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Encyclopedia > Trojan Horse
19th century sketching of the Trojan Horse.

The Trojan Horse is part of the Trojan War, as told in Virgil's Latin epic poem The Aeneid. The events of this, take place after Homer's Iliad, and before Homer's The Odyssey. A Trojan Horse is a giant hollow wooden horse, part of the myth of the Trojan War, see Trojan Horse. ... 19th century etching of the Trojan Horse, http://www. ... 19th century etching of the Trojan Horse, http://www. ... For other uses of Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ... The fall of Troy, by Johann Georg Trautmann (1713–1769). ... For other uses, see Virgil (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... In mathematics, see epic morphism. ... The Aeneid is a Latin epic written by Vergil in the 1st century BC that tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who traveled to Italy where he became the ancestor of the Romans. ... For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ... Odysseus and Nausicaä - by Charles Gleyre For other uses, see Odyssey (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Legend

This incident is mentioned in the Odyssey:

What a thing was this, too, which that mighty man [Odysseus] wrought and endured in the carven horse, where in all we chiefs of the Argives were sitting, bearing to the Trojans death and fate! 4.271 ff
But come now,change thy theme, and sing of the building of the horse of wood, which Epeius made with Athena's help, the horse which once Odysseus led up into the citadel as a thing of guile, when he had filled it with the men who sacked Ilium . 8.487 ff (trans. Samuel Butler)

The most detailed and most familiar version is in Virgil's Aeneid, Book 2 (trans. John Dryden).
Samuel Butler is the name of several notable persons: Samuel Butler (1612-1680), author of Hudibras Samuel Butler (1774-1839), classical scholar Samuel Butler (1835-1902), grandson of the scholar, author of Erewhon This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share... John Dryden John Dryden (August 19 {August 9 O.S.}, 1631 - May 12 {May 1 O.S.}, 1700) was an influential English poet, literary critic, translator and playwright, who dominated the literary life of Restoration England to such a point that the period came to be known in literary circles...

By destiny compell'd, and in despair,
The Greeks grew weary of the tedious war,
And by Minerva's aid a fabric rear'd,
Which like a steed of monstrous height appear'd:
The sides were plank'd with pine; they feign'd it made
For their return, and this the vow they paid.
Thus they pretend, but in the hollow side
Selected numbers of their soldiers hide:
With inward arms the dire machine they load,
And iron bowels stuff the dark abode.
[...]
Laocoon, follow'd by a num'rous crowd,
Ran from the fort, and cried, from far, aloud:
‘O wretched countrymen! What fury reigns?
What more than madness has possess'd your brains?
Think you the Grecians from your coasts are gone?
And are Ulysses' arts no better known?
This hollow fabric either must inclose,
Within its blind recess, our secret foes;
Or 't is an engine rais'd above the town,
T' o'erlook the walls, and then to batter down.
Somewhat is sure design'd, by fraud or force:
Trust not their presents, nor admit the horse.’

The Greek siege of Troy had lasted for ten years. The Greeks devised a new ruse: a giant hollow wooden horse. It was built by Epeius and filled with Greek warriors led by Odysseus. The rest of the Greek army appeared to leave, but actually hid behind Tenedos. Meanwhile, a Greek spy, Sinon, convinced the Trojans that the horse was a gift despite the warnings of Laocoon and Cassandra; Helen and Deiphobus even investigated the horse; in the end, the Trojans accepted the gift. In ancient times it was customary for a defeated general to surrender his horse to the victorious general in a sign of respect. It should be noted here that the horse was the sacred animal of Poseidon; during the contest with Athena over the patronage of Athens, Poseidon gave men the horse, and Athena gave the olive tree. A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ... For other uses of Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ... Epeus redirects here. ... For other meanings, see Odysseus crater, 1143 Odysseus “Ulysses” redirects here. ... Tenedos, known as Bozcaada officially and by its Turkish inhabitants, (Greek: , Tenedhos), is a small island in the Aegean Sea, part of the Bozcaada district of Çanakkale province in Turkey. ... In Greek mythology, Sinon, a son of Aesimus (son of Autolycus), or of the crafty Sisyphus, was a Greek warrior during the Trojan War. ... Laocoön (Greek Λαοκοων, pronounced roughly La-oh-koh-on), son of Acoetes, was allegedly a priest of Poseidon (or of Apollo, by some accounts) at Troy; he is famous for warning the Trojans in vain against accepting the Trojan Horse from the Greeks... For other uses, see Cassandra (disambiguation). ... “Helen of Troy” redirects here. ... In Greek mythology, Deiphobus was a son of Priam and Hecuba. ... Neptune reigns in the city of Bristol. ... For other uses, see Athena (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... For other uses, see Athena (disambiguation). ... For the Italian political alliance see Olive Tree, and the color, olive (color). ...

Depiction of the Trojan horse in the art of Gandhara, India. 2nd-3rd century CE. British Museum.
Depiction of the Trojan horse in the art of Gandhara, India. 2nd-3rd century CE. British Museum.

The Trojans hugely celebrated the end of the siege, so that, when the Greeks emerged from the horse, the city was in a drunken stupor. The Greek warriors opened the city gates to allow the rest of the army to enter, and the city was pillaged ruthlessly, all the men were killed, and all the women and children were taken into slavery. Image File history File links IndoGreeksTrojanHorse. ... Image File history File links IndoGreeksTrojanHorse. ... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... The British Museum in London, England is one of the worlds greatest museums of human history and culture. ...


Within the territories of the ancient city of Troy, near the Dardanelles (modern Turkey), is a small museum, founded in 1955, that includes the remnants of the city, along with a wooden horse built in the museum garden to depict the legendary Trojan horse. The wooden horse from the recent film Troy is displayed on the seafront in the nearby town of Çanakkale. Map of the Dardanelles The Dardanelles (Turkish: Çanakkale BoÄŸazı, Greek: Δαρδανέλλια, Dardanellia), formerly known as the Hellespont (Greek: Eλλήσποντος, Hellespontos), is a narrow strait in northwestern Turkey connecting the Aegean Sea to the Sea of Marmara. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... Troy is a movie released on May 14, 2004 about the Trojan War, which is described in Homers Iliad and other Greek myths as having taken place in Anatolia (modern Turkey) around the 13th or 12th century BC. It stars, among others: Brad Pitt as Achilles, Eric Bana as... Image:Canakkale Yat Liman. ...


From this mythological episode comes the term Trojan horse as a general term describing an apparent advantage that is actually a trick; "Trojan horse" tactics are those considered sneaky, underhand, deceitful. The term can also refer to a "sneak attack" in general. The term "Trojan" is also widely used today to refer to malicious computer software that looks harmless to the user, but actually contains a computer virus or spyware. A computer virus is a computer program that can copy itself and infect a computer without permission or knowledge of the user. ... A large number of toolbars, some added by spyware, overwhelm an Internet Explorer session. ...


Fact or Fiction

According to Homer, Troy stood overlooking the Hellespont - a channel of water that separates Asia Minor and Europe. In the 1870's, Heinrich Schliemann set out to find it. [1] Following Homer's description, he started to dig at Hisarlik in Turkey and uncovered the ruins of several cities, built one on top of the other. Several of the cities had been destroyed violently, but is not clear which was the Troy of Homer's Legend. Experts are now certain that Troy was a real place.


Book II of Virgil's Aeneid

Book II of Virgil's Aeneid covers the siege of Troy, and includes these lines spoken by Laocoön: For other uses, see Virgil (disambiguation). ... Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598 Galleria Borghese, Rome The Aeneid (IPA English pronunciation: ; in Latin Aeneis, pronounced — the title is Greek in form: genitive case Aeneidos) is a Latin epic written by Virgil in the 1st century BC (between 29 and 19 BC) that tells the legendary story... Statue of Laocoön in the Vatican Laocoön (in Greek – Λαοκόων, pronounced roughly La — oh — koh — on), son of Priam, was allegedly a priest of Poseidon (or of Apollo, by some accounts) at Troy; he was famous for warning the Trojans in vain against accepting the Trojan Horse from the...

equo ne credite, Teucri.
quidquid id est, timeo Danaos et dona ferentes.

Meaning (depending on the translation) "Do not trust the horse, Trojans! Whatever it is, I fear the Greeks even bringing gifts". This is the origin of the modern adage "Beware of Greeks bearing gifts".


Possible explanations

Pausanias, who lived in the 2nd century AD, wrote on his book Description of Greece [2]: Pausanias (Greek: ) was a Greek traveller and geographer of the 2nd century A.D., who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. ... The 2nd century is the period from 101 - 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Pausanias (Greek: ) was a Greek traveller and geographer of the 2nd century A.D., who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. ...

That the work of Epeius was a contrivance to make a breach in the Trojan wall is known to everybody who does not attribute utter silliness to the Phrygians (1,XXIII,8)

where by Phrygians he means the Trojans. There has been some modern speculation that the Trojan Horse may have been a battering ram resembling, to some extent, a horse, and that the description of the use of this device was then transformed into a myth by later oral historians who were not present at the battle and were unaware of that meaning of the name. Assyrians at the time used siege machines with animal names; it is possible that the Trojan Horse was such. Replica battering ram at Ch teau des Baux, France A battering ram is a weapon used from ancient times. ... Oral history is an account of something passed down by word of mouth from one generation to another. ... It has been suggested that Assyrian people be merged into this article or section. ...


It has also been suggested that the Trojan Horse actually represents a hurricane that occurred between the wars that could have weakened Troy's walls and left them open for attack. [3] Structural damage on Troy VI—its location being the same as that represented in Homer's Iliad and the artifacts found there suggesting it was a place of great trade and power—shows signs that there was indeed an earthquake. Generally, though, Troy VIIa is believed to be Homer's Troy (see below).


The deity, Poseidon, had a triple function as a god of the sea, of horses and of earthquakes. Neptune reigns in the city of Bristol. ...


Men in the horse

According to the Little Iliad it had 3,000 in its belly, and 2 spies in its mouth Apollodorus 50[1],Tzetzes 23,[2] Quintus Smyrnaeus gives the names of thirty, and he says that there were more of them.[3] In late tradition it seems it was standardised at 40. Their names follow: The Little Iliad (Greek: Ἰλιὰς μικρά, Ilias mikra; Latin: Ilias parva) is a lost epic of ancient Greek literature. ... John Tzetzes, (c. ...

For other meanings, see Odysseus crater, 1143 Odysseus “Ulysses” redirects here. ... In Greek mythology, Acamas (unwearying) was the son of Phaedra and Theseus. ... Agapenor: Leader of the Arkadians Reference Homer, The Iliad, translated by Richmond Lattimore, 1951 Categories: ... Ajax (Greek: Αἴας), a Greek hero, son of Oïleus the king of Locris, called the lesser or Locrian Ajax, to distinguish him from Ajax, son of Telamon. ... In Greek mythology, Amphimachus is the name of seven men. ... In Greek mythology, Ant phat s was King of the Laestrogynes. ... In Greek mythology, Demophon referred to two different kings: one of Eleusis and the other, Athens Demophon was a son of King Celeus and Queen Metanira. ... DiomÄ“dÄ“s or Diomed (Gk:Διομήδης - God-like cunning or advised by Zeus) is a hero in Greek mythology, mostly known for his participation in the Trojan War. ... In Greek mythology, the name Echion referred to three different beings. ... Epeus redirects here. ... Eumelus was the name of several men in Greek mythology: A Eumelus succeeded Adrastus as the King of Pherae. ... In Greek mythology, Euryalus referred to two different people. ... Eurymachus, or Eurýmakhos, an Ithacan nobleman and the son of Polybus, was one of the leading suitors of Penelope in The Odyssey. ... In Greek mythology, Eurypylus (Greek: Εὐρύπυλος) was the name of several different people. ... In Greek mythology, Idomeneus was a Cretan warrior, grandson of Minos. ... In Greek mythology, Machaon was a son of Asclepius. ... In Greek mythology, Mégês Phyleïdês was a son of Phyleus. ... Menelaus regains Helen, detail of an Attic red-figure crater, ca. ... Menestheus, the son of Peteus, son of Orneus, son of Erechtheus, was a legendary King of Athens during the Trojan War. ... Meriones was a son of Molus and Melphis. ... Neoptolemus killing Priam In Greek mythology, Neoptolemus, also Neoptólemos or Pyrrhus, was the son of the warrior Achilles and the princess Deidamea. ... In Greek mythology, Philoctetes (also Philoktêtês or Philocthetes, Φιλοκτήτης) was the son of King Poeas of Meliboea in Thessaly. ... In Greek mythology, Podalirius was a son of Asclepius. ... In Greek mythology, Polypoites or Polypoetes (Greek: Πολυποίτης) was the name of several individuals: Polypoites was a son of Hippodamia and Pirithous. ... In Greek mythology, Sthenelus refers to four different people. ... In Greek mythology Teucer, also Teucrus or Teucris from Greek Τεύκρος, was the son of King Telamon of Salamis and his second wife Hesione, daughter of King Laomedon of Troy. ... In Homers Iliad, Thersander was one of the Epigonoi, a son of Polynices. ... Thoas, son of Andraimon, was one of the heroes who fought for the Greeks in the Trojan War. ... In Greek mythology Thrasymedes was a participent in the Trojan War. ...

Images

References

  1. ^ Epitome 5.14
  2. ^ Posthomerica 641-650
  3. ^ Posthomerica xii.314-335

See also

-- Pliny The Elder Book 7 The Mykonos vase is the earliest dated object (Archaic period, ca. ... Troy is an Oscar-nominated movie released on May 14, 2004 about the Trojan War, as described in Homers Iliad, Virgils Aeneid, and other Greek myths. ... Spoiler warning: In a scene of Monty Python and the Holy Grail, King Arthur and his knights are confronted by a group of Frenchmen who refuse to give them shelter for the night in their castle, and tease them by saying they already have the eponymous grail. ... Monty Python and the Holy Grail is a 1975 film written and performed by the comedy group Monty Python (Graham Chapman, John Cleese, Terry Gilliam, Eric Idle, Terry Jones, and Michael Palin), and directed by Gilliam and Jones. ...


External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Trojan horse
  • The Trojan Horse for Kids: another ancient image of the Trojan Horse.
  • Movie : Helen of Troy (1956)
  • Movie : The Trojan Horse (1962)
  • Movie : Troy (2004)
  • The Trojan Horse Massacre

  Results from FactBites:
 
Trojan Horse - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (767 words)
The Trojan Horse is part of the myth of the Trojan War, as told in Virgil's Latin epic poem The Aeneid.
The Trojan Bell is an ancillary component to the myth; according to lore, it signaled the beginning of the assault on Troy.
The wooden horse from the recent film Troy is displayed on the seafront in the nearby town of Çanakkale.
Trojan horse (computing) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1520 words)
Trojan horse programs cannot operate autonomously, in contrast to some other types of malware, like viruses or worms.
In practice, Trojan Horses in the wild often contain spying functions (such as a packet sniffer) or backdoor functions that allow a computer, unbeknownst to the owner, to be remotely controlled from the network, creating a "zombie computer".
A simple example of a trojan horse would be a program named "pr0n.jpg.exe" claiming to be a pornographic picture file from a website which, when run, instead begins erasing all the files on the computer.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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