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Encyclopedia > Triticale
Triticale
Triticale

Triticale (x Triticosecale) is an artificial or man-made hybrid of rye and wheat first bred in laboratories during the late 19th century. The grain was originally bred in Scotland and Sweden. Commercially available triticale is almost always a 2nd generation hybrid, i.e. a cross between two kinds of triticale (primary triticales). As a rule, triticale combines the high yield potential and good grain quality of wheat with the disease and environmental tolerance (including soil conditions) of rye. Only recently has it been developed into a commercially viable crop. Depending on the cultivar, triticale can more or less resemble either of its parents. It is grown mostly for forage or animal feed although some triticale-based foods can be purchased at health food stores or are to be found in some breakfast cereals. Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Triticale ... Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Triticale ... // This article is about a biological term. ... Binomial name Secale cereale M.Bieb. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... Plant breeding is the purposeful manipulation of plant species in order to create desired genotypes and phenotypes for specific purposes. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto: (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity(English) Wha daur meddle wi me? (Scots)[1] Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic, Scots[2] Government  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by Kenneth I... // This article is about a biological term. ... The word grain has several meanings, most being descriptive of a small piece or particle. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... Binomial name Secale cereale M.Bieb. ... This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ... Forage is the herbaceous plant material (mainly grasses and legumes) eaten by grazing animals. ... The word feed has a number of uses: Feeding is supplying food. ... Healthful eating is the act of following a balanced nutritional diet. ... Cereal crops are mostly grasses cultivated for their edible seeds (actually a fruit called a grain, technically a caryopsis). ...


The word 'triticale' is a fusion of the latin words triticum (or wheat) and secale (rye). When crossing wheat and rye, wheat is used as the female parent and rye as the male parent (pollen donor). The resulting hybrid is sterile and thus has to be treated with the alkaloid chemical colchicine to make it fertile and thus able to reproduce itself. Look up portmanteau word in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... Binomial name Secale cereale M.Bieb. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... Binomial name Secale cereale M.Bieb. ... // This article is about a biological term. ... Infertility is the inability to naturally conceive a child or to carry a pregnancy to full term. ... Diagram of Ephedrine An alkaloid, strictly speaking, is a naturally-occurring amine produced by a plant,[1] but amines produced by animals and fungi are also called alkaloids. ... Colchicine is a highly deadly poisonous alkaloid, originally extracted from plants of the genus Colchicum (Autumn crocus, also known as the Meadow saffron). Originally used to treat rheumatic complaints and especially gout, it was also prescribed for its cathartic and emetic effects. ...

Top Triticale Producers
in 2005
(million metric tons)
 Poland 3.7
Flag of Germany Germany 2.7
Flag of France France 1.8
 China 1.3
 Belgium 1.1
Flag of Australia Australia 0.6
Flag of Hungary Hungary 0.6
 Czech Republic 0.3
Flag of Sweden Sweden 0.3
Flag of Denmark Denmark 0.2
World Total 13.5
Source:
UN Food & Agriculture Organisation
(FAO)
[1]


The primary producers of triticale are Germany, France, Poland, Australia, China and Belarus. In 2005, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 13.5 million tons were harvested in 28 countries across the world. Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland_corrected_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Australia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... FAO emblem With its headquarters in Rome, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that works to raise levels of nutrition and standards of living; to improve the production, processing, marketing, and distribution of food and agricultural products; to promote rural development; and... The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger. ...


The triticale hybrids are all amphidiploid, which means the plant is diploid for two genomes derived from different species, in other words triticale is an allotetraploid. In earlier years most work was done on octoploid triticale. Different ploidy levels have been created and evaluated over time. The tetraploids showed little promise, but hexaploid triticale was successful enough to find commercial application. (Oetler 2005) This article is about a biological term. ... Polyploid (in Greek: πολλαπλόν - multiple) cells or organisms that contain more than two copies of each of their chromosomes. ... Diploid (meaning double in Greek) cells have two copies (homologs) of each chromosome (both sex- and non-sex determining chromosomes), usually one from the mother and one from the father. ... Genome is also a popular science book by Matt Ridley. ... In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biodiversity. ... Polyploid (in Greek: πολλαπλόν - multiple) cells or organisms contain more than two copies (ploidy) of their chromosomes. ... Ploidy is the number of homologous sets of chromosomes in a biological cell. ...


The CIMMYT triticale improvement program wanted to improve food production and nutrition in developing countries. According to Villegas (1973) triticale has potential in the production of bread and other food products such as pasta and breakfast cereals. The protein content is higher than that of wheat although the glutenin fraction is less. Assuming increased acceptance, the milling industry will have to adapt to triticale, as milling techniques used for wheat don't suit triticale. Sell et al. (1962) delivered reports of triticale suitability as a grain feed and it is a better ruminant feed than other cereals due to its high starch digestibility. (Bird et al. 1999) As a feed grain triticale is already well established and of high economic importance. Triticale has received attention as a potential energy crop and research is currently being conducted on the use of the crops biomass in bioethanol production. International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center – better known by its Spanish acronym CIMMYT, from Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo – is a research institute dedicated to the development of improved strains of wheat and maize. ... A developing country is a country with low average income compared to the world average. ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Cereal crops are mostly grasses cultivated for their edible seeds (actually a fruit called a grain, technically a caryopsis). ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... Glutenin (or glutenine) is a protein best known for its role, along with in gliadin, in the creation of gluten with its disulfide inter and intra molecule links. ... A Miller is a person who operates a mill for grinding material and usually refers to one who grinds a cereal crop to make flour. ... A Miller is a person who operates a mill for grinding material and usually refers to one who grinds a cereal crop to make flour. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... The word grain has several meanings, most being descriptive of a small piece or particle. ... The word feed has a number of uses: Feeding is supplying food. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The word feed has a number of uses: Feeding is supplying food. ... Cereal crops are mostly grasses cultivated for their edible seeds (actually a fruit called a grain, technically a caryopsis). ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8) is a complex carbohydrate which is soluble in water; it is used by plants as a way to store excess glucose. ... The word feed has a number of uses: Feeding is supplying food. ... The word grain has several meanings, most being descriptive of a small piece or particle. ... An energy crop is a non-edible plant domesticated for use in agriculture, considered as a group (e. ... Switchgrass, a hardy plant used in the biofuel industry in the United States Rice chaff. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ...

Contents

Biology and genetics

The grain of wheat, rye and triticale - triticale grain is significantly larger than that of wheat.
The grain of wheat, rye and triticale - triticale grain is significantly larger than that of wheat.

Earlier work with wheat-rye crosses was difficult due to low survival of the resulting hybrid embryo and spontaneous chromosome doubling. (Oetler, 2005). These two factors were difficult to predict and control. It was necessary to find ways to alter or control these factors. To improve the viability of the embryo and thus avoid its abortion, in vitro culture techniques were developed. (Laibach, 925) Colchicine was used as a chemical agent to double the chromosomes. (Blakeslee & Avery 1937) After these developments a new era of triticale breeding was introduced. Earlier triticale hybrids had four reproductive disorders namely, meiotic instability, high aneuploid frequency, low fertility and shriveled seed. (Muntzing 1939; Krolow 1966). Cytogenetical studies were encouraged and well funded to overcome these problems. Image:Wheat ry triticale. ... Image:Wheat ry triticale. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... Binomial name Secale cereale M.Bieb. ... The word grain has several meanings, most being descriptive of a small piece or particle. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... Binomial name Secale cereale M.Bieb. ... // This article is about a biological term. ... It has been suggested that embryology be merged into this article or section. ... THERE ARE NOW 30 CHROMOSOMES!!!!!! Figure 1: A representation of a condensed eukaryotic chromosome, as seen during cell division. ... It has been suggested that embryology be merged into this article or section. ... Wiktionary has a definition of: In vitro In vitro (Latin: within glass) means within a test tube, or, more generally, outside a living organism or cell. ... Colchicine is a highly deadly poisonous alkaloid, originally extracted from plants of the genus Colchicum (Autumn crocus, also known as the Meadow saffron). Originally used to treat rheumatic complaints and especially gout, it was also prescribed for its cathartic and emetic effects. ... This article is about the biological chromosome. ... Breeding has several meanings related to procreation: In animal husbandry and in horticulture the selection of stock for propagation and the act of insemination by natural or artificial means is called breeding. ... For the article on the figure of speech, see meiosis (figure of speech). ... Aneuploidy is a chromosomal state where abnormal numbers of specific chromosomes or chromosome sets exist within the nucleus. ... Fertility is a measure of reproduction: the number of children born per couple, person or population. ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ...


It is especially difficult to see the expression of rye genes in the background of wheat cytoplasm and the predominant wheat nuclear genome. This makes it difficult to realise the potential of rye in disease resistance and ecological adaptation. One of the ways to relieve this problem was to produce secalotricum in which rye cytoplasm was used instead of that from wheat. Binomial name Secale cereale M.Bieb. ... This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... Organelles. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... Binomial name Secale cereale M.Bieb. ... Binomial name Secale cereale M.Bieb. ... Organelles. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ...


Triticale is essentially a self-fertilizing (naturally inbred) crop. This mode of reproduction results in a more homozygous genome. The crop is however adapted to this form of reproduction from an evolutionary point of view. Cross-fertilization is also possible, but it is not the primary form of reproduction. Inbreeding is breeding between close relatives. ... Homozygote cells are diploid or polyploid and have the same alleles at a locus (position) on homologous chromosomes. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ...


Conventional breeding approaches

The aim of a triticale breeding programme mainly focuses on the improvement of quantitative traits such as grain yield, nutritional quality, plant height, as well as traits which are more difficult to improve such as earlier maturity and improved test weight. (A measure of yield) These traits are controlled by more than one gene. (Triticale Production and Utilization Manual 2005) However, problems arise because such polygenic traits involve the integration of several physiological processes in their expression. Thus the lack of single-gene control (or simple inheritance) results in low trait heritability. (Zumelzú et al. 1998) Breeding has several meanings related to procreation: In animal husbandry and in horticulture the selection of stock for propagation and the act of insemination by natural or artificial means is called breeding. ... In biology, a trait or character is a genetically inherited feature of an organism. ... The word grain has several meanings, most being descriptive of a small piece or particle. ... In biology, a trait or character is a genetically inherited feature of an organism. ... In biology, a trait or character is a genetically inherited feature of an organism. ... For other meanings of this term, see gene (disambiguation). ... A genetic disorder, or genetic disease is a disease caused, at least in part, by the genes of the person with the disease. ... In biology, a trait or character is a genetically inherited feature of an organism. ... For other meanings of this term, see gene (disambiguation). ... Look up trait in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Since the induction of the CIMMYT triticale breeding programme in 1964, improvement in realized grain yield has been remarkable. In 1968, at Ciudad Obregon, Sonora State in Northwest Mexico, the highest yielding triticale line produced 2.4 t/ha. Today, CIMMYT has released high yielding spring triticale lines (e.g. Pollmer-2) which have surpassed the 10 t/ha yield barrier under optimum production conditions. (Hede 2000) International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center – better known by its Spanish acronym CIMMYT, from Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo – is a research institute dedicated to the development of improved strains of wheat and maize. ... Breeding has several meanings related to procreation: In animal husbandry and in horticulture the selection of stock for propagation and the act of insemination by natural or artificial means is called breeding. ... The word grain has several meanings, most being descriptive of a small piece or particle. ... International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center – better known by its Spanish acronym CIMMYT, from Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo – is a research institute dedicated to the development of improved strains of wheat and maize. ...


Based on the commercial success of other hybrid crops, the use of hybrid triticales as a strategy for enhancing yield in favourable as well as marginal environments has proven successful over time. Earlier research conducted by CIMMYT made use of a chemical hybridising agent in order to evaluate heterosis in hexaploid triticale hybrids. To select the most promising parents for hybrid production, testcrosses conducted in various environments are required. This is because the variance of their specific combining ability (sca) under differing environmental conditions is the most important component in evaluating their potential as parents to produce promising hybrids. The prediction of general combining ability (gca) of any triticale plant from the performance of its parents is only moderate with respect to grain yield. Commercially exploitable yield advantages of hybrid triticale cultivars is dependent on improving parent heterosis and on advances in inbred-line development. // This article is about a biological term. ... // This article is about a biological term. ... International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center – better known by its Spanish acronym CIMMYT, from Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo – is a research institute dedicated to the development of improved strains of wheat and maize. ... Heterosis is increased strength of different characteristics in hybrids; the possibility to obtain a better individual by combining the virtues of its parents. ... Polyploid (in Greek: πολλαπλόν - multiple) cells or organisms contain more than one copy (ploidy) of their chromosomes. ... This article is about a biological term. ... // This article is about a biological term. ... This article is about a biological term. ... The word grain has several meanings, most being descriptive of a small piece or particle. ... // This article is about a biological term. ... A cultivar is a cultivated variety of a plant species. ... Heterosis is increased strength of different characteristics in hybrids; the possibility to obtain a better individual by combining the virtues of its parents. ... Inbreeding is breeding between close relatives. ...


Triticale is useful as an animal feed grain. However, it is necessary to improve its milling and bread-making quality aspects in order to increase its potential for human consumption. It was initially noted that the relationship between the constituent wheat and rye genomes produced meiotic irregularities and that genome instability and incompatibility presented numerous problems when attempts were made to improve triticale. This led to two alternative methods to study and improve the crops reproductive performance, namely the improvement of the number of grains per floral spikelet and its meiotic behaviour. The number of grains per spikelet has an associated low heritability value. [de Zumelzú et al. 1998] In improving yield, indirect selection (the selection of correlated/related traits other than that to be improved) is not necessarily as effective as direct selection. (Gallais 1984) The word feed has a number of uses: Feeding is supplying food. ... The word grain has several meanings, most being descriptive of a small piece or particle. ... A Miller is a person who operates a mill for grinding material and usually refers to one who grinds a cereal crop to make flour. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... Binomial name Secale cereale M.Bieb. ... Genome is also a popular science book by Matt Ridley. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... An assortment of grains The word grain has a great many meanings, most being descriptive of a small piece or particle. ... An assortment of grains The word grain has a great many meanings, most being descriptive of a small piece or particle. ... Heritability, as used professionally in genetics, has a very precise definition. ... In biology, a trait or character is a genetically inherited feature of an organism. ...


Lodging (the toppling over of the plant stem especially under windy conditions) resistance is a complexly inherited (expression is controlled by many genes) trait and has thus been an important breeding aim in the past. (Tikhnenko et al. 2002) The use of dwarfing genes (known as Rht genes) which have been incorporated from both Triticum and Secale has resulted in a decrease of up to 20cm in plant height without causing any adverse side effects. This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ... Look up trait in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Breeding has several meanings related to procreation: In animal husbandry and in horticulture the selection of stock for propagation and the act of insemination by natural or artificial means is called breeding. ... This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ... This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ...


Application of newer techniques

Abundant information exists concerning disease resistance (R) genes for wheat and a continuously updated on-line catalogue (Catalogue of Gene Symbols) of these genes can be found at http://wheat.pw.usda.gov/ggpages/wgc/98/. Another on-line database of cereal rust resistance genes is available at http://www.cdl.umn.edu/res_gene/res_gene.html. Unfortunately less is known about rye and particularly triticale R-genes. Many R-genes have been transferred to wheat from its wild relatives and appear in the catalogue and are thus available to triticale breeding. The two mentioned databases are significant contributors to improving the genetic variability of the triticale gene pool through gene (or more specifically, allele) provision. Genetic variability is essential for progress in breeding. In addition, genetic variability can also be achieved by producing new primary triticales (i.e. the reconstitution of triticale), the development of various hybrids involving triticale such as triticale-rye hybrids. In this way some chromosomes from the R genome have been replaced by some from the D genome. The resulting so-called substitution and translocation triticale facilitates the transfer of R-genes. This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ... This article is about cereals in general. ... This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ... Binomial name Secale cereale M.Bieb. ... This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ... This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... Breeding has several meanings related to procreation: In animal husbandry and in horticulture the selection of stock for propagation and the act of insemination by natural or artificial means is called breeding. ... The gene pool of a species or a population is the complete set of unique alleles that would be found by inspecting the genetic material of every living member of that species or population. ... For other meanings of this term, see gene (disambiguation). ... Breeding has several meanings related to procreation: In animal husbandry and in horticulture the selection of stock for propagation and the act of insemination by natural or artificial means is called breeding. ... This article is about a biological term. ... Binomial name Secale cereale M.Bieb. ... This article is about a biological term. ... This article is about the biological chromosome. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ...


Introgression

Introgression involves the crossing of closely related plant relatives and results in the transfer of ‘blocks’ of genes, i.e. larger segments of chromosomes compared to single genes. R-genes are generally introduced within such blocks, which are usually incorporated/translocated/introgressed into the distal (extreme) regions of chromosomes of the crop being introgressed. Genes located in the proximal areas of chromosomes may be completely linked (very closely spaced) thus preventing or severely hampering genetic recombination which is necessary to incorporate such blocks. (Chelkowski & Tyrka 2004) Molecular markers (small lengths of DNA of a characterized/known sequence) are used to ‘tag’ and thus track such translocations. A weak colchicine chemical solution has been employed to increase the probability of recombination in the proximal chromosome regions and thus the introduction of the translocation to that region. The resultant translocation of smaller blocks that indeed carry the R-gene/s of interest has decreased the probability of introducing unwanted genes. (Lukaszewski 1995) This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ... This article is about the biological chromosome. ... This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ... This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ... This article is about the biological chromosome. ... This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ... This article is about the biological chromosome. ... This article seems to have errors. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the development and function of living organisms. ... Colchicine is a highly deadly poisonous alkaloid, originally extracted from plants of the genus Colchicum (Autumn crocus, also known as the Meadow saffron). Originally used to treat rheumatic complaints and especially gout, it was also prescribed for its cathartic and emetic effects. ... Recombination usually refers to the biological process of genetic recombination and meiosis, a genetic event that occurs during the formation of sperm and egg cells. ... THERE ARE NOW 30 CHROMOSOMES!!!!!! Figure 1: A representation of a condensed eukaryotic chromosome, as seen during cell division. ... For other meanings of this term, see gene (disambiguation). ... This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ...


Production of doubled haploids

Doubled haploid (DH) plants have the potential to save much time in the development of inbred lines. This is achieved in a single generation as opposed to many which would otherwise occupy much physical space/facilities. DHs also express deleterious recessive alleles that are otherwise masked by dominance effects in a genome containing more than one copy of each chromosome. (And thus more than one copy of each gene) Various techniques exist to create DHs. The in-vitro culture of anthers and microspores is most often used in cereals including triticale. (Bernard & Charmet 1984; González and Jouve 2000; González et al. 1997) These two techniques are referred to as androgenesis, which refers to the development of pollen. Many plant species and cultivars within species including triticale are recalcitrant in that the success rate of achieving whole newly generated (diploid) plants is very low. GenotypeXculture medium interaction is responsible for varying success rates, as is a high degree of microspore abortion during culturing. (Gonzalez & Jouve 2005; Johansson et al. 2000) It is known that the response of parental triticale lines to anther culture is correlated (related) to the response of their progeny. (Anderson et al. 1989; Gonzalez et al. 1997; Konzak & Zhou 1992) Haploid (meaning simple in Greek) cells have only one copy of each chromosome. ... Inbreeding is breeding between close relatives. ... An allele is any one of a number of alternative forms of the same gene occupying a given locus (position) on a chromosome. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... THERE ARE NOW 30 CHROMOSOMES!!!!!! Figure 1: A representation of a condensed eukaryotic chromosome, as seen during cell division. ... For other meanings of this term, see gene (disambiguation). ... Wiktionary has a definition of: In vitro In vitro (Latin: within glass) means within a test tube, or, more generally, outside a living organism or cell. ... Flower of the spider tree (Crateva religiosa) with its numerous conspicuous stamens The stamen is the male organ of a flower. ... Spores produced in a sporic life cycle. ... Cereal crops are mostly grasses cultivated for their edible seeds (actually a fruit called a grain, technically a caryopsis). ... SEM image of pollen grains from a variety of common plants: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea), prairie hollyhock (Sidalcea malviflora), oriental lily (Lilium auratum), evening primrose (Oenothera fruticosa), and castor bean (Ricinus communis). ... A cultivar is a cultivated variety of a plant species. ... Spores produced in a sporic life cycle. ... Flower of the spider tree (Crateva religiosa) with its numerous conspicuous stamens The stamen is the male organ of a flower. ...


Chromosome elimination is another method of producing DHs and involves hybridisation of wheat with maize (Zea mays L.) followed by auxin treatment and the artificial rescue of the resultant haploid embryos before they naturally abort. This technique is applied rather extensively to wheat. (Bennet et al. 1990) Its success is in large part due to the insensitivity of maize pollen to the crossability inhibitor genes known as Kr1 and Kr2 that are expressed in the floral style of many wheat cultivars. (Bennett & Laurie 1987) The technique is unfortunately less successful in triticale. (Marcinska et al. 1998) However, Imperata cylindrica (a grass) was found to be just as effective as maize with respect to the production of DHs in both wheat and triticale. (Chaudhary et al. 2005) THERE ARE NOW 30 CHROMOSOMES!!!!!! Figure 1: A representation of a condensed eukaryotic chromosome, as seen during cell division. ... In genetics, hybridisation is the process of mixing different species or varieties of organisms. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... “Corn” redirects here. ... IAA appears to be the most active Auxin in plant growth. ... Haploid (meaning simple in Greek) cells have only one copy of each chromosome. ... Categories: Biology stubs | Developmental biology ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... “Corn” redirects here. ... SEM image of pollen grains from a variety of common plants: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea), prairie hollyhock (Sidalcea malviflora), oriental lily (Lilium auratum), evening primrose (Oenothera fruticosa), and castor bean (Ricinus communis). ... This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ... Look up style in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... A cultivar is a cultivated variety of a plant species. ... “Corn” redirects here. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ...


Application of molecular markers

An important advantage of biotechnology applied to plant breeding is the speeding up of cultivar release that would otherwise take 8-12 years. It is the process of selection that is actually enhanced, i.e. retaining that which is desirable or promising and ridding that which is not. This carries with it the aim of changing the genetic structure of the plant population. The website http://maswheat.ucdavis.edu/protocols/protocols.htm is a valuable resource for MAS (Marker Assisted Selection) protocols relating to R-genes in wheat. MAS is a form of indirect selection. The Catalogue of Gene Symbols mentioned earlier is an additional source of molecular and morphological markers. Again, triticale has not been well characterized with respect to molecular markers although an abundance of rye molecular markers makes it possible to track rye chromosomes and segments thereof within a triticale background. The structure of insulin Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ... Breeding has several meanings related to procreation: In animal husbandry and in horticulture the selection of stock for propagation and the act of insemination by natural or artificial means is called breeding. ... This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ... Selection is hierachically classified into natural and artificial selection. ... Look up Genetic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up mas, más in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Selection is hierachically classified into natural and artificial selection. ... This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... Selection is hierachically classified into natural and artificial selection. ... For other meanings of this term, see gene (disambiguation). ... In science, a molecule is the smallest particle of a pure chemical substance that still retains its chemical composition and properties. ... In science, a molecule is the smallest particle of a pure chemical substance that still retains its chemical composition and properties. ... Binomial name Secale cereale M.Bieb. ... In science, a molecule is the smallest particle of a pure chemical substance that still retains its chemical composition and properties. ... Binomial name Secale cereale M.Bieb. ... This article is about the biological chromosome. ...


Yield improvements of up to 20% have been achieved in hybrid triticale cultivars due to a phenomenon described as heterosis. (Becker et al. 2001; Burger et al. 2003; Góral 2002; Góral et al. 1999) This raises the question of what inbred lines should be crossed (to produce hybrids) with each other as parents in order to maximize yield in their hybrid progeny. This is termed the ‘combining ability’ of the parental lines. The identification of good combining ability at an early stage in the breeding program can reduce the costs associated with ‘carrying’ a large number of plants (literally thousands) through the program and thus forms part of efficient selection. Combining ability is assessed by taking into consideration all available information on descent (genetic relatedness), morphology, qualitative (simply inherited) traits and biochemical and molecular markers. There exists exceptionally little information on the use of molecular markers to predict heterosis in triticale. (Góral et al. 2005) It is generally accepted that molecular markers are better predictors than morphological markers (agronomic traits) due to their insensitivity to variation in environmental conditions. // This article is about a biological term. ... A cultivar is a cultivated variety of a plant species. ... Heterosis is increased strength of different characteristics in hybrids; the possibility to obtain a better individual by combining the virtues of its parents. ... Inbreeding is breeding between close relatives. ... This article is about a biological term. ... // This article is about a biological term. ... Breeding has several meanings related to procreation: In animal husbandry and in horticulture the selection of stock for propagation and the act of insemination by natural or artificial means is called breeding. ... Selection is hierachically classified into natural and artificial selection. ... Descent may refer to: Media Descent (computer game), a computer game released by Parallax Software in the mid-1990s Descent: Freespace, a computer game series released by Volition Inc. ... Look up Genetic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The term morphology in biology refers to the outward appearance (shape, structure, colour, pattern) of an organism or taxon and its component parts. ... In biology, a trait or character is a genetically inherited feature of an organism. ... Biochemistry is the chemistry of life. ... In science, a molecule is the smallest particle of a pure chemical substance that still retains its chemical composition and properties. ... In science, a molecule is the smallest particle of a pure chemical substance that still retains its chemical composition and properties. ... Heterosis is increased strength of different characteristics in hybrids; the possibility to obtain a better individual by combining the virtues of its parents. ... In science, a molecule is the smallest particle of a pure chemical substance that still retains its chemical composition and properties. ... Agronomy is a branch of agricultural science that deals with the study of crops and the soils in which they grow. ... In biology, a trait or character is a genetically inherited feature of an organism. ...


A useful molecular marker known as a SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat) is used in breeding with respect to selection. SSRs are DNA fragments containing tandem repeats of a short sequence of nucleotides, actually 2–6. They are popular tools in genetics and breeding because of their relative abundance compared to other molecular marker types, high degree of polymorphism (number of variants) and easy assaying through co-dominance and PCR. (Polymerase Chain Reaction) However, they are expensive to develop/identify. Comparative genome mapping has revealed a high degree of similarity in terms of sequence co-linearity between closely related crop species. This allows the exchange of such markers within a group of related species such as wheat, rye and triticale. One study established a 58% and 39% transferability rate to triticale from wheat and rye respectively. (Baenziger et al. 2004) ‘Transferability’ refers to the phenomenon where the sequence of DNA nucleotides flanking the SSR loci (position on the chromosome) is sufficiently homologous (similar) between genomes of closely related species. Thus DNA primers (a generally short sequence of nucleotides literally used to ‘prime’ a copying reaction during PCR) designed for one species can be used to detect SSRs in related species. SSR markers are available in wheat and rye but very few if any are available for triticale. (Baenziger et al. 2004) In science, a molecule is the smallest particle of a pure chemical substance that still retains its chemical composition and properties. ... Breeding has several meanings related to procreation: In animal husbandry and in horticulture the selection of stock for propagation and the act of insemination by natural or artificial means is called breeding. ... Selection is hierachically classified into natural and artificial selection. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the development and function of living organisms. ... A nucleotide is an organic molecule consisting of a heterocyclic nucleobase (a purine or a pyrimidine), a pentose sugar (deoxyribose in DNA or ribose in RNA), and a phosphate or polyphosphate group. ... For a non-technical introduction to the topic, please see Introduction to genetics. ... Breeding has several meanings related to procreation: In animal husbandry and in horticulture the selection of stock for propagation and the act of insemination by natural or artificial means is called breeding. ... In science, a molecule is the smallest particle of a pure chemical substance that still retains its chemical composition and properties. ... PCR tubes in a stand after a colony PCR The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a biochemistry and molecular biology technique[1] for exponentially amplifying DNA, via enzymatic replication, without using a living organism (such as E. coli or yeast). ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biodiversity. ... In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biodiversity. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... Binomial name Secale cereale M.Bieb. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... Binomial name Secale cereale M.Bieb. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the development and function of living organisms. ... A nucleotide is an organic molecule consisting of a heterocyclic nucleobase (a purine or a pyrimidine), a pentose sugar (deoxyribose in DNA or ribose in RNA), and a phosphate or polyphosphate group. ... THERE ARE NOW 30 CHROMOSOMES!!!!!! Figure 1: A representation of a condensed eukaryotic chromosome, as seen during cell division. ... Genome is also a popular science book by Matt Ridley. ... In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biodiversity. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the development and function of living organisms. ... A nucleotide is an organic molecule consisting of a heterocyclic nucleobase (a purine or a pyrimidine), a pentose sugar (deoxyribose in DNA or ribose in RNA), and a phosphate or polyphosphate group. ... In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biodiversity. ... In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biodiversity. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... Binomial name Secale cereale M.Bieb. ...


Genetic transformation

The genetic transformation of crops involves the incorporation of ‘foreign’ genes or rather, very small DNA fragments compared to introgression discussed earlier. Amongst other uses transformation is a useful tool to introduce new traits/characteristics into the transformed crop. Two methods are commonly employed, i.e infectious bacteria (Agrobacterium) -mediated and biolistics with the last-mentioned being most commonly applied to allopolyploid cereals such as triticale. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation however holds several advantages such as a low level of transgenic DNA rearrangement, low number of introduced copies of the transforming DNA, stable integration of a priory characterized T-DNA fragment (containing the DNA expressing the trait of interest) and an expected higher level of transgene expression. Triticale has until recently only been transformed via biolistics with a 3.3% success rate. (Becker et al. 1995) Little has been documented on Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of wheat while nothing exists with respect to triticale until a recent study by Binka et al. (2005) in which the success rate was nevertheless low. Transformation is the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the introduction, uptake and expression of foreign genetic material (DNA). ... This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the development and function of living organisms. ... Transformation is the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the introduction, uptake and expression of foreign genetic material (DNA). ... In biology, a trait or character is a genetically inherited feature of an organism. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Species Agrobacterium tumefaciens Agrobacterium rhizogenes áAgrobacterium is a genus of bacteria that causes tumors in plants. ... The gene gun is a device for injecting cells with genetic information, originally designed for plant transformation. ... Polyploid (in Greek: πολλαπλόν - multiple) cells or organisms that contain more than two copies of each of their chromosomes. ... Cereal crops are mostly grasses cultivated for their edible seeds (actually a fruit called a grain, technically a caryopsis). ... Species Agrobacterium tumefaciens Agrobacterium rhizogenes áAgrobacterium is a genus of bacteria that causes tumors in plants. ... Transformation is the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the introduction, uptake and expression of foreign genetic material (DNA). ... A genetically modified organism is an organism whose genetic material has been deliberately altered. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the development and function of living organisms. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the development and function of living organisms. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the development and function of living organisms. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the development and function of living organisms. ... Look up trait in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A transgene is a gene or genetic material which has been transferred by any of a number of genetic engineering techniques from one organism to another. ... The gene gun is a device for injecting cells with genetic information, originally designed for plant transformation. ... Species Agrobacterium tumefaciens Agrobacterium rhizogenes áAgrobacterium is a genus of bacteria that causes tumors in plants. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ...


Conclusion

Triticale holds much promise as a commercial crop as it goes a long way toward addressing specific problems within the cereal industry. Research of a high standard is currently being conducted worldwide such as that at Stellenbosch University in South Africa. This article is about cereals in general. ... Stellenbosch University (Afrikaans: Universiteit van Stellenbosch) is an internationally recognised university which is situated in the town of Stellenbosch, South Africa. ...


Conventional breeding has helped establish triticale as a valuable crop and more particularly where conditions are less favourable for wheat cultivation. Notwithstanding the fact that triticale is a man-synthesized grain, many initial limitations such as an inability to reproduce due to infertility and seed shrivelling, low yield and poor nutritional value have greatly been eliminated. Breeding has several meanings related to procreation: In animal husbandry and in horticulture the selection of stock for propagation and the act of insemination by natural or artificial means is called breeding. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... The word grain has several meanings, most being descriptive of a small piece or particle. ... Infertility is the inability to naturally conceive a child or to carry a pregnancy to full term. ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ...


Tissue culture techniques with respect to wheat and triticale are continuously improving and the isolation and culturing of individual microspores seems to hold the most promise. Many molecular markers can be applied to marker-assisted gene transfer, but the expression of R-genes in the new genetic background of triticale remains to be investigated. (Baenziger et al. 2004) More than 750 wheat microsatellite primer pairs are available in public wheat breeding programs and could be exploited in the development of SSRs in triticale. (Baenziger et al. 2004) Another type of molecular marker known as a SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) is likely to have a significant impact on the future of triticale breeding. Tissue culture refers to the growth of tissues and/or cells separate from the organism. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... Spores produced in a sporic life cycle. ... In science, a molecule is the smallest particle of a pure chemical substance that still retains its chemical composition and properties. ... Look up mas, más in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other meanings of this term, see gene (disambiguation). ... This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ... Look up Genetic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the development and function of living organisms. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... Breeding has several meanings related to procreation: In animal husbandry and in horticulture the selection of stock for propagation and the act of insemination by natural or artificial means is called breeding. ... In science, a molecule is the smallest particle of a pure chemical substance that still retains its chemical composition and properties. ... A nucleotide is a chemical compound that consists of a heterocyclic base, a sugar, and one or more phosphate groups. ... Breeding has several meanings related to procreation: In animal husbandry and in horticulture the selection of stock for propagation and the act of insemination by natural or artificial means is called breeding. ...


Trivia

The popular TV series Star Trek and more specifically the episode The Trouble with Tribbles revolved around the protection of a grain developed from triticale, i.e. 'quadrotriticale'. A later episode (in the animated series) dealt with 'quintotriticale'. These two grains exist only in the realm of Star Trek. In addition, the video game Metroid Prime makes referral to 'deca-triticale'. (There is an inexplicit link within these names to the crops ploidy level, i.e. a specific characteristic of the genome.) The current Star Trek franchise logo Star Trek is an American science fiction franchise. ... The Trouble with Tribbles is an episode of Star Trek: The Original Series, first broadcast on December 29, 1967 and repeated June 21, 1968. ... The current Star Trek franchise logo Star Trek is an American science fiction franchise. ... Metroid Prime is a 2002 video game developed by Nintendo-owned Retro Studios and published by Nintendo for the Nintendo GameCube. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ...


External links

Memory Alpha (often abbreviated to MA) is a collaborative project to create the most definitive, accurate and accessible encyclopedic reference for topics related to the Star Trek fictional universe. ... The current Star Trek franchise logo Star Trek is an American science fiction franchise. ... Look up Wiki in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

References

  • Andersen, S. B. (1989) Nuclear Genes Affecting Albinism in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Anther Culture. Theor. Appl. Genet., 78, 879-883.
  • Baenziger, P. S. et al. (2004) Transferability of SSR Markers Among Wheat, Rye, and Triticale. Theor. Appl. Genet., 108, 1147-1150.
  • Becker, D. et al. (1995) Fertile, Transgenic Triticale (xTriticosecale Wittmack). Mol. Breed., 1, 155-164.
  • Becker, H.C. et al. (2001) Heterosis for Yield and Other Agronomic Traits of Winter Triticale F1 and F2 Hybrids. Plant Breeding, 120, 351-353.
  • Bennett, M. D. & Laurie, D. A. (1987) The Effect of Crossability Loci Kr1 and Kr2 on Fertilization Frequency in Haploid Wheat x Maize Crosses. Theor. Appl. Genet., 73, 403-409.
  • Bennet, M. D. et al. (1990) Wheat x Maize and Other Wide Sexual Hybrids: Their Potential for Genetic Manipulation and Crop Improvement. Gene Manipulation in Plant Improvement II: Proceedings of the 19th Stadler Genetics Symposium, 13-15. March 1989. Columbia, MO, USA, 95-126. Plenum Press, New York.
  • Bernard, S. & Charmet, G. (1984) Diallel Analysis of Androgenetic Plant Production in Hexaploid Triticale (x Triticosecale, Wittmack). Theor. appl. Genet., 69, 55-61.
  • Binka, A. et al. Efficient Method of Agrobacterium–mediated Transformation for Triticale (x Tritosecale Wittmack) Journal of Plant Growth Regulation. Published online 28 July 2005. http://www.springerlink.com/content/g1214467t838p117/fulltext.html#CR6
  • Burger, H. et al. (2003) Heterosis and Combining Ability for Grain Yield and Other Agronomic Traits in Winter Triticale. Plant Breeding, 122, 318-321.
  • Cavaleri, P. (2002) Selection Responses for Some Agronomic Traits in Hexaploid Triticale. Agriscientia, XIX, 45-50.
  • Chaudhary, H. K. et al. (2005) Relative Efficiency of Different Gramineae Genera for Haploid Induction in Triticale and Triticale x Wheat Hybrids Through the Chromosome Elimination Technique. Plant Breeding, 124, 147-153.
  • Chelkowski, J. & Tyrka, M. (2004) Enhancing the Resistance of Triticale by Using Genes From Wheat and Rye. J. Appl. Genet., 45(3), 283-295.
  • Gallais, A. (1984) Use of Indirect Selection in Plant Breeding. In: Hogenboon, N.G.(ed) et al. Efficiency In Plant Breeding, Proc. 10th Congress Eucarpia, Pudoc, Wageningen, 45-60.
  • González, J.M., Jouve, N. (2000) Improvement of Anther Culture Media for Haploid Production in Triticale. Cereal Res. Commun., 28, 65-72.
  • Gonzalez, J.M. & Jouve, N. (2005) Microspore Development During in vitro Androgenesis in Triticale. Biologia Plantarum, 49 (1), 23-28.
  • González, J.M. et al. (1997) Analysis of Anther Culture Response in Hexaploid Triticale. Plant Breeding, 116, 302-304.
  • Góral, H. (2002) Biological-breeding Aspects of Utilization of Heterosis in Triticale (x Triticosecale, Wittmack) Zesz Nauk Akademii Rolniczejw Krakowie, 283, 1-116.
  • Góral, H. et al. (1999) Heterosis and Combining Ability in Spring Triticale (x Triticosecale, Wittm.). Plant Breed. Seed Sci., 43, 25-34.
  • Góral, H. et al. (2005) Assessing Genetic Variation to Predict the Breeding Value of Winter Triticale Cultivars and Lines. J. Appl. Genet., 46(2), 125-131.
  • Hede, A.R. (2000) A New Approach to Triticale Improvement. http://www.cimmyt.org
  • Johansson, N. et al. (2000) Large-scale Production of Wheat and Triticale Double Haploids Through the Use of a Single-anther Culture Method. Plant Breeding, 119, 455-459.
  • Konzak, C. F. & Zhou, H. (1992) Genetic Control of Green Plant Regeneration From Anther Culture of Wheat. Genome, 35, 957-961.
  • Lukaszewski A. (1990) Frequency of 1RS.1AL and 1RS.1BL Translocations in United States Wheats. Crop Sci., 30, 1151-1153.
  • Marcinska, M. I. et al. (1998) Production of Doubled Haploids in Triticale (x Titicosecale Wittm.) by Means of Crosses with Maize (Zea mays L.) Using Picloram and Dicamba. Plant Breeding, 117, 211-215.
  • Tikhnenko N. D. et al. (2002) The Effect of Parental Genotypes of Rye Lines on the Development of Quantitative Traits in Primary Octoploid Triticale: Plant Height. Russian Journal of Genetics, 39(1), 52–56.
  • Triticale Production and Utilization Manual (2005) Copies available from bill.chapman@gov.ab.ca http://www1.agric.gov.ab.ca/$department/deptdocs.nsf/all/fcd10535

  Results from FactBites:
 
Triticale (2874 words)
Triticale growth habit is similar to wheat and rye.
Environmental requirements for winter triticale in the upper Midwest are similar to other fall planted small grain crops such as wheat or rye and for spring triticale the requirements are similar to spring planted oats, barley or wheat.
Triticale was generally higher in grain yield, lower in winter survival ratings, and higher in protein concentration than were the wheat varieties.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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