm caused the lovers to land in Egypt, where the gods replaced Helen with a likeness of her made of clouds, Nephele.[37] The myth of Helen being switched is attributed to the 6th century BC Sicilian poet Stesichorus. For Homer the true Helen was in Troy. The ship then landed in Sidon before reaching Troy. Paris, fearful of getting caught, spent some time there and then sailed to Troy.[38] For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hera (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, Nephele (from Greek: nephos, cloud) was the goddess of Clouds who figured prominently in the story of Phrixus and Helle. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 6th century BC started on January 1, 600 BC and ended on December 31, 501 BC. // Monument 1, an Olmec colossal head at La Venta The 5th and 6th centuries BC were a time of empires, but more importantly, a time... Stesichorus (, lit. ... View of the new city the Sea Castle. ...


Paris' abduction of Helen had several precedents. Io was taken from Mycenae, Europa was taken from Phoenicia, Jason took Medea from Colchis,[39] and the Trojan princess Hesione had been taken by Heracles, who gave her to Telamon of Salamis.[40] According to Herodotus, Paris was emboldened by these examples to steal himself a wife from Greece, and expected no retribution, since there had been none in the other cases.[41] Hermes, Io (as cow) and Argus, black-figure amphora, 540–530 BC, Staatliche Antikensammlungen (Inv. ... A clay tablet with writing in Linear B from Mycenae. ... Europa and the Bull by Gustave Moreau, circa 1869. ... Phoenicia (or Phenicia ,[1] from Biblical Phenice [1]) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coast of modern day Lebanon and Syria. ... This article is about the hero from Greek mythology. ... This article is about the Greek mythological figure. ... In ancient geography, Colchis (sometimes spelled also as Kolchis) (Greek: Κολχίς, kŏl´kĬs; Georgian: კოლხეთი, Kolkheti) was a nearly triangular district in Caucasus. ... In Greek mythology, the most prominent Hesione was a Trojan princess, daughter of King Laomedon of Troy, sister of Priam and second wife of King Telamon of Salamis. ... Alcides redirects here. ... In Greek mythology, Telamon, son of Aeacus, King of Aegina, and Endeis and brother of Peleus, accompanied Jason as one his Argonauts, and was present at the hunt for the Calydonian Boar. ... Salamis (Greek, Modern: Σαλαμίνα Salamína, Ancient/Katharevousa: Σαλαμίς Salamís) is the largest Greek island in the Saronic Gulf, about 1 nautical mile (2 km) off-coast from Piraeus. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hērodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ...


The gathering of Achaean forces and the first expedition

Map of Homeric Greece.
Map of Homeric Greece.

Menelaus asked Agamemnon to uphold his oath. He agreed and sent emissaries to all the Achaean kings and princes to call them to observe their oaths and retrieve Helen.[42]


Odysseus and Achilles

Since Menelaus's wedding, Odysseus had married Penelope and fathered a son, Telemachus. In order to avoid the war, he feigned madness and sowed his fields with salt. Palamedes outwitted him by placing his infant son in front of the plough's path, and Odysseus turned aside, unwilling to kill his son, so revealing his sanity and forcing him to join the war.[33][43] For other uses, see Odysseus (disambiguation). ... The Vatican Penelope: a Roman marble copy of an Early Classical 6th-century Greek work (Vatican Museums) For other uses, see Penelope (disambiguation). ... Slaughter of the suitors by Odysseus and Telemachus, Campanian red-figure bell-krater, ca. ... In Greek mythology, Palamedes was the son of Nauplius and Clymene. ...


At Scyros, Achilles had an affair with the king's daughter Deidamea, resulting in a child, Neoptolemus.[44] Odysseus, Telamonian Ajax, and Achilles' tutor Phoenix went to retrieve Achilles. Achilles' mother disguised him as a woman so that he would not have to go to war, but, according to one story, they blew a horn, and Achilles revealed himself by seizing a spear to fight intruders, rather than fleeing.[45] According to another story, they disguised themselves as merchants bearing trinkets and weaponry, and Achilles was marked out from the other women for admiring weaponry instead of clothes and jewelry.[46] Skyros (Greek: Σκύρος) is the southernmost island of the Sporades, a Greek archipelago in the Aegean Sea. ... For other uses, see Achilles (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, Deidamea, or Deidamia, was the daughter of Lycomedes, King of Scyros. ... Neoptolemus killing Priam In Greek mythology, Neoptolemus, also Neoptólemos or Pyrrhus, was the son of the warrior Achilles and the princess Deidamea. ... Ajax Ajax or Aias (ancient Greek: ) was a mythological Greek hero, the son of Telamon and Periboea and king of Salamis. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Phoenix (mythology). ...


Pausanias said that, according to Homer, Achilles did not hide in Scyros, but rather conquered the island, as part of the Trojan War.[47] Pausanias (Greek: ) was a Greek traveller and geographer of the 2nd century A.D., who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. ...

The Discovery of Achilles among the Daughters of Lycomedes, painting by Jan de Bray (1627–1697) in 1664, Muzeum Narodowe, Warsaw.
The Discovery of Achilles among the Daughters of Lycomedes, painting by Jan de Bray (1627–1697) in 1664, Muzeum Narodowe, Warsaw.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1335x950, 192 KB) Summary The Discovery of Achilles among the Daughters of Lycomedes, by Jan de Bray (1627–1697) in 1664. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1335x950, 192 KB) Summary The Discovery of Achilles among the Daughters of Lycomedes, by Jan de Bray (1627–1697) in 1664. ... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ...

First gathering at Aulis

The Achean forces first gathered at Aulis. All the suitors sent their forces except King Cinyras of Cyprus. Though he sent breastplates to Agamemnon and promised to send 50 ships, he sent only one real ship, led by the son of Mygdalion, and 49 ships made of mud.[48] Idomeneus was willing to lead the Cretan contingent in Mycenae's war against Troy, but only as a co-commander, which he was granted.[49] The last commander to arrive was Achilles, who was then 15 years old. In Greek mythology, King Cinyras of Cyprus was a son of Apollo and husband of Metharme. ... In Greek mythology, Idomeneus was a Cretan warrior, grandson of Minos. ...


Following a sacrifice to Apollo, a snake slithered from the altar to a sparrow's nest in a plane tree nearby. It ate the mother and her nine babies, then was turned to stone. Calchas interpreted this as a sign that Troy would fall in the tenth year of the war.[50]


Telephus

When the Achaeans left for the war, they did not know the way, and accidentally landed in Mysia, ruled by King Telephus, son of Heracles, who had led a contingent of Arcadians to settle there.[51] In the battle, Achilles wounded Telephus,[52] who had killed Thersander.[53] Because the wound would not heal, Telephus asked an oracle, "What will happen to the wound?". The oracle responded, "he that wounded shall heal". The Achaean fleet then set sail and was scattered by a storm. Achilles landed in Scyros and married Deidameia. A new gathering was set again in Aulis.[33] The Achaean League was a confederation of Greek city states in Achaea, a territory on the northern coast of the Peloponnese. ... Mysia. ... A Greek mythological figure, Telephus referred to two different people. ... This article is about a region of Greece. ... In Homers Iliad, Thersander was one of the Epigonoi, a son of Polynices. ...


Telephus went to Aulis, and either pretended to be a beggar, asking Agamemnon to help heal his wound,[54] or kidnapped Orestes and held him for ransom, demanding the wound be healed.[55] Achilles refused, claiming to have no medical knowledge. Odysseus reasoned that the spear that had inflicted the wound must be able to heal it. Pieces of the spear were scraped off onto the wound, and Telephus was healed.[56] Telephus then showed the Achaeans the route to Troy.[57] In Greek mythology, Aulis was a daughter of King Ogyges and Thebe. ... The Remorse of Orestes by William-Adolphe Bouguereau For other uses, see Orestes (disambiguation). ...


Some scholars have regarded the expedition against Telephus and its resolution as a derivative reworking of elements from the main story of the Trojan War, but it has also been seen as fitting the story-pattern of the "preliminary adventure" that anticipates events and themes from the main narrative, and therefore as likely to be "early and integral".[58]


The second gathering

Map of the Troad (Troas).
Map of the Troad (Troas).

Eight years after the storm had scattered them,[59] the fleet of more than a thousand ships was gathered again. But when they had all reached Aulis, the winds ceased. The prophet Calchas stated that the goddess Artemis was punishing Agamemnon for killing either a sacred deer or a deer in a sacred grove, and boasting that he was a better hunter than she.[33] The only way to appease Artemis, he said, was to sacrifice Iphigenia, who was either the daughter of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra,[60] or of Helen and Theseus entrusted to Clytemnestra when Helen married Menelaus.[61] Agamemnon refused, and the other commanders threatened to make Palamedes commander of the expedition.[62] According to some versions, Agamemnon relented, but others claim that he sacrificed a deer in her place, or that at the last moment, Artemis took pity on the girl, and took her to be a maiden in one of her temples, substituting a lamb.[33] Hesiod says that Iphigenia became the goddess Hecate.[63] File links The following pages link to this file: Trojan War Troy Troas Categories: GFDL images ... File links The following pages link to this file: Trojan War Troy Troas Categories: GFDL images ... Map of the Troas The Troas (Troad) is an ancient region in the northwestern part of Anatolia, bounded by the Hellespont to the northwest, the Aegean Sea to the west, and separated from the rest of Anatolia by the massif that forms Mount Ida. ... In Greek mythology, Aulis was a daughter of King Ogyges and Thebe. ... For other uses, see Artemis (disambiguation). ... 112 Iphigenia is an asteroid. ... Clytemnestra trying to awake the Erinyes while her son is being purified by Apollo, Apulian red-figure krater, 480–470 BC, Louvre (Cp 710) After the murder (1882 painting) Clytemnestra (or Clytaemestra) ‘‘(Eng. ... Theseus (Greek ) was a legendary king of Athens, son of Aethra, and fathered by Aegeus and Poseidon, with whom Aethra lay in one night (By some accounts, this was presented as a rape). ... Roman bronze bust, the so-called Pseudo-Seneca, now identified by some as possibly Hesiod Hesiod (Hesiodos, ) was an early Greek poet and rhapsode, who presumably lived around 700 BC. Hesiod and Homer, with whom Hesiod is often paired, have been considered the earliest Greek poets whose work has survived... For other uses, see Hecate (disambiguation). ...


The Achaean forces are described in detail in the Catalogue of Ships, in the second book of the Iliad. They consisted of 28 contingents from mainland Greece, the Peloponnese, the Dodecanese islands, Crete, and Ithaca, comprising 1178 pentekontoroi, ships with 50 rowers. Thucydides says[64] that according to tradition there were about 1200 ships, and that the Boeotian ships had 120 men, while Philoctetes' ships only had the fifty rowers, these probably being maximum and minimum. These numbers would mean a total force of 70,000 to 130,000 men. Another catalogue of ships is given by Apollodorus that differs somewhat but agrees in numbers. Some scholars have claimed that Homer's catalogue is an original Bronze Age document, possibly the Achaean commander's order of operations.[65][66][67] Others believe it was a fabrication of Homer. Map of Homeric Greece The famous Catalogue of Ships (νεων κατολογος) is recorded as a part of Book II (verses 494–760, PP Il. ... Greece and the Peloponnese The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Greek: Πελοπόννησος Peloponnesos; see also List of Greek place names) is a large peninsula in southern Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Gulf of Corinth. ... The Dodecanese (Greek Δωδεκάνησα, Dodekánisa, Turkish Onikiada, both meaning twelve islands; Italian Dodecaneso) are a group of 12 larger plus 150 smaller Greek islands in the Aegean Sea, off the southwest coast of Turkey. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... For other places or objects named Ithaca, see Ithaca (disambiguation). ... Boeotia or Beotia (//, (Greek Βοιωτια; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was the central area of ancient Greece. ... In Greek mythology, Philoctetes (also Philoktêtês or Philocthetes, Φιλοκτήτης) was the son of King Poeas of Meliboea in Thessaly. ...


The second book of the Iliad also lists the Trojan allies, consisting of the Trojans themselves, led by Hector, and various allies listed as Dardanians led by Aeneas, Zeleians, Adrasteians, Percotians, Pelasgians, Thracians, Ciconian spearmen, Paionian archers, Halizones, Mysians, Phrygians, Maeonians, Miletians, Lycians led by Sarpedon and Carians. Nothing is said of the Trojan language; the Carians are specifically said to be barbarian-speaking, and the allied contingents are said to have spoken multiple languages, requiring orders to be translated by their individual commanders.[68] It should be noted, however, that the Trojans and Acheans in the Iliad share the same religion, same culture and the enemy heroes speak to each other in the same language, though this could be dramatic effect. The Trojan Battle Order is a section of the second book of the Iliad. ... For other uses, see Hector (disambiguation). ... ÉžDardania in Greek mythology is the name of a city founded on Mount Ida by Dardanus from which also the region and the people took their name. ... Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598. ... Zeleia is the name of an ancient city, according to Iliad, where Glaukos originated. ... In Greek mythology, Adrasteia (inescapable; also spelled Adrastia, Adrastea, Adrestea) was a nymph who was charged by Rhea to raise Zeus in secret to protect him from his father Cronus (Krónos). ... Percote was a town or city on the southern (Asian) side of the Hellespont, to the northeast of Troy. ... The name Pelasgians (Ancient Greek: Πελασγοί - Pelasgoí, s. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... The Cicones (also Kikones) were a Thracian tribe, whose stronghold in the time of Odysseus was the city of Ismara (or Ismaros), located at the foot of mount Ismara, on the south coast of Thrace. ... Paionia or Paeonia (in Greek Παιονία) was in ancient geography, the land of the Paeonians (Ancient Greek Παίονες), the exact boundaries of which, like the early history of its inhabitants, are very obscure. ... The Halizones (Halizonians) are an obscure people that appear in Homers Iliad as allies of Troy during the Trojan War. ... Mysia. ... In antiquity, Phrygia (Greek: ) was a kingdom in the west central part of the Anatolia. ... See 110 Lydia for the asteroid. ... The lower half of the benches and the remnants of the scene building of the theater of Miletus (August 2005) Miletus (Carian: Anactoria Hittite: Milawata or Millawanda, Greek: Μίλητος transliterated Miletos, Turkish: Milet) was an ancient city on the western coast of Anatolia (in what is now Aydin Province, Turkey), near... Lycian rock cut tombs of Dalyan Lycian rock cut tombs of Dalyan Lycia (in Lycian, Trm̃misa (see List of Lycian place names); in ancient Greek, Λυκία and in modern Turkish, Likya) is a region in the modern-day provinces of Antalya and MuÄŸla on the southern coast of Turkey. ... In Greek mythology, Sarpedon referred to several different people. ... The Carians (Greek Καρες Kares, or Καρικοι Karikoi) were the eponymous inhabitants of Caria. ... The Trojan language, the language spoken in the ancient city of Troy VIIa (which was probably destroyed violently c. ... The Carian language was the language of the Carians. ...


Nine years of war

Philoctetes

Philoctetes abandoned at Lemnos,detail of an Attic red-figure stamnos, ca. 460 BC, Campana Collection, 1861.
Philoctetes abandoned at Lemnos,detail of an Attic red-figure stamnos, ca. 460 BC, Campana Collection, 1861.

Philoctetes was Heracles' friend, and because he lit Heracles's funeral pyre when no one else would, he received Heracles' bow and arrows.[69] He sailed with seven ships full of men to the Trojan War, where he was planning on fighting for the Acheans. They stopped either at Chryse for supplies,[70] or in Tenedos, along with the rest of the fleet.[71] Philoctetes was then bitten by a snake. The wound festered and had a foul smell; on Odysseus's advice, the Atreidae ordered Philoctetes to stay on Lemnos.[33] Medon took control of Philoctetes's men. While landing on Tenedos, Achilles killed king Tenes, son of Apollo, despite a warning by his mother that if he did so he would be killed himself by Apollo.[72] From Tenedos Agamemnon sent an embassy to Priam composed of Menelaus, Odysseus, and Palamedes asking for Helen's return. The embassy was refused.[73] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2700x1920, 2227 KB) Description fr: Philoctète, blessé, est abandonné par lexpédition grecque en route pour Troie, détail dun stamnos attique dHermonax, v. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2700x1920, 2227 KB) Description fr: Philoctète, blessé, est abandonné par lexpédition grecque en route pour Troie, détail dun stamnos attique dHermonax, v. ... Lemnos (mod. ... In Greek mythology, Philoctetes (also Philoktêtês or Philocthetes, Φιλοκτήτης) was the son of King Poeas of Meliboea in Thessaly. ... Alcides redirects here. ... This article is about the people and places of Greek myth. ... Tenedos, known as Bozcaada officially and by its Turkish inhabitants, (Greek: , Tenedhos), is a small island in the Aegean Sea, part of the Bozcaada district of Çanakkale province in Turkey. ... In Greek mythology, the Atreidae, or Atreidai, refer to Agamemnon and Menelaus, sons of Atreus— in English, the Atreides. ... Lemnos (mod. ... In Greek mythology, there were two people called Medôn. ... In Greek mythology, Tenes was a son of King Cycnus of Colonae. ...


Philoctetes stayed on Lemnos for ten years, which was a deserted island according to Sophocles' tragedy Philoctetes, but according to earlier tradition was populated by Minyans.[74] In Greek mythology and legendary prehistory of the Aegean region, the Minyans were a group among the autochthonous inhabitants. ...


Arrival

Calchas had prophesied that the first Achean to walk on land after stepping off a ship would be the first to die.[75] Thus even Achilles hesitated to land. Finally, Protesilaus, leader of the Phylaceans, landed first.[76] Achilles jumped second and killed Cycnus, son of Ares. The Trojans then fled to the safety of the walls of their city.[77] Protesilaus had killed many Trojans but was killed by either Hector,[78] Aeneas, Achates, or Ephorbus.[79] The Acheans buried him as a god on the Thracian peninsula, across the Troad.[80] After Protesilaus' death, his brother, Podarces, joined the war in his place. In Greek mythology, Protesilaus was the son of Iphicles and the leader of the Phylaceans. ... Ancient Greek kingdom, whose king was Protesilaus, the first Greek hero killed in the Trojan War. ... In Greek mythology, four people were known as Cycnus or Cygnus. ... For other uses, see Hector (disambiguation). ... In Roman mythology, Achates was a close friend of Aeneas. ... Map of the Troas The Troas (Troad) is an ancient region in the northwestern part of Anatolia, bounded by the Hellespont to the northwest, the Aegean Sea to the west, and separated from the rest of Anatolia by the massif that forms Mount Ida. ... In Greek mythology, Podarces was a son of Iphicles. ...


Achilles' campaigns

Achilles bandaging Patroclus, ca. 500 BC. Staatliche Museen, Antikenabteilung, Berlin.
Achilles bandaging Patroclus, ca. 500 BC. Staatliche Museen, Antikenabteilung, Berlin.

The Achaeans besieged Troy for nine years. This part of the war is the least developed among surviving sources, which prefer to talk about events in the last year of the war. After the initial landing the army was gathered in its entirety again only in the tenth year. Thucydides deduces that this was due to lack of money. They raided the Trojan allies and spent time farming the Thracian peninsula.[81] Troy was never completely besieged, thus it maintained communications with the interior of Asia Minor. Reinforcements continued to come until the very end. The Acheans controlled only the entrance to the Dardanelles, and Troy and her allies controlled the shortest point at Abydos and Sestus and communicated with allies in Europe.[82] Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC Events and Trends 509 BC - Foundation of the Roman Republic 508 BC - Office of pontifex maximus created... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ... Abydos, an ancient city of Mysia, in Asia Minor, situated at Nagara Point on the Hellespont, which is here scarcely a mile broad. ... Sestos was an ancient town of the Thracian Chersonese, the modern Gallipoli peninsula. ...


Achilles was the most active of the Achaeans. According to Homer, he conquered 11 cities and 12 islands.[83] According to Apollodorus, he raided the land of Aeneas in the Troad region and stole his cattle.[84] He also captured Lyrnassus, Pedasus, and many of the neighbouring cities, and killed Troilus, son of Priam, who was still a youth; it was said that if he reached 20 years of age, Troy would not fall. According to Apollodorus, In Greek mythology, Pedasus was the son of the naiad Abarbarea and Bucolion. ... Troilus is a character in medieval and Renaissance versions of the legend of the Trojan War. ...

He also took Lesbos and Phocaea, then Colophon, and Smyrna, and Clazomenae, and Cyme; and afterwards Aegialus and Tenos, the so-called Hundred Cities; then, in order, Adramytium and Side; then Endium, and Linaeum, and Colone. He took also Hypoplacian Thebes and Lyrnessus, and further Antandrus, and many other cities.[85]

Kakrides comments that the list is wrong in that it extends too far into the south.[86] Other sources talk of Achilles taking Pedasus, Monenia,[87] Mythemna (in Lesbos), and Peisidice.[88] Lesbos (Modern Greek: Lesvos (Λέσβος), Turkish: Midilli), is a Greek island located in the northeastern Aegean Sea. ... Phocaea (Greek: Φώκαια) (modern-day Foça in Turkey) was an ancient Ionian Greek city on the western coast of Anatolia. ... Colophon (Greek Κολοφών; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was a titular see of Asia Minor. ... Smyrna (Greek: Σμύρνη) is an ancient city (today İzmir in Turkey) that was founded by ancient Greeks at a central and strategic point on the Aegean coast of Anatolia. ... Clazomenae (modern Kelisinan), was an ancient town of Ionia and a member of the Ionian Dodecapolis (Confederation of Twelve Cities), on the Gulf of Smyrna, about 20 miles west of that city. ... Cyme can refer to: Cyme, a botanical term a for a class of flower clusters (see inflorescence) characterized by the terminal flower in the cluster blooming first. ... Tinos (Greek: Τήνος) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea, part of Greece. ... Edremit is a Turkish city on the west coast of Asia Minor, not far from the Greek island Lesbos. ... An ancient time This page is about the town Side on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. ... Antandrus was a Greek colony on the north side of the Adramyttian Gulf in the Troad region of Anatolia, near the modern village of Avcilar in Turkey. ... In Greek mythology, Pisidice was one of four individuals: a daughter of Pelias. ...


Among the loot from these cities was Briseis, from Lyrnessus, who was awarded to him, and Chryseis, from Hypoplacian Thebes, who was awarded to Agamemnon.[33] Achilles captured Lycaon, son of Priam,[89] while he was cutting branches in his father's orchards. Patroclus sold him as a slave in Lemnos,[33] where he was bought by Eetion of Imbros and brought back to Troy. Only 12 days later Achilles slew him, after the death of Patroclus.[90] In Greek mythology, Brisēis (Greek Βρισηίς) was a Trojan widow (from Lyrnessus) who was abducted during the Trojan War by Achilles upon the death of her three brothers and husband, King Mynes of Lyrnessus, in the fight. ... In Greek mythology, Chryseis (Greek: Χρύσηίς, Khrysēís) was a Trojan woman, the daughter of Chryses. ... A cup depicting Achilles bandaging Patroklos arm, by the Sosias Painter. ... For the district, see Gökçeada (district). ...


Ajax and a game of petteia

Telamonian Ajax laid waste the Thracian peninsula of which Polymestor, a son-in-law of Priam, was king. Polymestor surrendered Polydorus, one of Priam's children, of whom he had custody. He then attacked the town of the Phrygian king Teleutas, killed him in single combat and carried off his daughter Tecmessa.[91] Ajax also hunted the Trojan flocks, both on Mount Ida and in the countryside. Ajax Ajax or Aias (ancient Greek: ) was a mythological Greek hero, the son of Telamon and Periboea and king of Salamis. ... In Greek mythology, Polymestor was a King of Thrace. ... In Greek mythology, Polydorus referred to three different people. ... Phrygian can refer to: A person from Phrygia The Phrygian language This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... In Greek mythology, Tecmessa was the daughter of Teuthras, King of Teuthrania (in Mysia) or Teleutas, King of Phrygia. ... Two sacred mountains are called Mount Ida in Greek mythology, equally named Mount of the Goddess. ...


Numerous paintings on pottery have suggested a tale not mentioned in the literary traditions. At some point in the war Achilles and Ajax were playing a board game (petteia).[92][93] They were absorbed in the game and oblivious to the surrounding battle.[94] The Trojans attacked and reached the heroes, who were only saved by an intervention of Athena.[95] A board game is a game played with counters or pieces that are placed on, removed from, or moved across a board (a premarked surface, usually specific to that game). ...


The death of Palamedes

Odysseus was sent to Thrace to return with grain, but came back empty-handed. When scorned by Palamedes, Odysseus challenged him to do better. Palamedes set out and returned with a shipload of grain.[96] In Greek mythology, Palamedes was the son of Nauplius and Clymene. ...


Odysseus had never forgiven Palamedes for threatening the life of his son. In revenge, Odysseus conceived a plot[97] where an incriminating letter was forged, from Priam to Palamedes,[98] and gold was planted in Palamedes' quarters. The letter and gold were "discovered", and Agamemnon had Palamedes stoned to death for treason.


However, Pausanias, quoting the Cypria, says that Odysseus and Diomedes drowned Palamedes, while he was fishing, and Dictys says that Odysseus and Diomedes lured Palamedes into a well, which they said contained gold, then stoned him to death.[99] Diomēdēs or Diomed (Gk:Διομήδης - God-like cunning or advised by Zeus) is a hero in Greek mythology, mostly known for his participation in the Trojan War. ... In Greek mythology, Dictys was a fisherman and brother of King Polydectes of Seriphos. ...


Palamedes' father Nauplius sailed to the Troad and asked for justice, but was refused. In revenge, Nauplius traveled among the Achaean kingdoms and told the wives of the kings that they were bringing Trojan concubines to dethrone them. Many of the Greek wives were persuaded to betray their husbands, most significantly Agamemnon's wife, Clytemnestra, who was seduced by Aegisthus, son of Thyestes.[100] In Greek mythology, Nauplius was the son of Poseidon and Amymone. ... Clytemnestra trying to awake the Erinyes while her son is being purified by Apollo, Apulian red-figure krater, 480–470 BC, Louvre (Cp 710) After the murder (1882 painting) Clytemnestra (or Clytaemestra) ‘‘(Eng. ... In Greek mythology, Aegisthus (goat strength, also transliterated as Aegisthos or Aigísthos) was the son of Thyestes and his daughter, Pelopia. ... In Greek mythology, Thyestes was the son of Pelops, King of Mycenae, and Hippodamia and father of Pelopia and Aegisthus. ...


Mutiny

Near the end of the ninth year since the landing, the Achean army, tired from the fighting and from the lack of supplies, mutinied against their leaders and demanded to return to their homes. According to the Cypria, Achilles forced the army to stay.[33] According to Apollodorus, Agamemnon brought the Wine Growers, daughters of Anius, son of Apollo, who had the gift of producing by touch wine, wheat, and oil from the earth, in order to relieve the supply problem of the army.[101] In Greek mythology, Anius was the son of Apollo and Rhoeo. ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ...


The Iliad

Chryses pleading with Agamemnon for his daughter, ca. 360 BC–350 BC (Louvre).
Chryses pleading with Agamemnon for his daughter, ca. 360 BC–350 BC (Louvre).
Thetis gives her son Achilles his weapons newly forged by Hephaestus, detail of an Attic black-figure hydria, ca. 575 BC–550 BC (Louvre).
Thetis gives her son Achilles his weapons newly forged by Hephaestus, detail of an Attic black-figure hydria, ca. 575 BC–550 BC (Louvre).
Main article: Iliad

Chryses, a priest of Apollo and father of Chryseis, came to Agamemnon to ask for the return of his daughter. Agamemnon refused, and insulted Chryses, who prayed to Apollo to avenge his ill-treatment. Enraged, Apollo afflicted the Achaean army with plague. Agamemnon was forced to return Chryseis to end the plague, and took Achilles' concubine Briseis as his own. Enraged at the dishonor Agamemnon had inflicted upon him, Achilles decided he would no longer fight. He asked his mother, Thetis, to intercede with Zeus, who agreed to give the Trojans success in the absence of Achilles, the best warrior of the Achaeans. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2440x1950, 3886 KB) Description Description: Chryses attempting to ransom his daughter Chryses from Agamemnon. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2440x1950, 3886 KB) Description Description: Chryses attempting to ransom his daughter Chryses from Agamemnon. ... This article is about the museum. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2216x1216, 2089 KB) Description Description: Thetis gives her son Achilles his weapons newly forged by Hephaestus, detail of an Attic black-figure hydria, ca. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2216x1216, 2089 KB) Description Description: Thetis gives her son Achilles his weapons newly forged by Hephaestus, detail of an Attic black-figure hydria, ca. ... This article is about the museum. ... title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ... Chryses attempting to ransom his daughter Chryseis from Agamemnon, Apulian red-figure crater by the Athens 1714 Painter, ca. ... In Greek mythology, Chryseis (Greek: Χρύσηίς, Khrysēís) was a Trojan woman, the daughter of Chryses. ... This article is about a character in Greek mythology. ... Chryses attempting to ransom his daughter Chryseis from Agamemnon, Apulian red-figure crater by the Athens 1714 Painter, ca. ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... This article is about a character in Greek mythology. ... For other uses, see Achilles (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, Brisēis (Greek Βρισηίς) was a Trojan widow (from Lyrnessus) who was abducted during the Trojan War by Achilles upon the death of her three brothers and husband, King Mynes of Lyrnessus, in the fight. ...


After the withdrawal of Achilles, the Achaeans were initially successful. Both armies gathered in full for the first time since the landing. Menelaus and Paris fought a duel, which ended when Aphrodite snatched the beaten Paris from the field. With the truce broken, the armies began fighting again. Diomedes won great renown amongst the Achaeans, killing the Trojan hero Pandaros and nearly killing Aeneas, who was only saved by his mother, Aphrodite. With the assistance of Athena, Diomedes then wounded the gods Aphrodite and Ares. During the next days, however, the Trojans drove the Achaeans back to their camp and were stopped at the Achaean wall by Poseidon. The next day, though, with Zeus' help, the Trojans broke into the Achaean camp and were on the verge of setting fire to the Achaean ships. An earlier appeal to Achilles to return was rejected, but after Hector burned Protesilaus' ship, he allowed his close friend[102] and relative Patroclus to go into battle wearing Achilles' armor and lead his army. Patroclus drove the Trojans all the way back to the walls of Troy, and was only prevented from storming the city by the intervention of Apollo. Patroclus was then killed by Hector, who took Achilles' armor from the body of Patroclus. The Achaeans (in Greek , Achaioi) is the collective name given to the Greek forces in Homers Iliad (used 598 times). ... Diomēdēs or Diomed (Gk:Διομήδης - God-like cunning or advised by Zeus) is a hero in Greek mythology, mostly known for his participation in the Trojan War. ... In Homers Iliad, Pandarus or Pandaros is the son of Lycaon and a famous archer. ... Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598. ... The Birth of Venus, (detail) by Sandro Botticelli, 1485 For other uses, see Aphrodite (disambiguation). ... This article is about the ancient Greek god; for other uses, see Ares (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hector (disambiguation). ...

Triumphant Achilles dragging Hector's lifeless body in front of the Gates of Troy. (From a panoramic fresco on the upper level of the main hall of the Achilleion)
Triumphant Achilles dragging Hector's lifeless body in front of the Gates of Troy. (From a panoramic fresco on the upper level of the main hall of the Achilleion)

Achilles, maddened with grief, swore to kill Hector in revenge. He was reconciled with Agamemnon and received Briseis back, untouched by Agamemnon. He received a new set of arms, forged by the god Hephaestus, and returned to the battlefield. He slaughtered many Trojans, and nearly killed Aeneas, who was saved by Poseidon. Achilles fought with the river god Scamander, and a battle of the gods followed. The Trojan army returned to the city, except for Hector, who remained outside the walls because he was tricked by Athena. Achilles killed Hector, and afterwards he dragged Hector's body from his chariot and refused to return the body to the Trojans for burial. The Achaeans then conducted funeral games for Patroclus. Afterwards, Priam came to Achilles' tent, guided by Hermes, and asked Achilles to return Hector's body. The armies made a temporary truce to allow the burial of the dead. The Iliad ends with the funeral of Hector. For other uses of Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ... This article is about the artistic term Panorama. ... For other uses, see Fresco (disambiguation). ... Achilleion Palace Achilleas thniskon in the gardens of the Achilleion. ... Hephaestus (pronounced or ; Greek HÄ“phaistos) was a Greek god whose Roman equivalent was Vulcan; he was the god of technology, blacksmiths, craftsmen, artisans, sculptors, metals and metallurgy, and fire. ... In Greek mythology, Scamander (Skamandros) was an Oceanid, son of Oceanus and Tethys. ... For other uses, see Athena (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hermes (disambiguation). ...


After the Iliad

Achilles killing Penthesilea, Antikensammlung, Munich.
Achilles killing Penthesilea, Antikensammlung, Munich.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 726 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2024 × 1672 pixel, file size: 294 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 726 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2024 × 1672 pixel, file size: 294 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Bavarian State Collection of Antiques The Staatliche Antikensammlung (State Collection of Antiques) in Munich is a museum for the Bavarian states antique collections for Greek, Etruscan and Roman art. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ...

Penthesilea and the death of Achilles

Shortly after the burial of Hector, Penthesilea, queen of the Amazons, arrived with her warriors.[103] Penthesilea, daughter of Otrere and Ares, had accidentally killed her sister Hippolyte. She was purified from this action by Priam,[104] and in exchange she fought for him and killed many, including Machaon[105] (according to Pausanias, Machaon was killed by Eurypylus),[106] and according to another version, Achilles himself, who was resurrected at the request of Thetis.[107] Penthesilia was then killed by Achilles[108] who fell in love with her beauty after her death. Thersites, a simple soldier and the ugliest Achaean, taunted Achilles over his love[105] and gouged out Penthesilea's eyes.[109] Achilles slew Thersites, and after a dispute sailed to Lesbos, where he was purified for his murder by Odysseus after sacrificing to Apollo, Artemis, and Leto.[108] In Greek mythology, Penthesilea (also spelled Penthesilia) was an Amazonian queen, daughter of Ares and Otrera, sister of Hippolyte, Antiope and Melanippe. ... The Amazons (in Greek, ) were a mythical ancient nation of all-female warriors. ... In Greek mythology, Hippolyta is the Amazonian queen who possessed a magical girdle she was given by her father Ares, the god of war. ... For the Machaon of the Trojan War, see Machaon (mythology). ... In Greek mythology, Eurypylus (Greek: Εὐρύπυλος) was the name of several different people. ... In Greek mythology, Thersites, son of Agrius, was a rank-and-file soldier of the Greek army during the Trojan War. ...


While they were away, Memnon of Ethiopia, son of Tithonus and Eos,[110] came with his host to help his stepbrother Priam.[111] He did not come directly from Ethiopia, but either from Susa in Persia, conquering all the peoples in between,[112] or from the Caucasus, leading an army of Ethiopians and Indians.[113] Like Achilles, he wore armor made by Hephaestus.[114] In the ensuing battle, Memnon killed Antilochus, who took one of Memnon's blows to save his father Nestor.[115] Achilles and Memnon then fought. Zeus weighed the fate of the two heroes; the weight containing that of Memnon sank,[116] and he was slain by Achilles.[108][117] Achilles chased the Trojans to their city, which he entered. The gods, seeing that he had killed too many of their children, decided that it was his time to die. He was killed after Paris shot a poisoned arrow that was guided by Apollo.[108][118][119] In another version he was killed by a knife to the back (or heel) by Paris, while marrying Polyxena, daughter of Priam, in the temple of Thymbraean Apollo,[120] the site where he had earlier killed Troilus. Both versions conspicuously deny the killer any sort of valour, saying Achilles remained undefeated on the battlefield. His bones were mingled with those of Patroclus, and funeral games were held.[121] Like Ajax, he is represented as living after his death in the island of Leuke, at the mouth of the Danube River,[122] where he is married to Helen.[123] In Greek mythology, Memnon was an Ethiopian king and son of Tithonus and Eos. ... In Greek mythology, Tithonus was Eos lover. ... Eos, by Evelyn De Morgan (1850 - 1919), 1895 (Columbia Museum of Art, Columbia, SC): for a Pre-Raphaelite painter, Eos was still the classical pagan equivalent of an angel Eos (dawn) was, in Greek Mythology, the Titan goddess of the dawn, who rose from her home at the edge of... For other uses, see Susa (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... In Greek mythology, Antilochus (also transliterated as Antílokhos) was the son of Nestor, king of Pylos. ... In Greek mythology, Nestor of Gerênia (Greek: Νέστωρ) was the son of Neleus and Chloris, and the King of Pylos. ... For the Christian Saint, please see Acts of Xanthippe, Polyxena, and Rebecca Polyxena dies by the hand of Neoptolemus on the tomb of Achilles. ... Map of the Snake Island Snake Island (Romanian: Insula şerpilor, Ukrainian: ostriv Zmiyinyy) is an isle in the Black Sea, currently claimed by Romania, but administered by Ukraine and included in its Kiliya raion of Odeska oblast. Geography The island is a limestone formation located 44 km from the... This article is about the Danube River. ...


The Judgment of the Arms: Achilles' armour and the death of Ajax

Ajax preparing to commit suicide.
Ajax preparing to commit suicide.

A great battle raged around the dead Achilles. Ajax held back the Trojans, while Odysseus carried the body away.[108] When Achilles' armour was offered to the smartest warrior, the two that had saved his body came forward as competitors. Agamemnon, unwilling to undertake the invidious duty of deciding between the two competitors, referred the dispute to the decision of the Trojan prisoners, inquiring of them which of the two heroes had done most harm to the Trojans.[124] Alternatively, the Trojans and Pallas Athena were the judges[125][126] in that, following Nestor's advice, spies were sent to the walls to overhear what was said. A girl said that Ajax was braver: Image File history File links Ajax_suicide. ... Image File history File links Ajax_suicide. ...

For Aias took up and carried out of the strife the hero, Peleus'
son: this great Odysseus cared not to do.
To this another replied by Athena's contrivance:
Why, what is this you say? A thing against reason and untrue!
Even a woman could carry a load once a man had put it on her
shoulder; but she could not fight. For she would fail with fear
if she should fight. (Scholiast on Aristophanes, Knights 1056 and Aristophanes ib)
Ajax having committed suicide.
Ajax having committed suicide.

According to Pindar, the decision was made by secret ballot among the Acheans.[127] In all story versions, the arms were awarded to Odysseus. Driven mad with grief, Ajax desired to kill his comrades, but Athena caused him to mistake the cattle and their herdsmen for the Achean warriors.[128] In his frenzy he scourged two rams, believing them to be Agamemnon and Menelaus.[129] In the morning, he came to his senses and killed himself by jumping on the sword that had been given to him by Hector, so that it pierced his armpit, his only vulnerable part.[130] According to an older tradition, he was killed by the Trojans who, seeing he was invulnerable, attacked him with clay until he was covered by it and could no longer move, thus dying of starvation. Image File history File links Ajax_suicide_2. ... Image File history File links Ajax_suicide_2. ...


The prophecies

After the tenth year, it was prophesied[131] that Troy could not fall without Heracles' bow, which was with Philoctetes in Lemnos. Odysseus and Diomedes[132] retrieved Philoctetes, whose wound had healed.[133] Philoctetes then shot and killed Paris. In Greek mythology, Philoctetes (also Philoktêtês or Philocthetes, Φιλοκτήτης) was the son of King Poeas of Meliboea in Thessaly. ...


According to Apollodorus, Paris' brothers Helenus and Deiphobus vied over the hand of Helen. Deiphobus prevailed, and Helenus abandoned Troy for Mt. Ida. Chalcas said that Helenus knew the prophecies concerning the fall of Troy, so Odysseus waylaid Helenus.[126][134] Under coercion, Helenus told the Acheans that they would win if they retrieved Pelops' bones, persuaded Achilles' son Neoptolemus to fight for them, and stole the Trojan Palladium.[135] Helenus was a Trojan soldier in the Trojan War. ... In Greek mythology, Deiphobus was a son of Priam and Hecuba. ... In Greek mythology, Pelops (Greek Πέλοψ, from pelios: dark; and ops: face, eye) was venerated at Olympia, where his cult developed into the founding myth of the Olympic Games, the most important expression of unity, not only for the Peloponnesus, land of Pelops, but for all Hellenes. ... Neoptolemus killing Priam In Greek mythology, Neoptolemus, also Neoptólemos or Pyrrhus, was the son of the warrior Achilles and the princess Deidamea. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Palladion. ...


The Greeks retrieved Pelop's bones,[136] and sent Odysseus to retrieve Neoptolemus, who was hiding from the war in King Lycomedes's court in Scyros. Odysseus gave him his father's arms.[126][137] Eurypylus, son of Telephus, leading, according to Homer, a large force of Kêteioi,[138] or Hittites or Mysians according to Apollodorus,[139] arrived to aid the Trojans. He killed Machaon[140] and Peneleus,[141] but was slain by Neoptolemus. In Greek mythology, Lycomedes (also known as Lycurgus) was the King of Skyros during the Trojan War. ... Skyros (Greek: Σκύρος) is the southernmost island of the Sporades, a Greek archipelago in the Aegean Sea. ... In Greek mythology, Eurypylus (Greek: Εὐρύπυλος) was the name of several different people. ... A Greek mythological figure, Telephus referred to two different people. ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people from KaneÅ¡ who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite... Mysia. ... In Greek mythology, Machaon was a son of Asclepius. ...


Disguised as a beggar, Odysseus went to spy inside Troy, but was recognized by Helen. Homesick,[142] Helen plotted with Odysseus. Later, with Helen's help, Odysseus and Diomedes stole the Palladium.[126][143]


Trojan Horse

Main article: Trojan Horse
19th century etching of the Trojan Horse.

The end of the war came with one final plan. Odysseus devised a new ruse—a giant hollow wooden horse, an animal that was sacred to the Trojans. It was built by Epeius and guided by Athena,[144] from the wood of a cornel tree grove sacred to Apollo,[145] with the inscription: For other uses, see Trojan Horse (disambiguation). ... 19th century etching of the Trojan Horse, http://www. ... 19th century etching of the Trojan Horse, http://www. ... Christ Preaching, known as The Hundred Guilder print; etching c1648 by Rembrandt Etching is the process of using strong acid to cut into the unprotected parts of a metal surface to create a design in intaglio in the metal (the original process - in modern manufacturing other chemicals may be used... For other uses, see Trojan Horse (disambiguation). ... Epeus redirects here. ... The cornel tree is a deciduous plant that can grow to about 5 meters. ...

The Greeks dedicate this thank-offering to Athena for their return home.[146]

The hollow horse was filled with soldiers[147] led by Odysseus. The rest of the army burned the camp and sailed for Tenedos.[148] Tenedos, known as Bozcaada officially and by its Turkish inhabitants, (Greek: , Tenedhos), is a small island in the Aegean Sea, part of the Bozcaada district of Çanakkale province in Turkey. ...


When the Trojans discovered that the Greeks were gone, believing the war was over, they "joyfully dragged the horse inside the city",[149] while they debated what to do with it. Some thought they ought to hurl it down from the rocks, others thought they should burn it, while others said they ought to dedicate it to Athena.[150][151]


Both Cassandra and Laocoön warned against keeping the horse.[152] While Cassandra had been given the gift of prophecy by Apollo, she was also cursed by Apollo to never be believed. Serpents then came out of the sea and devoured either Laocoön and one of his two sons,[150] Laocoön and both his sons,[153] or only his sons,[154] a portent which so alarmed the followers of Aeneas that they withdrew to Ida.[150] The Trojans decided to keep the horse and turned to a night of mad revelry and celebration.[126] Sinon, an Achaean spy, signaled the fleet stationed at Tenedos when "it was midnight and the clear moon was rising"[155] and the soldiers from inside the horse emerged and killed the guards.[156] For other uses, see Cassandra (disambiguation). ... Statue of Laocoön in the Vatican Laocoön (in Greek – Λαοκόων, pronounced roughly La — oh — koh — on), son of Priam, was allegedly a priest of Poseidon (or of Apollo, by some accounts) at Troy; he was famous for warning the Trojans in vain against accepting the Trojan Horse from the... In Greek mythology, Sinon, a son of Aesimus (son of Autolycus), or of the crafty Sisyphus, was a Greek warrior during the Trojan War. ...


The sack of Troy

Priam killed by Neoptolemus, son of Achilles, detail of an Attic black-figure amphora, ca. 520 BC–510 BC, Louvre.
Priam killed by Neoptolemus, son of Achilles, detail of an Attic black-figure amphora, ca. 520 BC–510 BC, Louvre.

The Acheans entered the city and killed the sleeping population. A great massacre followed which continued into the day. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1845x1800, 2113 KB) Description fr: Priam tué par Néoptolème, fils dAchille. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1845x1800, 2113 KB) Description fr: Priam tué par Néoptolème, fils dAchille. ... King Priam killed by Neoptolemus, son of Achilles, detail of an Attic red-figure amphora In Greek mythology, Priam (Greek Πρίαμος, Priamos) was the king of Troy during the Trojan War, and youngest son of Laomedon. ... Neoptolemus killing Priam In Greek mythology, Neoptolemus, also Neoptólemos or Pyrrhus, was the son of the warrior Achilles and the princess Deidamea. ... This article is about the museum. ...

Blood ran in torrents, drenched was all the earth,
As Trojans and their alien helpers died.
Here were men lying quelled by bitter death
All up and down the city in their blood.[157]

The Trojans, fuelled with desperation, fought back fiercely, despite being disorganized and leaderless. With the fighting at its height, some donned fallen enemies' attire and launched surprise counterattacks in the chaotic street fighting. Other defenders hurled down roof tiles and anything else heavy down on the rampaging attackers. The outlook was grim though, and eventually the remaining defenders were destroyed along with the whole city.


Neoptolemus killed Priam, who had taken refuge at the altar of Zeus of the Courtyard.[150][158] Menelaus killed Deiphobus, Helen's husband after Paris' death, and also intended to kill Helen, but, overcome by her beauty, threw down his sword[159] and took her to the ships.[150][160] In Greek mythology, Deiphobus was a son of Priam and Hecuba. ...


Ajax the Lesser raped Cassandra on Athena's altar while she was clinging to her statue. Because of Ajax's impiety, the Acheaens, urged by Odysseus, wanted to stone him to death, but he fled to Athena's altar, and was spared.[150][161] Ajax (Greek: Αἴας), a Greek hero, son of Oïleus the king of Locris, called the lesser or Locrian Ajax, to distinguish him from Ajax, son of Telamon. ...


Antenor, who had given hospitality to Menelaus and Odysseus when they asked for the return of Helen, and who had advocated so, was spared, along with his family.[162] Aeneas took his father on his back and fled, and, according to Apollodorus, was allowed to go because of his piety.[158] In Greek mythology, Antenor was a son of the Dardanian noble Aesyetes by Cleomestra. ...


The Greeks then burned the city and divided the spoils. Cassandra was awarded to Agamemnon. Neoptolemus got Andromache, wife of Hector, and Odysseus was given Hecuba, Priam's wife.[163] This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Achaeans[164] threw Hector's infant son Astyanax down from the walls of Troy,[165] either out of cruelty and hate[166] or to end the royal line, and the possibility of a son's revenge.[167] They (by usual tradition Neoptolemus) also sacrificed the Trojan princess Polyxena on the grave of Achilles as demanded by his ghost, either as part of his spoil or because she had betrayed him.[168] In Greek mythology, Astyanax (Greek Ἀστυάναξ, prince of the city) was the son of Hector and Andromache. ... For the Christian Saint, please see Acts of Xanthippe, Polyxena, and Rebecca Polyxena dies by the hand of Neoptolemus on the tomb of Achilles. ...


Aethra, Theseus' mother, and one of Helen's handmaids,[169] was rescued by her grandsons, Demophon and Acamas.[150][170] In Greek mythology, Aethra was a daughter of King Pittheus of Troezena and, with Aegeas, or in some versions, Poseidon, mother of Theseus. ... Theseus (Greek ) was a legendary king of Athens, son of Aethra, and fathered by Aegeus and Poseidon, with whom Aethra lay in one night (By some accounts, this was presented as a rape). ... In Greek mythology, Demophon referred to two different kings: one of Eleusis and the other, Athens Demophon was a son of King Celeus and Queen Metanira. ... In Greek mythology, Acamas (unwearying) was the son of Phaedra and Theseus. ...


The returns

Main article: Returns from Troy

The gods were very angry over the destruction of their temples and other sacrilegious acts by the Acheans, and decided that most would not return home. A storm fell on the returning fleet off Tenos island. Additionally, Nauplius, in revenge for the murder of his son Palamedes, set up false lights in Cape Caphereus (also known today as Cavo D'Oro, in Euboea) and many were shipwrecked.[171] After the fall of Troy most Achaean heroes did not return to their homes. ... Tinos (Greek: Τήνος) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea, part of Greece. ... For the Greek mythological figures see Euboea Euboea, or Negropont or Negroponte (Modern Greek: Εύβοια Évia, Ancient Greek Eúboia), is the second largest of the Greek Aegean Islands and the second largest Greek island overall in area and population (after Crete). ...


Nestor, who had the best conduct in Troy and did not take part in the looting, was the only hero who had a fast and safe return.[172] Those of his army that survived the war also reached home with him safely, but later left and colonised Metapontium in Southern Italy.[173] The word may have one of the following meanings. ... Metapontum or Metapontium (Greek: : Thuc. ... The Mezzogiorno is generally viewed as encompassing Basilicata, Campania, Calabria, Apulia, and Sicily, which lie in Italys south, as well as Molise and Abruzzo, which are geographically in central or south-central Italy. ...

Poseidon smites Ajax the Lesser, by Genelli Bonaventura (1798–1868).
Poseidon smites Ajax the Lesser, by Genelli Bonaventura (1798–1868).

Ajax the Lesser, who had endured more than the others the wrath of the Gods, never returned. His ship was wrecked by a storm sent by Athena, who borrowed one of Zeus' thunderbolts and tore it to pieces. The crew managed to land in a rock, but Poseidon struck it, and Ajax fell in the sea and drowned. He was buried by Thetis in Myconos[174] or Delos.[175] Image File history File links Poseidon_and_Ajax. ... Image File history File links Poseidon_and_Ajax. ... Neptune reigns in the city of Bristol. ... Ajax (Greek: Αἴας), a Greek hero, son of Oïleus the king of Locris, called the lesser or Locrian Ajax, to distinguish him from Ajax, son of Telamon. ... Ajax (Greek: Αἴας), a Greek hero, son of Oïleus the king of Locris, called the lesser or Locrian Ajax, to distinguish him from Ajax, son of Telamon. ... Mykonos (hora) Mykonos is one of the Cyclades, a group of islands of the Aegean Sea, lying between Tinos, Siros, Paros and Naxos. ... The island of Delos, Carl Anton Joseph Rottmann, 1847 The island of Delos (Greek: Δήλος, Dhilos), isolated in the centre of the roughly circular ring of islands called the Cyclades, near Mykonos, had a position as a holy sanctuary for a millennium before Olympian Greek mythology made it the birthplace of...


Teucer, son of Telamon and half-brother of Ajax, stood trial by his father for his half-brother's death. He was not allowed to land and was at sea near Phreattys in Peiraeus.[176] He was acquitted of responsibility but found guilty of negligence because he did not return his dead body or his arms. He left with his army (who took their wives) and founded Salamis in Cyprus.[177] The Athenians later created a political myth that his son left his kingdom to Theseus' sons (and not to Megara). In Greek mythology Teucer, also Teucrus or Teucris from Greek Τεύκρος, was the son of King Telamon of Salamis and his second wife Hesione, daughter of King Laomedon of Troy. ... Piraeus, or Peiraeus (Modern Greek: Πειραιά(ς) Pireá(s), Ancient Greek / Katharevousa: Πειραιεύς Pireéfs) is a city in the prefecture of Attica, Greece, located south of Athens. ... Megara (Greek: Μέγαρα (Big Houses); see also List of traditional Greek place names) is an ancient city in Attica, Greece. ...


Neoptolemus, following the advice of Helenus, who accompanied him when he traveled over land, was always accompanied by Andromache. He met Odysseus and they buried Phoenix, Achilles' teacher, on the land of the Ciconians. They then conquered the land of the Molossians (Epirus) and had a child by Andromache, Molossus, to whom he later gave the throne.[178] Thus the kings of Epirus claimed descendance from Achilles, and so did Alexander the Great, whose mother was of that royal house. Alexander the Great and the kings of Macedon also claimed descendance from Heracles. Helenus founded a city in Molossia and inhabited it, and Neoptolemus gave him his mother Deidamia as wife. After Peleus died he succeeded Phtia's throne.[179] He had a feud with Orestes, son of Agamemnon, over Menelaus' daughter Hermione, and was killed in Delphi, where he was buried.[180] In Roman myths, the kingdom of Phtia was taken over by Helenus, who married Andromache. They offered hospitality to other Trojan refugees, including Aeneas, who paid a visit there during his wanderings. Neoptolemus killing Priam In Greek mythology, Neoptolemus, also Neoptólemos or Pyrrhus, was the son of the warrior Achilles and the princess Deidamea. ... For the micronation of Molossia, see Republic of Molossia Map of Chaonia, Molossis & Thesprotia The Molossians (Molossoi) were an ancient Greek[1] tribe that settled Epirus during Mycenaean times. ... Epirus, spanning Greece and Albania. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Ancient Macedons regions and towns Macedon or Macedonia (Greek ) was the name of an ancient kingdom in the northern-most part of ancient Greece, bordered by the kingdom of Epirus to the west and the region of Thrace to the east. ... The Remorse of Orestes by William-Adolphe Bouguereau For other uses, see Orestes (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, Hermione was a daughter of Menelaus and Helen. ... For other uses, see Delphi (disambiguation). ...


Diomedes was first thrown by a storm on the coast of Lycia, where he was to be sacrificed to Ares by king Lycus, but Callirrhoe, the king's daughter, took pity upon him, and assisted him in escaping.[181] He then accidentally landed in Attica, in Phaleron. The Athenians, unaware that they were allies, attacked them. Many were killed, and Demophon took the Palladium.[182] He finally landed in Argos, where he found his wife Aegialeia committing adultery. In disgust, he left for Aetolia.[183] According to later traditions, he had some adventures and founded Canusium and Argyrippa in Southern Italy.[184] DiomÄ“dÄ“s or Diomed (Gk:Διομήδης - God-like cunning or advised by Zeus) is a hero in Greek mythology, mostly known for his participation in the Trojan War. ... Lycus or Lykos may refer to: Lycus or Lykos (Greek: Λύκος)Place Name in Greece Lykos (Small beach in southern Crete), small secluded beach in Southern Crete, near Sfakia. ... In Greek mythology, three women were named Callirhoe or Callirrhoe: A daughter of Oceanus and mother of Echidna, one of the Oceanids. ... Attica (in Greek: Αττική, Attike; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a periphery (subdivision) in Greece, containing Athens, the capital of Greece. ... Faliro or Faliron/Phaliron (Greek: Φάληρο Pháliro, Latin: Phaleron, Phalerum) is a community 8 km SW of downtown Athens. ... In Greek mythology, Demophon referred to two different kings: one of Eleusis and the other, Athens Demophon was a son of King Celeus and Queen Metanira. ... This article is about the city in Greece. ... The ancient Region of Aetolia, Greece Aetolia is a mountainous region of Greece on the north coast of the Gulf of Corinth, forming the eastern part of the modern prefecture of Aetolia-Acarnania. ... View of Canosa Canosa is a town in Apulia, population 30,374, in southern Italy, between Bari and Foggia, located in the Province of Bari. ...


Philoctetes, due to a sedition, was driven from his city and emigrated to Italy, where he founded the cities of Petilia, Old Crimissa, and Chone, between Croton and Thurii.[185] After making war on the Leucanians he founded there a sanctuary of Apollo the Wanderer, to whom also he dedicated his bow.[186] In Greek mythology, Philoctetes (also Philoktêtês or Philocthetes, Φιλοκτήτης) was the son of King Poeas of Meliboea in Thessaly. ... Petilia or Petelia was a city on the coast of Bruttium, traditionally founded by Philoctetes. ... Chone may refer to: Chone, Ecuador, an Ecuadorian city located in the Manabí Province[1], Chone Figgins, a Major League Baseball utility player for the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim, Chone, Tibet, a Tibetan monastery[2], town and princedom [3], Choni (language) (Chona, Chone), a Sino-Tibetan language spoken on... Croton may also refer to a plant genus. ... Thurii, or Thueium, was a city of Magna Graecia on the Gulf of Taranto, near the site of the older Sybaris. ...


According to Homer, Idomeneus reached his house safe and sound.[187] Another tradition later formed. After the war, Idomeneus's ship hit a horrible storm. Idomeneus promised Poseidon that he would sacrifice the first living thing he saw when he returned home if Poseidon would save his ship and crew. The first living thing he saw was his son, whom Idomeneus duly sacrificed. The gods were angry at his murder of his own son and they sent a plague to Crete. His people sent him into exile to Calabria in Italy,[188] and then to Colophon, in Asia Minor, where he died.[189] Among the lesser Acheans very few reached their homes. In Greek mythology, Idomeneus was a Cretan warrior, grandson of Minos. ... In Greek mythology, Idomeneus was a Cretan warrior, grandson of Minos. ... Neptune reigns in the city of Bristol. ... Neptune reigns in the city of Bristol. ... For other uses, see Calabria (disambiguation). ... Colophon (Greek Κολοφών; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was a titular see of Asia Minor. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ...


House of Atreus

The murder of Agamemnon, from an 1879 illustration from Stories from the Greek Tragedians, by Alfred Church.
The murder of Agamemnon, from an 1879 illustration from Stories from the Greek Tragedians, by Alfred Church.

According to the Odyssey, Menelaus's fleet was blown by storms to Crete and Egypt, where they were unable to sail away due to calm winds.[190] Only five of his ships survived.[191] Menelaus had to catch Proteus, a shape-shifting sea god, to find out what sacrifices to which gods he would have to make to guarantee safe passage.[192] According to some stories the Helen who was taken by Paris was a fake, and the real Helen was in Egypt, where she was reunited with Menelaus. Proteus also told Menelaus that he was destined for Elysium (Heaven) after his death. Menelaus returned to Sparta with Helen eight years after he had left Troy.[193] The Murder of Agamemnon - Project Gutenberg eText 14994 - http://www. ... The Murder of Agamemnon - Project Gutenberg eText 14994 - http://www. ... This article is about a character in Greek mythology. ... For other uses, see Odyssey (disambiguation). ... Menelaus regains Helen, detail of an Attic red-figure crater, ca. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... This article is about Proteus in Greek mythology. ... For other uses, see Elysium (disambiguation). ...


Agamemnon returned home with Cassandra to Argos. His wife Clytemnestra (Helen's sister) was having an affair with Aegisthus, son of Thyestes, Agamemnon's cousin who had conquered Argos before Agamemnon himself retook it. Possibly out of vengeance for the death of Iphigenia, Clytemnestra plotted with her lover to kill Agamemnon. Cassandra foresaw this murder, and warned Agamemnon, but he disregarded her. He was killed, either at a feast or in his bath,[194] according to different versions. Cassandra was also killed.[195] Agamemnon's son Orestes, who had been away, returned and conspired with his sister Electra to avenge their father.[196] He killed Clytemnestra and Aegisthus and succeeded to his father's throne.[197][198] This article is about a character in Greek mythology. ... Clytemnestra trying to awake the Erinyes while her son is being purified by Apollo, Apulian red-figure krater, 480–470 BC, Louvre (Cp 710) After the murder (1882 painting) Clytemnestra (or Clytaemestra) ‘‘(Eng. ... In Greek mythology, Aegisthus (goat strength, also transliterated as Aegisthos or Aigísthos) was the son of Thyestes and his daughter, Pelopia. ... In Greek mythology, Thyestes was the son of Pelops, King of Mycenae, and Hippodamia and father of Pelopia and Aegisthus. ... 112 Iphigenia is an asteroid. ... Electra at the Tomb of Agamemnon In Greek mythology, Electra was daughter of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra. ... Clytemnestra trying to awake the Erinyes while her son is being purified by Apollo, Apulian red-figure krater, 480–470 BC, Louvre (Cp 710) After the murder (1882 painting) Clytemnestra (or Clytaemestra) ‘‘(Eng. ... In Greek mythology, Aegisthus (goat strength, also transliterated as Aegisthos or Aigísthos) was the son of Thyestes and his daughter, Pelopia. ...


The Odyssey

Main article: Odyssey

Odysseus' ten year journey home to Ithaca was told in Homer's Odyssey. Odysseus and his men were blown far off course to lands unknown to the Achaeans; there Odysseus had many adventures, including the famous encounter with the Cyclops Polyphemus, and an audience with the seer Teiresias in Hades. On the island of Thrinacia, Odysseus' men ate the cattle sacred to the sun-god Helios. For this sacrilege Odysseus' ships were destroyed, and all his men perished. Odysseus had not eaten the cattle, and was allowed to live; he washed ashore on the island of Ogygia, and lived there with the nymph Calypso. After seven years, the gods decided to send Odysseus home; on a small raft, he sailed to Scheria, the home of the Phaeacians, who gave him passage to Ithaca. For other uses, see Odyssey (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1152x781, 181 KB)Odysseus and Nausicaä - by Charles Gleyre - from Project Gutenberg eText 13725 - http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1152x781, 181 KB)Odysseus and Nausicaä - by Charles Gleyre - from Project Gutenberg eText 13725 - http://www. ... For other uses, see Odysseus (disambiguation). ... Odysseus and Nausicaä - by Charles Gleyre In Greek mythology, Nausicaa, (also Náusikaa or Nausicaä) was a daughter of King Alcinous of the Phaeaceans. ... Categories: Stub | 1806 births | 1874 deaths | Swiss painters | Natives of Vaud ... For other uses, see Odysseus (disambiguation). ... For other places or objects named Ithaca, see Ithaca (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... This page is about the mythical creature. ... For the collection of short stories by Michael Shea, see Polyphemus (book). ... In Greek mythology, Tiresias was a blind prophet, the son of the shepherd Everes and the nymph Chariclo. ... Hades, Greek god of the underworld, enthroned, with his bird-headed staff, on a red-figure Apulian vase made in the 4th century BC. For other uses, see Hades (disambiguation). ... Thrinicia, mentioned in Homers Odyssey, is the island home of Helios cattle, is said to have been Sicily since the name Thrinicia implies an island connected to the number 3 and Sicily has three corners. ... For other uses, see Helios (disambiguation). ... Ogygia was believed to have been an island in the Mediterranean that sank following a huge and powerful earthquake, which shook the area before the bronze age. ... Now hes left to pine on an island, wracked with grief (Odyssey V): Calypso and Odysseus, by Arnold Böcklin, 1883 Calypso (Greek: Καλυψώ, I will conceal, also transliterated as Kalypsó or Kālypsō), was a naiad, daughter of Atlas who lived on the island of Gozo in Greek mythology. ... Nausicaa takes Odysseus to the palace Σχερία (Scheria, Skhería) or Phaeacia was a phantom island mentioned in the Greek mythology and literature as the homeland of the Phaeacians and the last destination of Odysseus before coming back home to Ithaca. ... In Greek mythology, Scheria, Skhería, or Phaeacia, is an island, the land of the Phaeacians. ... For other places or objects named Ithaca, see Ithaca (disambiguation). ...


Once in his home land, Odysseus traveled disguised as an old beggar. He was recognised by his dog, Argos, who died in his lap. He then discovered that his wife, Penelope, had been faithful to him during the 20 years he was absent, despite the countless suitors that were eating his food and spending his property. With the help of his son Telemachus, Athena, and Eumaeus, the swineherd, he killed all of them except Medon, who had been polite to Penelope, and Phemius, a local singer who had only been forced to help the suitors against Penelope. Penelope tested him and made sure it was him, and he forgave her. The next day the suitors' relatives tried to take revenge on him but they were stopped by Athena. In Greek mythology, Argos was Odysseus faithful dog. ... The Vatican Penelope: a Roman marble copy of an Early Classical 6th-century Greek work (Vatican Museums) For other uses, see Penelope (disambiguation). ... Slaughter of the suitors by Odysseus and Telemachus, Campanian red-figure bell-krater, ca. ... In Greek mythology, Eumaeus, or Eumaios, was Odysseus swineherd and friend before he left for the Trojan War. ... In Greek mythology, there were two people called Medôn. ... In Greek mythology, Phemius, or Phêmios was an Ithacan singer who was forced to help the suitors against Penelope. ...


The Telegony

Main article: Telegony

The Telegony picks up where the Odyssey leaves off, beginning with the burial of the dead suitors, and continues until the death of Odysseus.[199] Some years after Odysseus' return, Telegonus, the son of Odysseus and Circe, came to Ithaca and plundered the island. Odysseus, attempting to fight off the attack, was killed by his unrecognized son. After Telegonus realized he had killed his father, he brought the body to his mother Circe, along with Telemachus and Penelope. Circe made them immortal; then Telegonus married Penelope and Telemachus married Circe. The Telegony (Greek: Τηλεγόνεια, Telegoneia; Latin: Telegonia) is a lost epic of ancient Greek literature. ... The Telegony (Greek: Τηλεγόνεια, Telegoneia; Latin: Telegonia) is a lost epic of ancient Greek literature. ... In Greek mythology, Telegonus (born afar) was the youngest son of Circe and Odysseus. ... Circe, a painting by John William Waterhouse. ...


The Aeneid

Main article: The Aeneid
Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598 Galleria Borghese, Rome
Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598 Galleria Borghese, Rome

Aeneas led a group of survivors away from the city, including his son Ascanius, his trumpeter Misenus, father Anchises, the healer Iapyx, all the Lares, and Penates and Mimas as a guide. His wife Creusa was killed during the sack of the city. They fled Troy with a number of ships, seeking to establish a new homeland elsewhere. They landed in several nearby countries that proved inhospitable, and were finally told by a sibyl that they had to return to the land of their forebears. They first tried to establish themselves in Crete, where Dardanus had once settled, but found it ravaged by the same plague that had driven Idomeneus away. They found the colony led by Helenus and Andromache, but declined to remain. After seven years they arrived in Carthage, where Aeneas had an affair with Dido. Eventually the gods ordered him to continue onward (Dido committed suicide), and he and his people arrived at the mouth of the Tiber River in Italy. There, a sibyl took him to the underworld and foretold the majesty of Rome, which would be founded by his people. He negotiated a settlement with the local king, Lavinius, and was wed to his daughter, Lavinia. This triggered a war with other local tribes, which culminated in the founding of the settlement of Alba Longa, ruled by Aeneas and Lavinia's son Silvius. Three hundred years later, according to Roman myth, his descendants Romulus and Remus founded Rome. The details of the journey of Aeneas, his affair with Dido, and his settling in Italy are the subject of the Roman epic poem The Aeneid by Virgil. According to tradition, though Carthage was founded in 814 BC, so the true Aeneas, if he had ventured to the West he would have found little more than villages. The Aeneid is a Latin epic written by Vergil in the 1st century BC that tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who traveled to Italy where he became the ancestor of the Romans. ... Download high resolution version (1050x729, 119 KB)Federico Barocci, Aeneas Flight from Troy 1598 Galleria Borghese, Rome The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus... Download high resolution version (1050x729, 119 KB)Federico Barocci, Aeneas Flight from Troy 1598 Galleria Borghese, Rome The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus... Annunciation (1592-96) Oil on canvas, Santa Maria degli Angeli, Perugia. ... The Villa Borghese Pinciana (begun 1605) houses the Galleria Borghese. ... Ascanius Hunting the Stag of Silvia, by Claude Lorrain (1682). ... In Greek mythology, there were two people called Misenus. ... Aeneas Bearing Anchises from Troy, by Carle van Loo, 1729 (Louvre) In Greek mythology, Anchises was a son of Capys and Themiste (daughter of Ilus, son of Tros) or Hieromneme, a naiad. ... In Greek mythology, Iapyx, son of Daedalus or Lycaon, was Aeneas healer during the Trojan War. ... Lares (pl. ... In Roman mythology, the Di Penates or briefly Penates were originally patron gods (really geniuses) of the storeroom, later becoming household gods guarding the entire household. ... Mimas may refer to: Mimas, son of Gaia in Greek mythology, was one of the Giants slain by Heracles. ... In Greek mythology, four people had the name Creusa. ... The word sibyl comes (via Latin) from the Greek word sibylla, meaning prophetess. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, Dardanus (burner up) was a son of Zeus by Electra, daughter of Atlas, and founder of the city of Dardania on Mount Ida in the Troad. ... In Greek mythology, Idomeneus was a Cretan warrior, grandson of Minos. ... For other uses, see Carthage (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ... Tiber River in Rome. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... In Roman mythology, Lavinia was the daughter of Latinus and Amata. ... Alba Longa (in Italian sources occasionally written Albalonga) was an ancient city of Latium, in the Alban Hills founder and head of the Latin Confederation; it was destroyed by Rome around the middle of the 7th century BC. // Legendary history According to legend Alba Longa was founded by Ascanius or... Silvius has several meanings: In Roman mythology, Silvius was the son of Aeneas and Lavinia. ... A head of Minerva found in the ruins of the Roman baths in Bath Roman mythology, the mythological beliefs of the people of Ancient Rome, can be considered as having two parts. ... Romulus may refer to any of these articles: Romulus is a mythical founder of Rome, brother of Remus. ... Romulus and Remus, founders of Rome in Roman mythology, were the supposed sons of the god Mars and the priestess Rhea Silvia. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... The Aeneid is a Latin epic written by Vergil in the 1st century BC that tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who traveled to Italy where he became the ancestor of the Romans. ... For other uses, see Virgil (disambiguation). ... Centuries: 10th century BC - 9th century BC - 8th century BC Decades: 860s BC 850s BC 840s BC 830s BC 820s BC - 810s BC - 800s BC 790s BC 780s BC 770s BC 760s BC Events and Trends 817 BC - Pedubastis I declares himself king of Egypt, founding the Twenty-third Dynasty. ...


Dates of the Trojan War

Since this war was considered among the ancient Greeks as either the last event of the mythical age or the first event of the historical age, several dates are given for the fall of Troy. They usually derive from genealogies of kings. Ephorus gives 1135 BC,[200] Sosibius 1172 BC,[201] Eratosthenes 1184 BC/1183 BC,[202] Plato 1193 BC,[203] the Parian marble 1209 BC/1208 BC,[204] Dicaearchus 1212 BC,[205] Herodotus around 1250 BC,[206]Eretes 1291 BC[207] while Douris 1334 BC.[208] As for the exact day Ephorus gives 23/24 Thargelion (July 6 or 7), Hellanicus 12 Thargelion (May 26)[209] while others give the 23rd of Sciroforion (July 7) or the 23rd of Ponamos (October 7). Ephorus (c. ... Centuries: 13th century BC - 12th century BC - 11th century BC Decades: 1180s BC 1170s BC 1160s BC 1150s BC 1140s BC - 1130s BC - 1120s BC 1110s BC 1100s BC 1090s BC 1080s BC Events and trends 1137 BC Ramses VII begins his reign as the sixth ruler of the Twentieth... Sosibius (in Greek Σωσιβιoς; lived 3rd century BC) was the chief minister of Ptolemy Philopator (221–203 BC), king of Egypt. ... Centuries: 13th century BC - 12th century BC - 11th century BC Decades: 1220s BC 1210s BC 1200s BC 1190s BC 1180s BC - 1170s BC - 1160s BC 1150s BC 1140s BC 1130s BC 1120s BC Events and trends April 16, 1178 BC - A solar eclipse may mark the return of Odysseus, legendary... This article is about the Greek scholar of the third century BC. For the ancient Athenian statesman of the fifth century BC, see Eratosthenes (statesman). ... (Redirected from 1184 BC) Centuries: 13th century BC - 12th century BC - 11th century BC Decades: 1230s BC 1220s BC 1210s BC 1200s BC 1190s BC - 1180s BC - 1170s BC 1160s BC 1150s BC 1140s BC 1130s BC Events and Trends April 24 1184 BC - Traditional date of the fall of... Centuries: 13th century BC - 12th century BC - 11th century BC Decades: 1230s BC 1220s BC 1210s BC 1200s BC 1190s BC - 1180s BC - 1170s BC 1160s BC 1150s BC 1140s BC 1130s BC Events and trends April 24 1184 BC - Traditional date of the fall of Troy. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... Centuries: 13th century BC - 12th century BC - 11th century BC Decades: 1240s BC 1230s BC 1220s BC 1210s BC 1200s BC - 1190s BC - 1180s BC 1170s BC 1160s BC 1150s BC 1140s BC Events and trends 1197 BC - The beginning of first period (1197 BC - 982 BC) by Sau Yung... Parian marble is a fine-grained semitranslucent pure-white marble quarried during the classical era on the Greek island of Paros. ... Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1250s BC 1240s BC 1230s BC 1220s BC 1210s BC - 1200s BC - 1190s BC 1180s BC 1170s BC 1160s BC 1150s BC Events and trends 1204 BC - Theseus, legendary King of Athens, is deposed after a reign of 30... (Redirected from 1208 BC) Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1250s BC 1240s BC 1230s BC 1220s BC 1210s BC - 1200s BC - 1190s BC 1180s BC 1170s BC 1160s BC 1150s BC Events and Trends 1204 BC - Theseus, legendary King of Athens is deposed after... Dicaearchus (also Dicearchos, Dicearchus or Dikæarchus, Greek Δικαιαρχος; circa 350 BC – circa 285 BC) was a Greek philosopher, cartographer, geographer, mathematician and author. ... Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1260s BC 1250s BC 1240s BC 1230s BC 1220s BC - 1210s BC - 1200s BC 1190s BC 1180s BC 1170s BC 1160s BC Events and trends 1213 BC - Theseus, legendary King of Athens, is deposed and succeeded by Menestheus, great... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hērodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1340s BC 1330s BC 1320s BC 1310s BC 1300s BC - 1290s BC - 1280s BC 1270s BC 1260s BC 1250s BC 1240s BC Events and trends 1295 BC - End of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt, start of the Nineteenth Dynasty. ... Douris (Greek: Δούρις) (ca. ... (Redirected from 1334 BC) Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1380s BC 1370s BC 1360s BC 1350s BC 1340s BC - 1330s BC - 1320s BC 1310s BC 1300s BC 1290s BC 1280s BC Events and Trends Significant People 1338 BC - Queen Tiy of Egypt, Chief Queen... Ephorus (c. ... Hellanicus of Lesbos (in Ancient Greek ) (born in Mytilene on the isle of Lesbos in 490 BC) was an ancient Greek logographer who flourished during the latter half of the 5th century BC. He is reputed to have lived to the age of 85. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The glorious and rich city Homer describes was believed to be Troy VI by many twentieth century authors, destroyed in 1275 BC, probably by an earthquake. Its follower Troy VIIa, destroyed by fire at some point during the 1180s BC, was long considered a poorer city, but since the excavation campaign of 1988 it has risen to the most likely candidate. Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1320s BC 1310s BC 1300s BC 1290s BC 1280s BC - 1270s BC - 1260s BC 1250s BC 1240s BC 1230s BC 1220s BC Events and trends Significant people Categories: 1270s BC ... Troy VII is an archaeological layer of Troy spanning late Hittite Empire to Neo-Hittite times (ca. ...


Historical basis

See also: Historicity of the Iliad Map of the Troad (Troas) Map of Bronze Age Greece as described in Homers Iliad The extent of the historical basis of the Iliad has been debated for some time, and recent discoveries have fueled more discussion across several disciplines. ...

The Hittite Empire of Asia Minor in ca. 1300 BC (light red).
The Hittite Empire of Asia Minor in ca. 1300 BC (light red).

The historicity of the Trojan War is still subject to debate. Most classical Greeks thought that the war was a historical event, but many believed that the Homeric poems had exaggerated the events to suit the demands of poetry. For instance, the historian Thucydides, who is known for his critical spirit, considers it a true event but doubts that 1,186 ships were sent to Troy. Euripides started changing Greek myths at will, including those of the Trojan War. Around 1870 it was generally agreed in Western Europe that the Trojan War never had happened and Troy never existed. Then Heinrich Schliemann discovered the ruins of Troy and of the Mycenaean cities of Greece. Today many scholars agree that the Trojan War is based on a historical core of a Greek expedition against the city of Illium, but few would argue that the Homeric poems faithfully represent the actual events of the war.[citation needed] Image File history File links Hittite_Empire. ... Image File history File links Hittite_Empire. ... (Redirected from 1300 BC) Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1350s BC 1340s BC 1330s BC 1320s BC 1310s BC - 1300s BC - 1290s BC 1280s BC 1270s BC 1260s BC 1250s BC Events and Trends Cecrops II, legendary King of Athens dies after a reign... Bust of Thucydides residing in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. ... A statue of Euripides. ... Portrait of Heinrich Schliemann. ... A clay tablet with writing in Linear B from Mycenae. ...


In November 2001, geologists John C. Kraft from the University of Delaware and John V. Luce from Trinity College, Dublin presented the results[210][211][212] of investigations into the geology of the region that had started in 1977. The geologists compared the present geology with the landscapes and coastal features described in the Iliad and other classical sources, notably Strabo's Geographia. Their conclusion was that there is regularly a consistency between the location of Troy as identified by Schliemann (and other locations such as the Greek camp), the geological evidence, and descriptions of the topography and accounts of the battle in the Iliad. The University of Delaware (UD) is the largest university in the U.S. state of Delaware. ... For other institutions named Trinity College, see Trinity College. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... For discussion of land surfaces themselves, see Terrain. ...


In the twentieth century scholars have attempted to draw conclusions based on Hittite and Egyptian texts that date to the time of the Trojan War. While they give a general description of the political situation in the region at the time, their information on whether this particular conflict took place is limited. Andrew Dalby notes that while the Trojan War most likely did take place in some form and is therefore grounded in history, its true nature is and will be unknown. [213] Hittite archives, like the Tawagalawa letter mention of a kingdom of Ahhiyawa (Achaea, or Greece) that lies beyond the sea (that would be the Aegean) and controls Milliwanda, which is identified with Miletus. Also mentioned in this and other letters is the Assuwa confederation made of 22 cities and countries which included the city of Wilusa (Ilios or Ilium). The Milawata letter implies this city lies on the north of the Assuwa confederation, beyond the Seha river. While the identification of Wilusa with Ilium, that is Troy, is always controversial in the 1990s it gained majority acceptance. In the Alaksandu treaty (ca. 1280 BC) the king of the city is named Alakasandu, and it must be noted that Paris' son of Priam's name in the Iliad (among other works) is Alexander. The Tawagalawa letter (dated ca. 1250 BC) which is addressed to the king of Ahhiyawa actually says: Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people from Kaneš who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite... The Tawagalawa letter (CTH 181) was written by a Hittite king to a king of Ahhiyawa around 1250 BC. This letter, of which only the third tablet has been preserved, concerns the activities of an adventurer Piyama-Radu against the Hittites. ... The lower half of the benches and the remnants of the scene building of the theater of Miletus (August 2005) Miletus (Carian: Anactoria Hittite: Milawata or Millawanda, Greek: Μίλητος transliterated Miletos, Turkish: Milet) was an ancient city on the western coast of Anatolia (in what is now Aydin Province, Turkey), near... The Assuwa league was a confederation of states in western Anatolia, defeated by the Hittites under Tudhaliya IV around 1250 BC. The league had been formed to oppose the failing Hittite empire. ... Walls of the excavated city of Troy This article is about the city of Troy / Ilion as described in the works of Homer, and the location of an ancient city associated with it. ... The Milawata letter (CTH 182) is a diplomatic correspondence from a Hittite king at Hattusa to a client king in western Anatolia. ... Caicus also Caïcus (Greek: Καϊκος or Καϊκός, transliterated as Kaïkos, formerly Astraeus or Astræus) is the ancient name of a river of Asia Minor that rises in the Temnus mountains and flows through Lydia, Mysia, and Aeolis before debouching into the Elaeatic Gulf. ... Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1330s BC 1320s BC 1310s BC 1300s BC 1290s BC - 1280s BC - 1270s BC 1260s BC 1250s BC 1240s BC 1230s BC Events and trends 1285 BC - Battle of Kadesh: Ramesses II, Pharaoh of Egypt is almost defeated by... The Tawagalawa letter (CTH 181) was written by a Hittite king to a king of Ahhiyawa around 1250 BC. This letter, of which only the third tablet has been preserved, concerns the activities of an adventurer Piyama-Radu against the Hittites. ... (Redirected from 1250 BC) Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1300s BC 1290s BC 1280s BC 1270s BC 1260s BC - 1250s BC - 1240s BC 1230s BC 1220s BC 1210s BC 1200s BC Events and Trends September 7, 1251 BC - A solar eclipse at this date...

Now as we have come to an agreement on Wilusa over which we went to war...

Formerly under the Hittites, the Assuwa confederation defected after the battle of Kadesh between Egypt and the Hittites (ca. 1274 BC). In 1230 BC hittite king Tudhaliya IV (ca. 1240–1210 BC) campaigned against this federation. Under Arnuwanda III (ca. 1210–1205 BC) the Hittites were forced to abandon the lands they controlled in the coast of the Aegean. It is possible that the Trojan War was a conflict between the king of Ahhiyawa and the Assuwa confederation. This view has been supported in that the entire war includes the landing in Mysia (and Telephus' wounding), Achille's campaigns in the North Aegean and Telamonian Ajax's campaigns in Thrace and Phrygia. Most of these regions were part of Assuwa.[214][66] It has also been noted that there is great similarity between the names of the Sea Peoples, which at that time were raiding Egypt, as they are listed by Ramesses III and Merneptah, and of the allies of the Trojans.[1] Combatants New Kingdom of Egypt Hittite Empire Commanders Ramesses II Muwatalli II Strength 2,000+ chariots[2] and ca. ... Categories: Hittite kings | Historical stubs ... Arnuwanda III was a king of the Hittite empire (New kingdom) 1220 BC – 1218 BC. Categories: Historical stubs | Hittite kings ... Ajax Ajax or Aias (ancient Greek: ) was a mythological Greek hero, the son of Telamon and Periboea and king of Salamis. ... The Budgie People is the term used for a confederacy of seafaring raiders who sailed into the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, caused political unrest, and attempted to enter or control Egyptian territory during the late 19th dynasty, and especially during Year 8 of Ramesses III of the 20th Dynasty. ... Usermaatre Meryamun Powerful one of Maat and Ra, Beloved of Amun Nomen Ramesse Hekaiunu Ra bore him, Ruler of Heliopolis Consort(s) Iset Ta-Hemdjert, Tiye Issue Ramesses IV, Ramesses VI, Ramesses VIII, Amun-her-khepeshef, Khaemwaset, Meryamun, Meryatum, Montuherkhopshef, Pareherwenemef, Pentawer, Duatentopet (?) Father Setnakht Mother Tiye-Mereniset Died... Merneptah (occasionally: Merenptah) was pharaoh of Ancient Egypt (1213 – 1203 BC), the fourth ruler of the 19th Dynasty. ...


That most Achean heroes did not return to their homes and founded colonies elsewhere was interpreted by Thucydides as being due to their long absence.[215] Nowadays the interpretation followed by most scholars is that the Achean leaders driven out of their lands by the turmoil at the end of the Mycenean era preferred to claim descendance from exiles of the Trojan War.[216]


Trojan War in art and literature

A full listing of works inspired by the Trojan War has not been attempted, since the inspiration provided by these events produced so many works that a list that merely mentions them by name would be larger than the full tale of the events of the war. The siege of Troy provided inspiration for many works of art, most famously Homer's Iliad, set in the last year of the siege. Some of the others include Troades by Euripides, Troilus and Criseyde by Geoffrey Chaucer, Troilus and Cressida by William Shakespeare, Iphigenia and Polyxena by Samuel Coster, Palamedes by Joost van den Vondel and Les Troyens by Hector Berlioz. The legends of the Trojan War have inspired many works of art and literature, including: // Literature Classical Greek the Iliad and Odyssey of Homer the Kypria, attributed to Stasinos of Cyprus the Aithiopis the Little Iliad the Iliou Persis (Sack of Troy) Nostoi (Returns) the Posthomerica by Quintus of Smyrna... For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ... A statue of Euripides. ... Troilus and Criseyde is Geoffrey Chaucers poem in rhyme royal re-telling the tragic love story of Troilus, a Trojan prince, and Criseyde. ... Chaucer redirects here. ... For the Chaucer poem, see Troilus and Criseyde. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... 112 Iphigenia is an asteroid. ... For the Christian Saint, please see Acts of Xanthippe, Polyxena, and Rebecca Polyxena dies by the hand of Neoptolemus on the tomb of Achilles. ... In Greek mythology, Palamedes was the son of Nauplius and Clymene. ... Joost van den Vondel (1587-1679) was born in the Große Witschgasse in Cologne. ... Cover of the score of La prise de Troie, the first two acts of Les Troyens. ... Painting of Berlioz by Gustave Courbet, 1850. ...


Films based on the Trojan War include Troy (2004). The war has also been featured in many books, television series, and other creative works. Troy is an Oscar-nominated movie released on May 14, 2004 about the Trojan War, as described in Homers Iliad, Virgils Aeneid, and other Greek myths. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Rutter, Jeremy B.. Troy VII and the Historicity of the Trojan War. Retrieved on 2007-07-23.
  2. ^ It is unknown whether this Proclus is the Neoplatonic philosopher, in which case the summary dates to the fifth century AD, or whether he is the lesser-known grammarian of the second century AD. See Burgess, p. 12.
  3. ^ Burgess, pp. 10–12; cf. W. Kullmann (1960), Die Quellen der Ilias.
  4. ^ Burgess, pp. 3–4.
  5. ^ Scholium on Homer A.5.
  6. ^ Plato, Republic 2,379e.
  7. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 3.1, Hesiod Fragment 204,95ff.
  8. ^ Apollonius Rhodius 4.757.
  9. ^ Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound 767.
  10. ^ Scholiast on Homer’s Iliad; Hyginus, Fabulae 54; Ovid, Metamorphoses 11.217.
  11. ^ Apollodorus, Library 3.168.
  12. ^ Pindar, Nemean 5 ep2; Pindar, Isthmian 8 str3–str5.
  13. ^ Hesiod, Catalogue of Women fr. 57; Cypria fr. 4.
  14. ^ Photius, Myrobiblion 190.
  15. ^ P.Oxy. 56, 3829 (L. Koppel, 1989)
  16. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae 92.
  17. ^ Pausanias, 15.9.5.
  18. ^ Euripides Andromache 298; Div. i. 21; Apollodorus, Library 3.12.5.
  19. ^ Homer Iliad I.410
  20. ^ Apollodorus, Library 3.174.
  21. ^ Apollonius Rhodius 4.869–879; Apollodorus, Library 3.13.6.
  22. ^ Frazer on Apollodorus, Library 3.13.6.
  23. ^ Alluded to in Statius, Achilleid 1.269–270.
  24. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae 96.
  25. ^ Apollodorus 3.10.7.
  26. ^ Pausanias 1.33.1; Apollodorus, Library 3.10.7.
  27. ^ Apollodorus, Library 3.10.5; Hyginus, Fabulae 77.
  28. ^ Apollodorus, Library 3.10.9.
  29. ^ Pausanias 3.20.9.
  30. ^ Ptolemy Hephaestion, New History 4 (as summarized in Photius, Myriobiblon 190).
  31. ^ Pindar, Pythian 11 ep4; Apollodorus, Library 3.11.15.
  32. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 2.15.
  33. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Proclus Chrestomathy 1
  34. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 3.3.
  35. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae 92.
  36. ^ Homer, Iliad 3.441; Odyssey 4.261.
  37. ^ Euripides, Helen 40.
  38. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 3.4.
  39. ^ Herodotus, Histories 1.2.
  40. ^ Apollodorus, Library 3.12.7.
  41. ^ Herodotus, 1.3.1.
  42. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 3.6.
  43. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 3.7.
  44. ^ Statius, Achilleid 1.25
  45. ^ Apollodorus, Library 3.13.8.
  46. ^ Scholiast on Homer's Iliad 19.326; Ovid, Metamorphoses 13.162 ff.
  47. ^ Pausanias, 1.22.6.
  48. ^ Homer, Iliad 11.19 ff.; Apollodurus, Epitome 3.9.
  49. ^ Philostratus, Heroicus 7.
  50. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 3.15.
  51. ^ Pausanias, 1.4.6.
  52. ^ Pindar, Isthmian 8.
  53. ^ Pausanias, 9.5.14.
  54. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 3.20.
  55. ^ Aeschylus fragment 405–410
  56. ^ Pliny, Natural History 24.42, 34.152.
  57. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 3.20.
  58. ^ Davies, esp. pp. 8, 10.
  59. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 3.19.
  60. ^ Philodemus, On Piety.
  61. ^ Antoninus Liberalis, Metamorphoses 27.
  62. ^ Ptolemy Hephaestion, New History 5 (as summarized in Photius, Myriobiblon 190).
  63. ^ Pausanias, 1.43.1.
  64. ^ History of the Pelloponesian War 1,10.
  65. ^ Ιστορία του Ελληνικού Έθνους (History of the Greek Nation) vol. A, Ekdotiki Athinon, Athens 1968.
  66. ^ a b Pantelis Karykas, Μυκηναίοι Πολεμιστές (Mycenian Warriors), Athens 1999.
  67. ^ Vice Admiral P.E. Konstas R.H.N.,Η ναυτική ηγεμονία των Μυκηνών (The naval hegemony of Mycenae), Athens 1966
  68. ^ Homer, Iliad Β.803–806.
  69. ^ Diodorus iv,38.
  70. ^ Pausanias 8.33.4
  71. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 3.27.
  72. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 3.26.
  73. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 3.28.
  74. ^ Herodotus 4.145.3.
  75. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 3.29.
  76. ^ Pausianias 4.2.7.
  77. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 3.31.
  78. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 3.30.
  79. ^ Eustathius on Homer, Iliad ii.701.
  80. ^ Scholiast on Lycophron 532.
  81. ^ Thucydides 1.11.
  82. ^ Papademetriou Konstantinos, "Τα όπλα του Τρωϊκού Πολέμου" ("The weapons of the Trojan War"), Panzer Magazine issue 14, June–July 2004, Athens.
  83. ^ Iliad I.328
  84. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 3.32.
  85. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 3.33; translation, Sir James George Frazer.
  86. ^ Volume 5 p.80
  87. ^ Demetrius (2nd century BC) Scholium on Iliad Z,35
  88. ^ Parthenius Ερωτικά Παθήματα 21
  89. ^ Apollodorus, Library 3.12.5.
  90. ^ Homer, Iliad Φ 35–155.
  91. ^ Dictis Cretensis ii. 18; Sophocles, Ajax 210.
  92. ^ "Petteia".
  93. ^ "Greek Board Games".
  94. ^ "Latrunculi".
  95. ^ Kakrides vol. 5 p. 92.
  96. ^ Servius, Scholium on Virgil's Aeneid 2.81
  97. ^ According to other accounts Odysseus, with the other Greek captains, including Agamemnon, conspired together against Palamedes, as all were envious of his accomplishments. See Simpson, Gods & Heroes of the Greeks: The Library of Apollodorus, p. 251.
  98. ^ According to Apollodorus Epitome 3.8, Odysseus forced a Phrygian prisoner, to write the letter.
  99. ^ Pausanias 10.31.2; Simpson, Gods & Heroes of the Greeks: The Library of Apollodorus, p. 251.
  100. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 6.9.
  101. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 3.10
  102. ^ The exact nature of Achilles' relationship to Patroclus is the subject of some debate. See Achilles and Patroclus for details.
  103. ^ Scholiast on Homer, Iliad. xxiv. 804.
  104. ^ Quintus of Smyrna, Posthomerica i.18 ff.
  105. ^ a b Apollodorus, Epitome 5.1.
  106. ^ Pausanias 3.26.9.
  107. ^ Ptolemy Hephaestion, New History Bk6 (as summarized in Photius, Myriobiblon 190)
  108. ^ a b c d e Proclus, Chrestomathy 2, Aethiopis.
  109. ^ Tzetzes, Scholiast on Lycophron 999.
  110. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 5.3.
  111. ^ Tzetzes ad Lycophroon 18.
  112. ^ Pausanias 10.31.7.
  113. ^ Dictys Cretensis iv. 4.
  114. ^ Virgil, Aeneid 8.372.
  115. ^ Pindarus Pythian vi. 30.
  116. ^ Quintus Smyrnaeus ii. 224.
  117. ^ Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 4.75.4.
  118. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 5.3.
  119. ^ Pausanias 1.13.9.
  120. ^ Euripedes, Hecuba 40.
  121. ^ Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica iv. 88–595.
  122. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 5.5.
  123. ^ Pausanias 3.19.13.
  124. ^ Scholiast on Homer's Odyssey λ.547.
  125. ^ Homer, Odyssey λ 542.
  126. ^ a b c d e Proclus, Chrestomathy 3, Little Iliad.
  127. ^ Pindar, Nemean Odes 8.46(25).
  128. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 5.6.
  129. ^ Zenobius, Cent. i.43.
  130. ^ Sophocles, Ajax 42, 277, 852.
  131. ^ Either by Calchas, (Apollodorus, Epitome 5.8; Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica 9.325–479), or by Paris' brother Helenus (Proclus, Chrestomathy 3, Little Illiad; Sophocles, Philoctetes 604–613; Tzetzes, Posthomerica 571–595).
  132. ^ This is according to Apollodorus, Epitome 5.8, Hyginus, Fabulae 103, Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica 9.325–479, and Euripides, Philoctetes—but Sophocles, Philoctetes says Odysseus and Neoptolemus, while Proclus, Chrestomathy 3, Little Illiad says Diomedes alone.
  133. ^ Philoctetes was cured by a son of Asclepius, either Machaon, (Proclus, Chrestomathy 3, Little Illiad; Tzetzes, Posthomerica 571–595) or his brother Podalirius (Apollodorus, Epitome 5.8; Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica 9.325–479).
  134. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 5.9.
  135. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 5.10; Pausanias 5.13.4.
  136. ^ Pausanias 5.13.4–6, says that Pelop's sholder-blade was brought to Troy from Pisa, and on its return home was lost at sea, later to be found by a fisherman, and identified as Pelop's by the Oracle at Delphi.
  137. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 5.11.
  138. ^ Odyssey λ.520
  139. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 5.12.
  140. ^ Pausanias 3.26.9.
  141. ^ Pausanias 9.5.15.
  142. ^ Homer, Odyssey 4.242 ff.
  143. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 5.13.
  144. ^ Homer, Odyssey 8.492–495; Apollodorus, Epitome 5.14.
  145. ^ Pausanias, 3.13.5.
  146. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 5.15, Simpson, p 246.
  147. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 5.14, says the hollow horse held 50, but attributes to the author of the Little Iliad a figure of 3,000, a number that Simpson, p 265, calls "absurd", saying that the surviving fragments only say that the Greeks put their "best men" inside the horse. Tzetzes, Posthomerica 641–650, gives a figure of 23, while Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica xii.314–335, gives the names of thirty, and says that there were more. In late tradition it seems it was standardized at 40.
  148. ^ Homer, Odyssey 8.500–504; Apollodorus, Epitome 5.15.
  149. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 5.16, as translated by Simpson, p. 246. Proculus, Chrestomathy 3, Little Iliad, says that the Trojans pulled down a part of their walls to admit the horse.
  150. ^ a b c d e f g Proclus, Chrestomathy 4, Iliou Persis.
  151. ^ Homer, Odyssey 8.505 ff.; Apollodorus, Epitome 5.16–15.
  152. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 5.17 says that Cassandra warned of an armed force inside the horse, and that Lacoön agreed.
  153. ^ Virgil, Aeneid 2.199–227; Hyginus, Fabulae 135;
  154. ^ Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica xii.444–497; Apollodorus, Epitome 5.18.
  155. ^ Scholiast on Lycophroon, 344.
  156. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 5.19–20.
  157. ^ Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica xiii.100–104,Translation by A.S. Way, 1913.
  158. ^ a b Apollodorus. Epitome 5.21.
  159. ^ Aristophanes, Lysistrata 155; Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica xiii.423–457.
  160. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 5.22.
  161. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 5.22; Pausanias 10.31.2; Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica xiii.462–473; Virgil, Aeneid 403–406. The rape of Cassandra was a popular theme of ancient Greek paintings, see Pausanias, 1.15.2, 5.11.6, 5.19.5, 10.26.3.
  162. ^ Homer, Iliad 3.203–207, 7.347–353; Apollodorus, Epitome, 5.21; Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica xiii.322–331, Livy, 1.1; Pausanias, 10.26.8, 27.3 ff.; Strabo, 13.1.53.
  163. ^ Apollodorus. Epitome 5.23.
  164. ^ Proclus, Chrestomathy 4, Ilio Persis, says Odysseus killed Astyanax, while Pausanias, 10.25.9, says Neoptolemus.
  165. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 5.23.
  166. ^ Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica xiii.279–285.
  167. ^ Euripides, Trojan Women 709–739, 1133–1135; Hyginus, Fabulae 109.
  168. ^ Euripides, Hecuba 107–125, 218–224, 391–393, 521–582; Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica xiv.193–328.
  169. ^ Homer, Iliad 3.144.
  170. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 5.22; Pausanias, 10.25.8; Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica xiii.547–595.
  171. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 6.11.
  172. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 5.24.
  173. ^ Strabo, 6.1.15.
  174. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 6.6.
  175. ^ Scholiast on Homer, Iliad 13.66.
  176. ^ Pausanias, 1.28.11.
  177. ^ Pausanias, 8.15.7
  178. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 6.12
  179. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 6.13.
  180. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 6.14.
  181. ^ Plutarch, 23.
  182. ^ Pausanias, 1.28.9.
  183. ^ Tzetzes ad Lycophroon 609.
  184. ^ Strabo, 6.3.9.
  185. ^ Strabo, 6.1.3.
  186. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 6.15b; Strabo, 6.1.3.
  187. ^ Homer, Odyssey 3.191.
  188. ^ Vergil, Aeneid 3.400
  189. ^ Scholiast on Homer's Odyssey 13.259.
  190. ^ Homer, Odyssey 4.360.
  191. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 5.24.
  192. ^ Homer, Odyssey 4.382.
  193. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 6.29.
  194. ^ Pausanias, 2.16.6.
  195. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 6.23.
  196. ^ Homer, Odyssey 1.30, 298.
  197. ^ Pausanias, 2.16.7.
  198. ^ Sophocles, Electra 1405.
  199. ^ Proclus Chrestomathy 2, Telegony
  200. ^ FGrHist 70
  201. ^ FGrHist 595F1
  202. ^ Chronographiai FGrHist 241
  203. ^ Timaeus 125
  204. ^ Fragment 24
  205. ^ Bios Hellados
  206. ^ Histories 2,145
  207. ^ FGrHist 242F1
  208. ^ FGrHist 76
  209. ^ FGrHist 4 F 152
  210. ^ Confex.
  211. ^ Nature.
  212. ^ Iliad, Discovery.
  213. ^ http://www.slate.com/id/2155360/pagenum/all/#page_start
  214. ^ Ιστορία του Ελληνικού Έθνους (History of the Greek Nation) vol. A, Ekdotiki Athinon, Athens 1968
  215. ^ The Peloponnesian War 1.12.2
  216. ^ Robert Graves, The Greek Myths, The Returns

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Enlarge Achilles bandages the arm of his friend Patroclus. ... Helenus was a Trojan soldier in the Trojan War. ... Asclepius (Greek , transliterated Asklēpiós; Latin Aesculapius) is the demigod of medicine and healing in ancient Greek mythology. ... In Greek mythology, Machaon was a son of Asclepius. ... In Greek mythology, Podalirius was a son of Asclepius. ... Michelangelos rendering of the Delphic Sibyl The Delphic Sibyl was the priestess presiding over the Apollonian Oracle at Delphi, a Greek colony, located in a plateau on the side of Mount Parnassus. ... John Tzetzes, was a Byzantine poet and grammarian, known to have lived at Constantinople during the 12th century. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

References and further reading

Ancient authors

  • Apollodorus, Gods & Heroes of the Greeks: The Library of Apollodorus, translated by Michael Simpson, The University of Massachusetts Press, (1976). ISBN 0-87023-205-3.
  • Apollodorus, Apollodorus: The Library, translated by Sir James George Frazer, two volumes, Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press and London: William Heinemann Ltd. 1921. Volume 1: ISBN 0-674-99135-4. Volume 2: ISBN 0-674-99136-2.
  • Euripides, Andromache, in Euripides: Children of Heracles, Hippolytus, Andromache, Hecuba, with an English translation by David Kovacs. Cambridge. Harvard University Press. (1996). ISBN 0-674-99533-3.
  • Euripides, Helen, in The Complete Greek Drama, edited by Whitney J. Oates and Eugene O'Neill, Jr. in two volumes. 1. Helen, translated by E. P. Coleridge. New York. Random House. 1938.
  • Euripides, Hecuba, in The Complete Greek Drama, edited by Whitney J. Oates and Eugene O'Neill, Jr. in two volumes. 1. Hecuba, translated by E. P. Coleridge. New York. Random House. 1938.
  • Herodotus, Histories, A. D. Godley (translator), Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1920; ISBN 0-674-99133-8. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library].
  • Pausanias, Description of Greece, (Loeb Classical Library) translated by W. H. S. Jones; Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. (1918). Vol 1, Books I–II, ISBN 0-674-99104-4; Vol 2, Books III–V, ISBN 0-674-99207-5; Vol 3, Books VI–VIII.21, ISBN 0-674-99300-4; Vol 4, Books VIII.22–X, ISBN 0-674-99328-4.
  • Proclus, Chrestomathy, in Fragments of the Kypria translated by H.G. Evelyn-White, 1914 (public domain).
  • Proclus, Proclus' Summary of the Epic Cycle, trans. Gregory Nagy.
  • Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica, in Quintus Smyrnaeus: The Fall of Troy, Arthur Sanders Way (Ed. & Trans.), Loeb Classics #19; Harvard University Press, Cambridge MA. (1913). (1962 edition: ISBN 0-674-99022-6).
  • Strabo, Geography, translated by Horace Leonard Jones; Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press; London: William Heinemann, Ltd. (1924)

Modern authors

  • Wilkens, Iman Jacob. 2005. Where Troy Once Stood [2].
  • Burgess, Jonathan S. 2004. The Tradition of the Trojan War in Homer and the Epic Cycle (Johns Hopkins). ISBN 0-8018-7890-X.
  • Castleden, Rodney. The Attack on Troy. Barnsley, South Yorkshire, UK: Pen and Sword Books, 2006 (hardcover, ISBN 1-84415-175-1).
  • Davies, Malcolm (2000). "Euripides Telephus Fr. 149 (Austin) and the Folk-Tale Origins of the Teuthranian Expedition" (PDF). Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 133: 7–10.
  • Durschmied, Erik. The Hinge Factor:How Chance and Stupidity Have Changed History. Coronet Books; New Ed edition (7 Oct 1999).
  • Frazer, Sir James George, Apollodorus: The Library, two volumes, Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press and London: William Heinemann Ltd. 1921. Volume 1: ISBN 0-674-99135-4. Volume 2: ISBN 0-674-99136-2.
  • Graves, Robert. The Greek Myths, Penguin (Non-Classics); Cmb/Rep edition (April 6, 1993). ISBN 0-14-017199-1.
  • Kakridis, J., 1988. Ελληνική Μυθολογία ("Greek mythology"), Ekdotiki Athinon, Athens.
  • Karykas, Pantelis, 2003. Μυκηναίοι Πολεμιστές ("Mycenean Warriors"), Communications Editions, Athens.
  • Latacz, Joachim. Troy and Homer: Towards a Solution of an Old Mystery. New York: Oxford University Press (USA), 2005 (hardcover, ISBN 0-19-926308-6).
  • Simpson, Michael. Gods & Heroes of the Greeks: The Library of Apollodorus, The University of Massachusetts Press, (1976). ISBN 0-87023-205-3.
  • Strauss, Barry. The Trojan War: A New History. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2006 (hardcover, ISBN 0-7432-6441-X).
  • Thompson, Diane P. The Trojan War: Literature and Legends from the Bronze Age to the Present. Jefferson, NC: McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-1737-4 (paperback). 
  • Troy: From Homer's Iliad to Hollywood Epic, edited by Martin M. Winkler. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 2007 (hardcover, ISBN 1-4051-3182-9; paperback, ISBN 1-4051-3183-7).
  • Wood, Michael. In Search of the Trojan War. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998 (paperback, ISBN 0-520-21599-0); London: BBC Books, 2003 (paperback, ISBN 0-563-53415-X).

Apollodorus was a common name in ancient Greece. ... The Bibliotheke was renowned as the chief work of Greek historian and scholar. ... A statue of Euripides. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hērodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... Alfred Denis Godley (1856--1925) was a classical scholar and author of humorous poems. ... Pausanias (Greek: ) was a Greek traveller and geographer of the 2nd century A.D., who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. ... The Loeb Classical Library is a series of books, today published by the Harvard University Press, which present important works of ancient Greek and Latin Literature in a way designed to make the text accessible to the broadest possible audience, by presenting the original Greek or Latin text on each... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Posthomerica is an epic poem by Quintus of Smyrna, probably written in the latter half of the 4th century AD, and telling the story of the period between the death of Hektor and the fall of Ilium. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... The Bibliotheke was renowned as the chief work of Greek historian and scholar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Trojan War

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Epic Cycle (Greek: Επικός Κύκλος) was a collection of Ancient Greek epic poems that related the story of the Trojan War, which includes the Kypria, the Aithiopis, the Little Iliad, the Iliou persis (The Sack of Troy), the Nostoi (Returns), and the Telegony. ... The Cypria is one of the lost sections of the eight volume cycle that told the full story of the Trojan War. ... title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ... The Aithiopis (Greek: Αἰθιοπίς; Latin: Aethiopis) is a lost epic of ancient Greek literature. ... The Little Iliad (Greek: Ἰλιὰς μικρά, Ilias mikra; Latin: Ilias parva) is a lost epic of ancient Greek literature. ... The Iliou persis (Greek: ; also known as Iliupersis, esp. ... The Nostoi (Greek: Νόστοι; also known as Nosti in Latin; English: Returns;) is a lost epic of ancient Greek literature. ... For other uses, see Odyssey (disambiguation). ... The Telegony (Greek: Τηλεγόνεια, Telegoneia; Latin: Telegonia) is a lost epic of ancient Greek literature. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Royalty.nu - The Trojan War - History, Myth and Homer - Schliemann (2966 words)
The Trojan War: Literature and Legends From the Bronze Age to the Present by Diane P. Thompson.
In Homer's tale of the Trojan War, animal sacrifice is used to bolster the royal authority of Agamemnon and emphasize Akhilleus' isolation.
Troy VII and the Historicity of the Trojan War
Trojan War - MSN Encarta (470 words)
Trojan War, in Greek legend, famous war waged by the Greeks against the city of Troy.
The tradition is believed to reflect a real war between the Greeks of the late Mycenaean period and the inhabitants of the Troad, or Troas, in Anatolia, part of present-day Turkey.
Legendary accounts of the war traced its origin to a golden apple, inscribed “for the fairest” and thrown by Eris, goddess of discord, among the heavenly guests at the wedding of Peleus, the ruler of Myrmidons, and Thetis, one of the Nereids.
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