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Encyclopedia > Trojan Skinheads

Skinheads, named after their shaven heads, are members of a subculture that originated in Britain in the 1960s, where they were closely tied to the Rude boy of the West Indies and the Mods of the UK. Head shaving is the practice by some men and women to shave the hair on their head. ... As understood in sociology, anthropology and cultural studies, a subculture is a set of people with a distinct set of behaviour and beliefs that differentiate them from a larger culture of which they are a part. ... The 1960s in its most obvious sense refers to the decade between 1960 and 1969, but the expression has taken on a wider meaning over the past twenty years. ... Rude boy, rudie, rudi or rudy is a subculture that developed in the early 1960s in Jamaica and has close ties to skinhead culture. ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... The logo of the mod movement was a stylised target, based on the roundel of the Royal Air Force. ...

English Skinhead on cutdown circa 1991
English Skinhead on cutdown circa 1991

Contents

This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... A term referring to a customised Vespa or Lambretta scooter which has had parts of the bodywork removed or cut away. ...


Categories

There are a number of different "types" of skinhead falling into three main categories suggested by common usage:

  • Traditional (Trad), Trojan (after the Trojan Records label), or Original Skins - Unlike the other categories, traditional skinheads do not regard attitudes toward racism as central to the subculture. Instead, they identify with the original skinhead movement ("The Spirit of 69") in music, style, and/or working class pride.
  • SHARP (Skinheads Against Racial Prejudice), ARA (Anti-Racist Action) Skins, RASH (Red and Anarchist Skinheads), Redskins, and Anarcho-Skinheads - Aggressively anti-racist and political. Again, the moniker "SHARP skinheads" is commonly used for all anti-racist skinheads, but these organizations are independent.
  • Nazi-Skinheads (Neo-Nazi Skins, sometimes called White Power or Boneheads) - Racist and highly political. Despite the common moniker, some racist skinheads have no connection to Nazism.


These categories are descriptive, not definitive. A particular skinhead may fit into multiple categories, or none at all. The usefulness of these categories is to explain the dominant forces of skinhead social structure. This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Trojan Records Trojan Records is a label specialising in ska,rocksteady,reggae and dub music. ... The Spirit of 69 is a phrase used by apolitical or Anti-racist Skinheads to remind other Skinheads of the subcultures heyday in 1969 when reggae music was at its most popular, and as a reminder of its multicultural Jamaican and British working class roots. ... The term working class is used to denote a social class. ... SHARP (Skinheads Against Racial Prejudice) are anti-racist skinheads who often confront those they feel to be neo-nazis, racists, or possessed of other prejudices. ... The symbol most people associate with ARA Anti-Racist Action Network (ARA) is a decentralized network of anti-fascist and anti-racist activists. ... Red and Anarchist Skinheads is often referred to as RASH. The definition of Rash could also be Impulsive A typical rash A rash is a change in the skin which affects its appearance or texture. ... The symbol of RASH (Red and Anarchist Skinheads) the three arrows are a symbol of the French Revolution which symbolize: Liberty, Equality, and Solidarity Red-Skinheads are the political skinheads. ... The symbol most people associate with anarcho-skinheads Anarcho-skinheads are the anarchist skinheads. ... Nazi-Skinheads, saluting and drinking Nazi-Skinheads are a right wing subculture that developed in the United Kingdom in the first half of the eighties. ... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... It has been suggested that Nazi be merged into this article or section. ...


There are a number of subcategories within these which are worth mentioning, including Hammerskins (Militant, organized racists), Reds or Redskins (communists), Anarchists, white pride/racialists, and nationalist skinheads. There are also gay skinheads, who some argue constitute a distinct category - both due to questions about the extent to which they share skinhead culture, and because many (but not all) skinheads have strong feelings about homosexuality. The Hammerskins, or Hammerskin Nation is a white supremacist skinhead gang. ... Communism - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ... Anarchism is a generic term describing various political philosophies and social movements that advocate the elimination of hierarchy and imposed authority. ... The term White Pride is used interchangeably to depict both the movement of and concept within the politically active racialist community, especially in the United States. ... Racialism is the controversial belief in the existence and significance of racial categories, the existence of which are themselves often disputed. ... Categories: Pages on votes for deletion | Stub ...


In-fighting and hostilities

It should be noted that degrees of hostility vary regionally and locally. In many places, for example, trad skins, punks and SHARPs mix freely and without conflict.


Each category of skinhead may be considered to be hostile to a number of other groups, though name-calling, harassment, and defamation behind closed doors may be more common than violence. Some traditional enmities include:

The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... Nazi-Skinheads, saluting and drinking Nazi-Skinheads are a right wing subculture that developed in the United Kingdom in the first half of the eighties. ... The swastika, the symbol of Nazism. ... National Socialist black metal (also known as NS black metal or NSBM) is a Neo-Nazi subgenre of black metal music concerned with ideas of racial separatism and Aryanism. ... London Punks Punk culture as it is seen today started in the mid 1970s as a movement or rebellion against some styles of music which existed at the time such as Prog Rock and Heavy Metal whose stars were seen as out of touch with their fans. ... Sometimes the word biker is used to mean an outlaw biker, or bikie, who is a member of a 1%er or outlaw motorcycle gang. ... A greaser is a rockabilly-styled American from the 1950s and earlier, pre-hippie 1960s. ... The symbol of RASH (Red and Anarchist Skinheads) the three arrows are a symbol of the French Revolution which symbolize: Liberty, Equality, and Solidarity Red-Skinheads are the political skinheads. ... Metalhead is the most popular term for a devoted fan of heavy metal music. ... Flower-Power Bus Hippie (also hippy) is a term originally used to describe some of the rebellious youth of the 1960s and 1970s. ... Old school, variously spelled old skool, oldschool or oldskool, is a slang term referring to old ways of thinking or acting, and to old objects in general, within the context of newer, more modern times. ... The logo of the mod movement was a stylised target, based on the roundel of the Royal Air Force. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Sometimes the word biker is used to mean an outlaw biker, or bikie, who is a member of a 1%er or outlaw motorcycle gang. ... A greaser is a rockabilly-styled American from the 1950s and earlier, pre-hippie 1960s. ... It was typified by young men wearing clothes inspired by those of the Edwardian period which Savile Row tailors had tried to re-introduce after World War II: Edward being shortened to Ted after a Daily Express headline in 1953 first coined the term Teddy boy, which stuck. ... Flower-Power Bus Hippie (also hippy) is a term originally used to describe some of the rebellious youth of the 1960s and 1970s. ... The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... Nazi-Skinheads, saluting and drinking Nazi-Skinheads are a right wing subculture that developed in the United Kingdom in the first half of the eighties. ... The swastika, the symbol of Nazism. ... National Socialist black metal (also known as NS black metal or NSBM) is a Neo-Nazi subgenre of black metal music concerned with ideas of racial separatism and Aryanism. ... The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... Nazi-Skinheads, saluting and drinking Nazi-Skinheads are a right wing subculture that developed in the United Kingdom in the first half of the eighties. ... The swastika, the symbol of Nazism. ... National Socialist black metal (also known as NS black metal or NSBM) is a Neo-Nazi subgenre of black metal music concerned with ideas of racial separatism and Aryanism. ... The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... Nazi-Skinheads, saluting and drinking Nazi-Skinheads are a right wing subculture that developed in the United Kingdom in the first half of the eighties. ... The swastika, the symbol of Nazism. ... National Socialist black metal (also known as NS black metal or NSBM) is a Neo-Nazi subgenre of black metal music concerned with ideas of racial separatism and Aryanism. ... Flower-Power Bus Hippie (also hippy) is a term originally used to describe some of the rebellious youth of the 1960s and 1970s. ... In sociology and in voting theory, a minority is a sub-group that is outnumbered by persons who do not belong to it. ... Anti war protest in Melbourne, Australia, 2003 Anti_war is a name that is widely adopted by any social movement or person that seeks to end or oppose a future or current war. ... Demonstrators march in the street while protesting the World Bank and International Monetary Fund on April 16, 2005. ... Ara (Latin for Altar) is a faint southerly constellation between the constellations Centaurus and Lupus. ... The symbol most people associate with anarcho-skinheads Anarcho-skinheads are the anarchist skinheads. ... Categories: Pages on votes for deletion | Stub ... Immigration is the act of moving to or settling in another country or region, temporarily or permanently. ...

History

London in the early 1960s was experiencing a growing class separation between the working class - struggling, relegated to substandard housing, and increasingly neglected by their political representatives - and the middle class. Those youths who could afford it invested in new fashions popularized by The Beatles (haircuts) and Carnaby Street merchants (clothing). These were the Mods, a youth subculture noted for its consumerism and affection for style, music and scooters. Those of lesser means, such as the dock workers, made do with the practical styles that suited their employment - steel-toed boots, straight-legged denim jeans, and shirts and braces (suspenders in the US) often handed down by their fathers. When possible, their limited funds were spent on smart outfits worn in the evenings to the dancehalls, where they danced to ska, reggae, and rocksteady beats. The Beatles were a British pop and rock group from Liverpool. ... Londons Carnaby Street is in the district of Soho and just to the east of Regent Street. ... The logo of the mod movement was a stylised target, based on the roundel of the Royal Air Force. ... A typical mid 1980s twist and go scooter. ... Dock can refer to several things: Places for the transfer of people and materials to, from, or between different forms of transport or working with transport: A maritime dock. ... Boots is the name of at least five different albums and singles: Boots by Nancy Sinatra (1966) Boots by Mighty Gabby (1984) Boots by Condemned Eighty Four (2001) Boots by KMFDM (2002) Boots by Noe Venable (2003) It is also the name of a large chain of chemists in the... Blue Jeans Jeans are trousers made from denim. ... Suspenders are a clothing accessory. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about: United States Wikinews has news related to this article: United States United States government CIA World Factbook Entry for United States House. ... A father is the male parent of a child. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This page is about the musical style. ... Reggae is a style of music developed in Jamaica. ... This article is about the Jamaican music. ...


Around 1965 a group of "hard" or "gang" mods, who could be identified by their shorter hair and working-class image, emerged from the larger mod scene. This resulted in a schism that produced "peacock mods" (The Who, The Kinks) and skinheads, commonly known by that name by around 1968. (Other early nicknames included "lemons", "peanuts" and "suits"). Early followers were mainly interested in and influenced by Jamaican Reggae and Ska music (aka, The Spirit of 69), Jamaican Rude Boy culture and a dislike of those perceived as the 'ruling class'. They had an extreme dislike for the government and many large businesses as both appeared to lack sympathy for the increasingly desperate straits of the working class. The word schism, from the Greek σχισμα, schisma (from σχιζω, schizo, to split), means a division or a split, usually in an organization. ... The Who is a British rock band noted for the dynamism of their live performances and for their thoughtful music, including Tommy, one of the first rock operas. ... The Kinks are a British rock group. ... Reggae is a style of music developed in Jamaica. ... This page is about the musical style. ... The Spirit of 69 is a phrase used by apolitical or Anti-racist Skinheads to remind other Skinheads of the subcultures heyday in 1969 when reggae music was at its most popular, and as a reminder of its multicultural Jamaican and British working class roots. ... Rude boy, rudie, rudi or rudy is a subculture that developed in the early 1960s in Jamaica and has close ties to skinhead culture. ... In Marxian political economics, the ruling class refers to that segment or class of society that has the most economic and political power. ... Historically, the term business referred to activities or interests. ...


Skinhead culture exploded in the year 1969, to the extent that even the rock band Slade adopted the look, after which the original skinheads slowly dropped into new categories, including the "Suede-head" (defined by the ability to manipulate one's hair with a comb) and the next-stage "Smoothies" (often with hairstyles down to shoulder length). Fashions within both groups regressed to their mod roots, reintroducing the common wearing of brogues (originally an identifier once boots became too conspicuous) as well as the slacks-and-sweater look. Here was a far cry from the singularly blue-jeaned and typically steel-toe booted skins of the past. Slade was a British rock band. ... Suedehead (youth culture) evolved from the skinhead movement during the early 1970s. ... Brogues are shoes that are made of heavy and untanned leather, heretofore worn in Scotland and Ireland. ...


During the mid-1970s in the UK, the skinhead movement was reborn in an unexpected way. With the introduction of Punk Rock to the public, kids were looking for the next great shock-rockers. Skinheads with shorter hair, less emphasis on style, and a new sound grew in numbers and grabbed the attention of the media as a result of repeated incidents of hooliganism during football matches, often to the point of rioting between rival groups of supporters. Whether these riots were, in fact, initiated by skinheads or by overzealous fans in general is the subject of some controversy, but it is clear that skinheads were eager participants. Punk rock is an anti-establishment music movement beginning around 1976 (although precursors can be found several years earlier), exemplified and popularised by The Ramones, the Sex Pistols, The Clash and The Damned. ... Hooliganism is unruly and destructive behaviour. ... Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) Asian Football Confederation (AFC) Confederation of African Football (CAF) Confederation of North, Central American and Caribbean Association Football (CONCACAF Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) South American Football Confederation (CONMEBOL) Oceania Football Confederation (OFC) The Current Laws of the Game (LOTG) The Rec. ...


Skinheads gained a great deal of media attention after they were recruited by the political party the National Front to provide protection at rallies and marches. The party's position against dilution of the labor market by immigrants appealed to many working class skinheads, who were forced to compete with the immigrants for jobs and wages. The media focused on the skinheads' anti-immigrant stance, calling it racism, and on their frequent use of violence. Some of these skinheads later became the core of a right wing gang, Combat 18. In the United Kingdom, the British National Front (most commonly called the National Front or NF) is a far right-wing political party that had its heyday during the 1970s and 80s. ... In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply the right, are terms which refer, with no particular precision, to the segment of the political spectrum in opposition to left-wing politics. ... Combat 18 (or C18) was a British neo-Nazi organization formed in 1991 after meetings between the group Blood & Honour and football hooligans such as the Chelsea Headhunters. ...


Skinheads were also being recruited by racist groups in the United States around this time. After a number of brutal attacks by skinheads were reported in the print media, sensationalist television programs sought racist and Nazi skinheads for interviews, with the result that skinheads became stereotyped as racists by the public. In an attempt to counter this negative stereotype, two anti-racist skinhead organizations were formed: Skinheads Against Racial Prejudice (SHARP) in 1987, and Anti-Racist Action (ARA) in 1988. SHARP (Skinheads Against Racial Prejudice) are anti-racist skinheads who often confront those they feel to be neo-nazis, racists, or possessed of other prejudices. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The symbol most people associate with ARA Anti-Racist Action Network (ARA) is a decentralized network of anti-fascist and anti-racist activists. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) is a leap year starting on a Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Neo-Nazi skinhead movement began to grow in numbers in Russia after the beginning of second Chechen war. In recent years Neo-Nazi skinheads have been involved in numerous violent murders in Russia. It is believed by some analysts, particularly among Russian opposition, that president Putin's government and secret police are using violent right wing skinheads as an unofficial paramilitary force. Traditional skinheads also exist in Russia. There have been two Chechen Wars: First Chechen War (1994–1996) Second Chechen War (1999–) 1991-1994 In September, 1991, militants of Nationally Congress of Chechen People (NCChP) have taken control over Chechnya (they have seized republics parliament and killed chief of the PCUS of Grozny, Vitali Kutsenko). ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Влади́мир Влади́мирович Пу́тин in Cyrillic lettering) (born October 7, 1952) has been the President of Russia since the year 2000. ... A paramilitary organization is a group of civilians trained and organized in a military fashion. ...


The Third wave of ska brought a resurgence in skinhead subculture in the early 1990s, and the popularity of the group continues to grow. Today, skinheads can be found in all of North America and Europe, as well as in scattered places worldwide such as Japan, Argentina, Brazil, Israel, and Korea. The third wave of ska music (ska punk, skacore) arose in the 1990s in the United States. ... Korea refers to South Korea and North Korea together, which were a unified country until 1948. ...


Style

Skinheads who adopt traditional styles are highly visible in public to both allies and enemies. In terms of clothing:


Tops:

Coats: Ben Sherman is a notable British clothing company. ... Frederick John Perry (May 18, 1909 - February 2, 1995) was an English tennis player and three-time Wimbledon champion. ... Lonsdale logo Lonsdale is a clothing brand. ... Arnold Palmer - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Robert De Niro in Raging Bull wearing a wifebeater Wife beater, also wifebeater, and sometimes abbreviated as simply beater, is a slang term used in North America to refer to a tank top style shirt when worn as a sole, outer layer (as opposed to being worn as an undershirt). ... Cardigan could refer to any of the following: the cardigan sweater Cardigan, a town in Wales Cardiganshire, a Welsh county Cardigan, an electoral district in Canada the Cardigan Welsh Corgi, a breed of dog Lord Cardigan, charge of the Light Brigade The Cardigans, a Swedish pop group This is a... A jumper from Marks & Spencer A sweater, pullover, jumper or jersey is a relatively heavy garment intended to cover the torso and arms of the human body (though in some cases sweaters are made for dogs and occasionally other animals) and typically supposed to go over a shirt, blouse, t... T-Shirt A T-shirt (or tee shirt) is a shirt with short or long sleeves, a round neck, put on over the head, without pockets. ... Tie has a few valid meanings, including: A necktie is a piece of cloth hanging around the neck for fashion. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... A pocket is a small bag, particularly a bag-like receptacle either fastened to or inserted in an article of clothing. ... A skirt is a traditionally feminine tube- or cone-shaped garment which is worn from the waist and covers the legs. ... Look up jacket in Wiktionary, the free dictionary A jacket is an outer garment worn by both men and women, for warmth or fashion. ...

Bottoms: Usually associated with the MA-1 US military jacket, which is mostly found in black or sage green. ... A Harrington jacket is a short, lightweight coat, usually with a tartan or check lining, favoured by Mods and Skinheads. ... The Monkees in 1967 (left to right): Michael Nesmith, Davy Jones, Micky Dolenz, Peter Tork The Monkees were a four-man musical band who appeared in an American television series of the same name, which ran on NBC from 1966 to 1968. ... Formed in 1805 in Scotland, Crombie produce woollen and tweed clothing to a very high standard. ... A Donkey jacket is a short, buttoned outer coat, typically made of black woollen material, unlined; sometimes with a plastic panel covering the shoulder-blades area. ...

  • Men: Blue Levis or Wrangler jeans, straight leg with rolled cuffs (turn-ups) to show off the boots, often with the seam cut off and sewn to give a neater, flatter turn-up, and "properly" fitted (an oft-heard skinhead cry: "Get some jeans that fit, wanker!"); bleachers (jeans splattered with household bleach to resemble camouflage trousers); combat trousers; Sta-Prest flat-fronted slacks
  • Women: Same jeans as men, but also mini-skirts and fishnet stockings

Footwear: Levis can refer to: Levis, a brand of denim jeans Lévis, Quebec This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... hello This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Bleachers is a term used to describe the raised, tiered stands found by sports fields or at other spectator events. ... In 1964, Levi Strauss and co. ... The miniskirt is a skirt whose hemline is a ways above the knees (generally from ten to twenty centimetres above knee-level). ... Not to be confused with: fishing net. ...

  • Men: Boots, originally Dr Martens (Docs) sometimes "steelies" (steel-toed) with 3 to 14 holes; later, brogues and loafers and recently, Grinders and other brand boots; black Rigger boots are also popular, although UK Skinheads tend to stick with 'original' styles. During the '60s, steel-toecapped boots were often referred to as "bovver boots" - thought to derive from the Cockney pronunciation of "bother".
  • Women: Docs, Monkey boots or black penny loafers

Hats: Bowlers; pork pie hats; scally (Benny in the UK) caps; "flat caps" (driver's caps) Boots is the name of at least five different albums and singles: Boots by Nancy Sinatra (1966) Boots by Mighty Gabby (1984) Boots by Condemned Eighty Four (2001) Boots by KMFDM (2002) Boots by Noe Venable (2003) It is also the name of a large chain of chemists in the... Dr. Martens is a brand of shoe, often known as Doc Martens, Docs, or D.M.s. They have a characteristic air-cushioned sole developed in Germany by Dr. Klaus Maertens (note the different spelling). ... Loafers or penny loafers are low, leather step-in shoes whose tops resemble a moccasin, but have broad flat heels. ... A pair of typical Rigger boots Rigger boots are a particular type of safety boot. ... Loafers or penny loafers are low, leather step-in shoes whose tops resemble a moccasin, but have broad flat heels. ... The bowler hat is a hard felt hat created for an Englishman James Coke in 1850. ... A pork pie hat, or trilby, is a felt hat, dating from the middle 18th century, much the same as a fedora, but with a flattened top. ... Look up Scally on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Scally is a slang term, originally used in Merseyside, to describe jobless hooligans, who have little or no education, and have committed some type of crime. ...


Braces: No more than ¾ inch in width (In some areas, wider braces are considered to identify one as either white power or a poser) Poseur (Americanized as poser) is a derogatory label for an individual who seeks to identify with a particular subculture, not because they have taken on its shared values but because they seek to gain social status within the culture, or to gain the status associated with it. ...


Hair:

  • Men: Originally, between a "2" and "4" grade clipguard (short, but not bald!); beginning in the '70s, typically shaved close with no greater than a number "2" guard. With the recent acceptance of shorter hair and shaved heads among the general public, any length down to and including shaved is now common.
  • Women: Although hair can be worn in the same fashion as men, skinhead girls commonly wear a "Chelsea" shaved on top with fringes grown out in the back and front.

Modern day adult skinheads more often adopt only one or two traditional elements of clothing, such as jeans with rolled cuffs and a button-up or polo shirt, for daily wear. Complete outfits are more likely to be worn on special occasions, such as when going to an event where other skins are expected to be present. A Chelsea girl (also Chelsea, skinhead girl, skingirl or skinbyrd) is a girl or woman who is a skinhead, and/or a skinhead mans girlfriend; so named for her hairstyle entailed by shaving the crown and occiput of her head and leaving the front, back and often the sides...


Laces and braces

Some skinheads, particularly highly political ones, attach significance to lace, brace, and (less commonly) flight jacket colors, using them to advertise their beliefs and affiliations. The following color code lists the meanings which are widely, though not universally, recognized for this purpose:

  • White - Traditional/Non Racist Skinhead, but also White Power
  • Red - Communist/Traditional/Non Racist Skinhead, but sometimes also used by neo-nazi skinheads who associate "Blut und Ehre" ("Blood & Honour")/"Blut und Boden" (slogans used in the Third Reich) to the colour of their laces
  • Yellow/black/blue - Asian/Non Racist Skinhead/Traditional/Straight Edge Skinhead (No drugs and sometimes no sex)
  • Black - Traditional, or simply wearing what came with the boots
  • Black and White - Racial unity, ska fan or "Two Tone."

Other colors have had meanings within specific groups, locations, and time periods, but never achieved as general recognition; they are not listed because doing so would be more confusing than enlightening.


The "braces and laces game" has fallen largely into disuse, particularly among Traditionalist skinheads, who are more likely to choose their colors for fashion purposes. A common saying among these is "Laces and braces don't make you a racist." Additionally, in many areas laces must be 'laddered' -- laced so that the laces crossing on the outside of the boot remain horizontal and parallel -- to be considered of any significance.


Music

Music plays an important role in any youth subculture and skinheads are no exception. Originally, the group was closely associated with the ska and reggae music of Desmond Dekker and Laurel Aitken before forming their own flavors of the style with bands like Symarip, Joe the Boss, and Judge Dread. Desmond Dekker performing his hit song Israelites at the Wembley Arena in 1969 Desmond Dekker (born Desmond Adolphus Dacres in Kingston, Jamaica on July 16, 1941) is a ska and reggae singer and songwriter. ... Laurel Aitken (April 22, 1927–July 17, 2005) became famous as one of the originators of Jamaican ska music in the late 1950s. ... Symarip, formerly the Pyramids, were a ska andreggae band from Britain, originating towards the end of the 1960s and into the early 1970s. ... Alexander Minto Hughes (1945 - March 12, 1998), better known as Judge Dread, a British reggae and ska artist. ...


In the '70s and early '80s, a variant on streetpunk, Oi!, became accepted enthusiastically by skinheads and punks, and Oi! continues to be one of the most popular genres among skinheads. The initiators of Oi! were Sham 69, a band from the working class area of London in 1977. Another one was Cocksparrer who also began in London but in 1974. Other well known Oi! bands of the late 70s and early 80s were Angelic Upstarts , Blitz, Last Resort, Combat 84, Antisocial, Condemned 84, Section 5, the Oppressed (which brought SHARP into Europe in the late 80s), and others. U.S. Oi! began in the 80s with bands such as the legendary Bruisers (the singer is now in Dropkick Murphys), Forced Reality, Stars and Stripes, Atlanta's Anti-heros (who sued the makers of American History X for wrongful use of their logo as they claimed to be an anti nazi band), and Iron Cross (whose singer Sab Grey is of Jewish descent). Current U.S. Oi! bands are the Templars, Bonecrusher, Anti-Heros, Terminus City, Weekend Warriors, Brassknuckle Boys, the Opposition, Nuts and Bolts, Convicted, the Green Kardz (in Spanish from Miami), Sick of Society, Patriot, Broken Heros, Niblick Henbane, and many other bands. Neo-Nazi skinheads have a separate but thriving musical culture known as Rock Against Communism which features bands such as Skrewdriver, Blue Eyed Devils, Max Resist, Bound for Glory and Angry Aryans. American skinheads have also accepted hardcore punk with New York hardcore bands such as Warzone, Agnostic Front, and Cro-mags. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Oi! is the name given to a sub-genre of punk music that sought to align punk with a working-class street level following. ... Sham 69 were a British punk band from Hersham, Surrey, a suburb of London. ... Rock Against Communism (RAC) was originally a series of concerts held in Britain in the 1980s and dominated by far-right and white supremacist bands. ... For the tool, see Screwdriver. ... Hardcore punk (or hardcore) is an intensified version of punk rock usually characterized by short, loud, and often passionate songs with exceptionally fast tempos and chord changes. ...


The most popular music for the late '70s Skinhead was Two-Tone, named after a Coventry-based record label that featured such bands as The Specials, Madness, and The Selecter. Two-Tone was the musical integration of Ska, Rocksteady and the spirit of Punk music. The label was initially very successful scoring many Top Twenty hits and eventually a number one. During this time (1979 - 1981) Skinheads were a common sight on the UK highstreets. Two Tone (or 2 Tone) is a style of music created by fusing elements of punk rock and ska. ... The Precinct in Coventry city centre For alternative meanings see: Coventry (disambiguation) Coventry is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands of England. ... Album cover of Specials The Specials (movie) The Specials were a British band formed in 1977 in Coventry (see 1977 in music). ... Madness has several uses: One who is affected by madness could be deemed insane or could have a mental illness A band, see Madness (band) A violent flash cartoon series, see Madness Combat. ... The Selecter were a British ska revival band from Coventry, formed in the late 1970s as one of the essential bands of the British ska movement. ... This page refers to the year 1979. ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Other types of music are also popular among skinheads: Northern Soul, Rocksteady, streetpunk, mod rock and, in America especially, Hardcore. Neo-Nazi and some Traditional skinheads also listen to Rock Against Communism (RAC). Northern soul is a style of music with associated dance styles and fashions that developed in the north of England in the late 1960s. ... This article is about the Jamaican music. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Hardcore punk (or hardcore) is an intensified version of punk rock usually characterized by short, loud, and often passionate songs with exceptionally fast tempos and chord changes. ... Rock Against Communism (RAC) was originally a series of concerts held in Britain in the 1980s and dominated by far-right and white supremacist bands. ...


Glossary of terms

3i's or 3-eyes
Leather shoes having three eyelets for laces on either side. Popular for their resemblance to the boots worn by skinheads.
8i's (8-eyes), 9i's (9-eyes) etc.
Leather boots having the given number of eyelets for laces on either side. Other common numbers are 10, 12, 14, 18, and 20.
Aggro
[Chiefly UK] Aggressive behavior; fighting or threatening to fight.
Beatdown
[US] A skinhead brawl in which one side is literally beaten to the ground. See also: "boot party"
Bleachers
Blue jeans treated with household bleach to create a camouflage-like pattern. They were popular among early skinheads because military surplus combat trousers were more expensive and less available. Uniquely skinhead, they remain popular today.
Bonehead
A derisive term used by Traditional and anti-racist skinheads for a neo-Nazi skinhead. Also used as a non-derogatory term for scruffier skinheads in parts of the UK.
Boot party
[US] Euphemism for a skinhead-style fight (involving kicking), especially where one side outnumbers the other. See also: "beatdown"
Braces
A fashion accessory for holding up one's trousers, consisting of a pair of elasticized bands which go over the shoulders and fasten to the trousers (usually in the form of a clip in the case of jeans) in the front and back. Although in the US these are commonly called suspenders, skinheads usually use the British term.
Chelsea
  1. Traditionally, a female skinhead. More commonly called a "skinhead girl", "skingirl" or "skinbyrd" today.
  2. The traditional haircut of a female skinhead, consisting of short hair on the crown, sides and back with a longer fringe in the front and on the neck. Also known as a feathercut.
Claim skinhead
[US] To declare oneself a skinhead to the skinhead community at large. This may be done verbally or simply by adopting skinhead styles. Doing so may expose one to challenges from established skinheads.
Crew or (in the UK) Firm
A skinhead gang whose members pledge loyalty and mutual defense. Some crews also engage in organized attacks or illegal activities.
Curbstomping or curbing
Seriously injuring an opponent by stomping on his head after placing it across the edge of a curb. The injuries may be fatal.
Fence-walker
A derisive term used by extremist skinheads for those who refuse to take sides, or who will associate with opposing groups.
Flight
Short for "flight jacket," a traditional skinhead jacket originally obtained from military surplus stores.
Freshcut
[US] Someone who has recently "claimed skinhead" (see above), particularly one who hasn't yet learned skinhead culture.
Hooligan
A football (soccer) team fan who likes to brawl with fans of opposing teams. Often associated with skinheads and vice versa, but not all hooligans are skinheads.
Skanking
A dance style associated with ska music.
Suss (out)
Originally, to "check out" an unknown skinhead to determine his credibility or political leanings (and thus to identify "poseurs" and enemies). Now often used as a noun representing familiarity with skinhead attitude, customs, and style ("He's got the suss")
  • (Note:Suss is also an abbreviation of the word 'suspicious', used in Australian slang. It describes a person, object, or act of questionable nature. eg;"That meat-pie looks a little suss", "He was acting pretty suss with that girl at the party", "Don't date her, she's suss.")
Swazi
Shortening of "swastika," the symbol of the Nazi Party. By extension, a name for a Nazi or neo-Nazi skinhead.

A Chelsea girl (also Chelsea, skinhead girl, skingirl or skinbyrd) is a girl or woman who is a skinhead, and/or a skinhead mans girlfriend; so named for her hairstyle entailed by shaving the crown and occiput of her head and leaving the front, back and often the sides... The swastika () is an equilateral cross with its arms bent at right angles either clockwise or anticlockwise. ... The Nazi swastika symbol The National Socialist German Workers Party ( German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei), better known as the NSDAP or the Nazi Party was a political party that was led to power in Germany by Adolf Hitler in 1933. ... In metaphysics, extension is the property of taking up space; see Extension (metaphysics). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Nazism. ... Nazi-Skinheads, saluting and drinking Nazi-Skinheads are a right wing subculture that developed in the United Kingdom in the first half of the eighties. ...

See also

A list of films relating to or about the Skinhead culture. ... Books about, or relating to Skinhead culture. ...

External links

  • Libcom.org/history: A Brief History of Skinhead Culture
  • Cathal Smythe of the band Madness on Ska and Skinhead culture
  • Reggae, Reggae, Reggae The Skinhead Movement and Reggae Music
  • Skinheads - Danger from the Right? A book about Skinheads in Germany
  • Skinhead Nation Stories from skinhead history in Europe and the US
  • Skinheads.net American message board for skinheads
  • Papaskin American skinhead web site with news, images, forum, etc.
  • Skinhead Moonstomp Oi! and Reggae (MP3 site)
  • Hammerskin Nation Racialist skinhead website (compare with others)

For more links see List of Skinhead websites in Wikipedia Websites about, or relating to Skinhead culture and Traditional skinheads. ...

Skinhead
Skinhead - Ska - Reggae - Oi! - Northern Soul - Punk - Streetpunk - Ska Punk - Hardcore - Skinhead Films - Punk Films - Mods - Punks - Gay skinhead - Scooterboys - Scooters - Vespa - Lambretta - Trojan Records - Doctor Martens - Levi's - Ben Sherman - Nazi-Skinheads - Bonehead - SHARP - Chelsea girl

 
 

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