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Encyclopedia > Tripura
Tripura
Capital
 - Coordinates
Agartala
 - 23.84° N 91.28° E
Largest city Agartala
Population (2001)
 - Density
3,191,168 (21st)
 - 304/km²
Area
 - Districts
10,492 km² (26th)
 - 4
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Establishment
 - Governor
 - Chief Minister
 - Legislature (seats)
1972-01-21
 - D. N. Sahay
 - Manik Sarkar
 - Unicameral (60)
Official language(s) Bengali, Kokborok
Abbreviation (ISO) IN-TR
Website: tripura.nic.in
Image:Tripuraseal.png

Seal of Tripura
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Tripura

Tripura pronunciation  (Bengali: ত্রিপুরা, Hindi: त्रिपुरा) is a state in North East India. The capital is Agartala and the main languages spoken are Bengali and Kokborok. Formerly it was an independent Tripuri Kingdom known as Tipra [1] and was merged with India on 15 October 1949 by the Tripura Merger Agreement. Image File history File links India_Tripura_locator_map. ... Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Assam Bihar Chhattisgarh National Capital Territory of Delhi Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu and Kashmir Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Tripura Uttaranchal Uttar Pradesh West Bengal Andaman and Nicobar Islands Chandigarh Dadra and Nagar... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Agartala is the capital of the Indian state of Tripura. ... Map showing the population density of each district in India Map showing the population growth over the past ten years of each district in India Map showing the literacy rate of each district in India Map showing the sex ratio of each district in India Chart showing the percentage of... Agartala is the capital of the Indian state of Tripura. ... Population density by country, 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... Indian States Notes Note 1: — Excludes Mao-Maram, Paomata and Purul sub-divisions of Senapati district of Manipur See also: States and territories of India References Census of India, final 2001 results Category: ... Indian States See also: States and territories of India Categories: States and territories of India ... The divisions of a district. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 10,000 km² and 100,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... Indian States See also: States and territories of India Categories: States and territories of India ... A time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... Indian Standard Time (IST) is the time zone for India. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Governors of Tripura See Also Tripura Governors of India Links Categories: India-related stubs | Tripura | Indian politicians | Office-holders | Government of India ... Chief Ministers of Tripura See Also Tripura Chief Ministers of India Links Categories: India-related stubs | Tripura | Indian politicians | Office-holders | Government of India ... A legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... January 21 is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Manik Sarkar, (born 1949) an Indian politician. ... Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... India has a diverse list of spoken languages among different groups of people. ... Bengali or Bangla (বাংলা, IPA: ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the eastern Indian subcontinent, evolved from Prakrit, Pāli and Sanskrit. ... Kokborok is the native language of the Tripuri community in the northeast Indian state of Tripura. ... India is subdivided into twenty-eight states and seven union territories; the states and territories are themselves further subdivided. ... ISO 3166-2 is the second part of the ISO 3166 standard. ... ISO 3166-2 for India (ISO 3166-1 : IN) The purpose of this family of standards is to establish a worldwide series of short abbreviations for places, for use on package labels, containers and such. ... This page as shown in the AOL 9. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Image File history File links Tripura. ... Bengali or Bangla (বাংলা, IPA: ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the eastern Indian subcontinent, evolved from Prakrit, Pāli and Sanskrit. ... Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी or हिंदी; IPA: ), an Indo-European language spoken mainly in northern and central India, is the official language of the Union government of India [1][2]. It is part of a dialect continuum of the Indic family, bounded on the northwest and west by Punjabi, Sindhi, Urdu, and Gujarati... India is subdivided into twenty-eight states and seven union territories; the states and territories are themselves further subdivided. ... North-East India is the easternmost region of India consisting of the following states: Nagaland Arunachal Pradesh Mizoram Manipur Meghalaya Tripura Sikkim Assam Sikkim became an Indian protectorate in 1947 and a full state in 1975. ... Agartala is the capital of the Indian state of Tripura. ... Bengali or Bangla (বাংলা, IPA: ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the eastern Indian subcontinent, evolved from Prakrit, Pāli and Sanskrit. ... Kokborok is the native language of the Tripuri community in the northeast Indian state of Tripura. ... Tripuri childrens in traditional attire grouping up for song presentation A beautiful and colourful pattern of rigwnai. ... October 15 is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years). ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... The State of Twipra was one of the ancient princely states of the world. ...

Contents

Origin of the name Tripura

  • The origin of the word Tripura is also attributed to one of the mightiest kings of Tripura, Tripur who ruled the kingdom. According to the legend, Tripur was the 39th descendant of Druhya, who was descendant of Yayati, one of the lunar race kings. He was so powerful that he ordered his subjects not to worship any god other than him and have no faith in god. He started torturing the subjects who defies his order. People fled in a body escape from his tyranny to nearby state of Hiramba (Cachar).
  • The word Tripura may have originated from Tripura Sundari - the presiding deity of the land which is famous as one of the 51 Shakti Peethas, pilgrimage centres of Shakti worshippers of the Hindu Dharma.[2]
  • According to another school of thought the name Tripura was probably given to the state in honor of the temple at Udaipur, Tripureshwari , the wife of lord Shiva.
  • According to Kailash Chandra Singha, a prominent historian, the word Tripura is a derivative from two different Kokborok word twi-pra. Twi means water, pra means near in the Tripuri language of the inhabitant of Tripura. It is likely that the state bears the name Tripura from this fact that in ancient time the boundaries of Tripura extended up to the Bay of Bengal when its ruler held sway from Garo Hills to Arakan.
  • According to another belief , Tripura is a corrupt form of Twi-pra. The meaning of twi is water and that of bupra is confluence not the near. Like lampra is meeting point of two roads, bupra is bifurcation point of tree branch. In fact what is more to be noted is that most of the villages, places in Tripura are named after various rivers, tributaries etc. like Twikormo, Twirisa, Twisarangchak, Twimudul and so forth.

Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Cachar is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... Tripura Sundari is one of the mahavidyas. ... The Shakti Peethas are places of worship consecrated to the Goddess Shakti, the female principal of Hinduism and the main deity of the Shakta sect. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Kokborok is the native language of the Tripuri community in the northeast Indian state of Tripura. ... Tripuri childrens in traditional attire grouping up for song presentation A beautiful and colourful pattern of rigwnai. ... A map showing the location of the Bay of Bengal. ... The Garo Hills are part of the Garo-Khasi range in Meghalaya, India. ... Arakan is a state in the North Western part of Myanmar, formerly Burma. ...

History

Main article: History of Tripura
Tripuri childrens from Khumulwng in traditional attire.
Tripuri childrens from Khumulwng in traditional attire.

Tripura (or Tipra) used to be a royal state before its merger with the Indian Union. The Tripuri Kings (Habugra) had the title of Manikya and ruled Tripura for three thousands of years until its merger with the Indian Union in 1949. The capital of the Kingdom was based in Udaipur which was known as Rangamati on the banks of the river Gomati (Khumtwi>Gumtwi>Gumti) in South Tripura. The capital was shifted to Old Agartala(Aguli) by King Krishna Manikya in the eighteen century, and then the present Agartala in the 19th Century. The State of Tripura has a long history. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1537x991, 1836 KB)Description: Tripuri childrens singing in a group. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1537x991, 1836 KB)Description: Tripuri childrens singing in a group. ... Kaunsil Nok, Khumulwng, Tripura. ... The Tripuri (Tipra or Tipperah) people are the original inhabitants of the state of Tripura in North East India. ... South Tripura is an administrative district in the state of Tripura in India. ...


As a revolt against the monarchic rule, the Ganamukti Parishad movement was launched. The movement was victorious and Tripura was integrated with India. It was heavily affected by partition of British India and the majority of the population now consists of Hindu Bengalis (most of whom came as refugees from East Pakistan after independence in 1947) living side by side with the native Tripuri population. Ganamukti Parishad flag Mukti Parishader Itikatha Tripura Rajaer Upajati Ganamukti Parishad (Tripura State Tribal Peoples Liberation Council) In 1948 the Mukti Parishad (Liberation Council, later renamed Ganamukti Parishad) was formed as a struggle front against the despotic rule of the monarchic leadership of Tripura. ... East Pakistan was a former province of Pakistan which existed between 1955 and 1971. ...


The history of Tripura dates back to the Mahabharata, the Puranas and pillar inscriptions of emperor Ashoka. The 19th century marked the beginning of the modern era in Tripura when King Maharaja Bir Chandra Manikya Bahadur Debbarma modeled his administrative set up on the British India pattern and brought in various reforms. His successors ruled over Tripura till 1947 when it was annexed to the Indian Union on 'C' State. Tripura became a centrally administered Union Territory on July 1, 1963 and attained the status of a full-fledged state on January 21, 1972. Manuscript illustration of the Battle of Kurukshetra The (Devanagari: ), is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the . ... The Puranas are part of Hindu Smriti; these religious scriptures discuss devotion and mythology. ... Allegiance: Magadhan Empire Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Dasaratha Maurya Reign: 273 BC-232 BC Place of birth: Pataliputra, India Battles/Wars Kalinga War Emperor Ashoka the Great (Devanagari: अशोक(:); IAST transliteration: , pronunciation: ) (304 BC–232 BC) (Imperial Title:Devanampiya Piyadassi ie He who is the beloved of the Gods who, in... British India (otherwise known as The British Raj) was a historical period during which most of the Indian subcontinent, or present-day India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Myanmar, were under the colonial authority of the British Empire (Undivided India). ... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... January 21 is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...


Geography

Tripura is a landlocked hilly state in the northeastern part of India, surrounded on the north, west, and south by Bangladesh. It is accessible to the rest of India through the Cachar district of Assam and Aizawl district of Mizoram in the east. The state extends between 22°56'N and 24°32'N and 90°09'E and 92°10'E. Its maximum stretch measures about 184 km from north to south and 113 km from east to west with an area of 10,492 km². Tripura is the third smallest state of the country. Cachar is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... Aizawl is the capital city of the state of Mizoram in India. ... Mizoram (Hindi: मिज़ोरम)   is one of the Seven Sister States in North-Eastern India on the border with Burma. ...


Tripura is mainly a hilly territory with altitudes varying from 50 to 3080 ft above sea level, though the major population of the state lives in the plains. For considerations of sea level change, in particular rise associated with possible global warming, see sea level rise. ...


The state is located in the bio-geographic zone of 9B-North-East Hills and possesses an extremely rich bio-diversity. The local flora and faunal components of Indo-Malayan and Indo-Chinese sub-regions. There are 379 species of trees, 320 shrubs, 581 herbs, 165 climbers, 16-climbing shrubs, 35 ferns and 45 epiphytes. A broom shrub in flower A shrub or bush is a horticultural rather than strictly botanical category of woody plant, distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and lower height, usually less than 6 m tall. ... Herbs: basil Herbs (IPA: hə(ɹ)b, or əɹb; see pronunciation differences) are plants grown for culinary, medicinal, or in some cases even spiritual value. ... Climbers on Valkyrie at the Roaches. ... Classes Marattiopsida Osmundopsida Gleicheniopsida Pteridopsida A fern is any one of a group of about 20,000 species of plants classified in the phylum or division Pteridophyta, also known as Filicophyta. ... An example of an epiphyte assemblage of orchids and bromeliads in a garden setting The term epiphyte refers to any plant that grows upon or attached to another living plant. ...


Economy

Agriculture and allied activities is the mainstay of the people of Tripura. It provided employment to about 64% of the population. There is a preponderance of food crop cultivation over cash crop cultivation in Tripura. At present about 62% of the net sown area is devoted to food crop cultivation. In agriculture, a cash crop is a crop which is grown for money. ...


Paddy is the principal crop, followed by oilseed, pulses, potato and sugarcane. Tea and rubber are the important cash crops of the State. Tripura has been declared as the Second Rubber Capital of India after Kerala by Rubber Board. Paddy has these meanings:- A paddy field, a field for cultivating rice or other semi-aquatic crops. ... Vegetable oil or vegoil is fat extracted from plant sources. ... The Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) defines pulses as annual leguminous crops yielding from one to 12 grains or seeds of variable size, shape and colour within a pod. ... Binomial name Solanum tuberosum L. The potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a perennial plant of the Solanaceae, or nightshade, family, commonly grown for its starchy tuber. ... Species Saccharum arundinaceum Saccharum bengalense Saccharum edule Saccharum officinarum Saccharum procerum Saccharum ravennae Saccharum robustum Saccharum sinense Saccharum spontaneum Sugarcane or Sugar cane (Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation) of tall grasses (family Poaceae, tribe Andropogoneae), native to warm temperate to tropical regions... Tea leaves in a Chinese gaiwan. ... Latex being collected from a tapped rubber tree Rubber is an elastic hydrocarbon polymer which occurs as a milky colloidal suspension (known as latex) in the sap of several varieties of plants. ...   (IPA: ; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ...


Macro-economic trend

Tripura landscape
Tripura landscape

This is a chart of trend of gross state domestic product of Tripura at market prices estimated by Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation with figures in millions of Indian Rupees. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x683, 330 KB) Summary Photo by Nir Nussbaum - Tripura landscape Licensing This image is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License v. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x683, 330 KB) Summary Photo by Nir Nussbaum - Tripura landscape Licensing This image is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License v. ...

Year Gross State Domestic Product
1980 2,860
1985 5,240
1990 10,310
1995 22,960
2000 52,700

Tripura's gross state domestic product for 2004 is estimated at $2.1 billion in current prices.


Agriculture is the mainstay of Tripura's economy. Agricultural sector provides employment to nearly 51% of the total workers in the State. However, handicraft, particularly made of bamboo, also finds a special mention in the states' economy. The per capita income at current prices of the state stands at Rs 10931 and at constant prices Rs 6813 in the financial year 2000-2001.


Some quality timber like Sal, Garjan, Teak, Gamar are found abundantly in the forests of the State. The most important mineral resource of Tripura is oil and natural gas. However, the industrial sector in this State continues to be highly underdeveloped.


Government

Temple in the Palace Compound

Like the other states of India, Tripura has a democratic government. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 246 KB) Summary Temple at the Royal Palace compound Agartala, Tripura. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 246 KB) Summary Temple at the Royal Palace compound Agartala, Tripura. ...


Officially, the Governor heads the executive. The Chief Minister leads the democratically elected state legislature - which currently has 60 members. Guwahati High court (Agartala bench) heads the state's judicial administration.


For administrative purposes, the state has been divided into 4 districts, 17 subdivisions, 40 development blocks. It also has an autonomous district council, the Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council which has head-quarters in Khumulwng. The Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council is an indepent council administering the tribal areas of the state of Tripura, India. ... Kaunsil Nok, Khumulwng, Tripura. ...


Districts of Tripura

Districts Head-quarters Population Area (in km²)
Dhalai Ambassa 307,417 2312
North Tripura Kailashahar 590,655 2470
South Tripura Udaipur 762,565 2624
West Tripura Agartala 1,530,531 3544

Dhalai is an administrative district in the state of Tripura in India. ... Ambassa is the headquarters of Dhalai district in the state of Tripura in India. ... North Tripura is an administrative district in the state of Tripura in India. ... Kailashahar is the head-quarters of North Tripura district in the state of Tripura in India. ... South Tripura is an administrative district in the state of Tripura in India. ... Udaipur is a city in South Tripura district in the state of Tripura, in India. ... West Tripura is an administrative district in the state of Tripura in India. ... Agartala is the capital of the Indian state of Tripura. ...

Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council

Kaunsil Nok, Khumulwng.
Kaunsil Nok, Khumulwng.

The Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council (TTAADC)is an independent council administering the tribal areas of the state of Tripura, India. Its council and assembly are situated in Khumulwng, a town 26 km away from Agartala, the state capital. The Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council is an indepent council administering the tribal areas of the state of Tripura, India. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x599, 310 KB)Description: This is the Kaunsil Nok or the Council House of Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x599, 310 KB)Description: This is the Kaunsil Nok or the Council House of Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council. ... Kaunsil Nok, Khumulwng, Tripura. ... http://www. ... Kaunsil Nok, Khumulwng, Tripura. ... Agartala is the capital of the Indian state of Tripura. ...


In the 2005 elections to the TTAADC the Left Front won 26 seats out of the 30 seats and the National Socialist Party of Tripura four. The Left Front and NSPT had contested within the framework of an electoral understanding. Left Front election propaganda in Kolkata 2004 DSP-meeting in Kolkata West Bengal Left Front Committee meeting for solidarity with Tripura Left Front is an alliance of Indian leftist parties. ... National Socialist Party of Tripura, political party in the Indian state of Tripura. ...


Religion

Tripuris are under Hindu inspiration. They had their triditional religion modified by Hinduism. The chantais (the Tripuri high priests equivalent to Lord Bishop) and the Deodais are regarded as the custodians of the Tripuri religion and still occupy as exalted a position in society as the Brahmins in Hindu society.


Majority of the tribes in Tripura - the Tripuris, Reangs, Jamatia, Noatias and Halams - are Hindus and practice all the Hindu religious rites. The Halam and the Noatias are generally the followers of the Sakti Cult, but most of the people belonging to the Kalai and Rupini sections of the former tribe follow Vaishnavism. The form of worship practiced by them is same as that of Hindus, but they are animistic, and believe in the existence of God in all elements of nature. All places are holy as they are the seats of either good or bad spirits. The appeasement of the spirit is necessary so that people are saved from a calamity in the form of failure of crop, famine, flood, or epidemic.


Tribal Gods


The following are the names of various gods worshipped by the Tripuris and other major tribes of the state.


Matai-Katar : The supreme deity of Tripura is identified with Siva Mahadev. The word Matai means God and Katar mean great or supreme.


Lam-Pra : The twin deity of sky and sea. Lam means sky or earth and Pra means sea or water.


San-Grama : Deities personifying the sky, the sea and the mountains.


Uima or Ganga : is especially worshipped in the month of Agrahayana. Tuima means water-mother or water-goddess.


Mailu-ma or the goddess of corn is identified with Sri or Lakshmi.


Khuluma or the goddess of cotton plant.


Burha-cha or the god who is worshipped specially to cure illnesses.


Bani-rao and Thari-rao - sons of Burha-cha.


The seven goddess of witchcraft.


The two brothers Goraiya and Kataiya worshipped on the last day of the Hindu year (chaitra sankranti).


Religious Ceremonies


Bara puja - the most important religious festival of the Halam - is celebrated once in four or five years with great pomp and festivity.


The other two important pujas celebrated by the tribals and the non-tribals alike are Kharchi puja and Ker puja. The former is celebrated for a week in the month of Ashada (June to July) at puran Agartala. the puja is celebrated before all the fourteen gods.


Fourteen days after the Kharchi puja, the Ker puja is celebrated. The puja which is a must for the Halam tribe was initiated by the Tripura rajas and is celebrated in the Bengali month of Ashada with a view to warding off all dangers. During the Ker puja, all entrances to the capital are closed for two days and a half. During the celebration, everyone, including even the reigning sovereign, is subjected to numerous restrictions - all people are obliged to remains in their houses, and are allowed to go outside only twice that to for a few hours, not being allowed to put on shoes, to light a fire, to dance and sing etc. All who violate these have to pay fine. But now this has changed and restrictions have become few.


Demography

Despite being geographically the smallest state in the region, it is the second most populous state in the Northeast, following Assam. According to the census of 2001, Tripura has a total population of 3,191,168, with a density of 304 persons per square kilometer, and ranking 22nd in India. It constitutes 0.31% population of India and 8.18% of the entire Northeast. Assam   (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a northeastern state of India with its capital at Dispur - now a part of Guwahati. ... 1870 US Census for New York City A census is the process of obtaining information about every member of a population (not necessarily a human population). ...


Tripura ranks 22nd in the human resource development index and 24th in the poverty index in India according to the sources of 1991. The literacy rate of Tripura is 73.66%, higher than the national rate of 65.20%. Literacy is an indispensable means for effective social and economic participation, contributing to human development and poverty reduction, says UNESCO. [3] The Right to Education is a fundamental human right. ...


In the 2001 Census of India the Bengali's represent almost 70 % of Tripura's population and the native tribal populations represent 30 % of Tripura's population. The tribal population is made from many different tribes and ethic groups with many languages and cultures with the largest tribal group being the Kokborok language speaking tribes of the Tripuri (16% of the state's population), the Jamatia, the Reang and the Noatia tribal communities. There is high tension between these native tribal population and settler Bengali's in the reserved Tribal areas. This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Kokborok (also spelled Kok Borok) also known as Tiprakok or Tripuri is the native language of the Tripuri people in the Indian state of Tripura and its neighbouring areas of Bangladesh. ... Tripuri childrens in traditional attire grouping up for song presentation A beautiful and colourful pattern of rigwnai. ... Baba Goria celebrations of the Jamatia Hoda Jamatia is one of the 21 scheduled tribes of Tripura state of India. ... Reang or Riang, as it may be spelt, is one of the 21 scheduled tribes of Tripura state of India. ... Noatia is one of the 21 scheduled tribes of Tripura state of India. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Cities and towns

Amarpur
Towns Population
Agartala 189,327
Badharghat 47,660
Jogendranagar 34,844
Dharmanagar 30,785
Pratapgarh 25,890
Udaipur 21,751
Kailashahar 20,279
Teliamura 19,606
Indranagar 17,679
Khowai 17,621
Belonia 15,687

Badharghat, Jogendranagar, Indranagar are now parts of the Agartala municipality. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 250 KB) Summary Amarpur, Tripura. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 250 KB) Summary Amarpur, Tripura. ... Agartala is the capital of the Indian state of Tripura. ... Badharghat is a census town in West Tripura district in the state of Tripura, India. ... Jogendranagar is a census town in West Tripura district in the Indian state of Tripura. ... Dharmanagar is a town and a nagar panchayat in North Tripura district in the state of Tripura, India. ... This article is about the city and district in Uttar Pradesh. ... Udaipur is a city in South Tripura district in the state of Tripura, in India. ... Kailashahar is the head-quarters of North Tripura district in the state of Tripura in India. ... Teliamura is a town and a nagar panchayat in West Tripura district in the Indian state of Tripura. ... Indranagar is a census town in West Tripura district in the Indian state of Tripura. ... Khowai is a city in West Tripura. ... Belonia is a town and a nagar panchayat in South Tripura district in the state of Tripura, India. ... Badharghat is a census town in West Tripura district in the state of Tripura, India. ... Jogendranagar is a census town in West Tripura district in the Indian state of Tripura. ... Indranagar is a census town in West Tripura district in the Indian state of Tripura. ...


Politics

See Also: List of political parties in the state


At present Tripura is governed by Left Front, with Manik Sarkar as Chief Minister. Until 1977 the state was governed by Indian National Congress. LF governed 1978–1988, and then returned in power 1993. 1988–1993 the state was governed by a coalition of INC and Tripura Upajati Juba Samiti. Left Front election propaganda in Kolkata 2004 DSP-meeting in Kolkata West Bengal Left Front Committee meeting for solidarity with Tripura Left Front is an alliance of Indian leftist parties. ... Manik Sarkar, (born 1949) an Indian politician. ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ... --207. ...


Issues

There has been a problem of armed conflict in Tripura since the end of 1970s, aftermath of 1971 Indo-Pak war for Bangladesh. The cause is that the original Tripuri people have been reduced to a minority in Tripura due to the large scale migration of the Bengali people since Tripura kingdom joined India from 1949. From a majority of 80% population in 1901 census they constituted just 30% according to the 2001 census of India, an after-effect of the mass-migration from Bangladesh caused by the Partition of India and mainly the 1971 India-Pakistan war. The 1971 India-Pakistan war had led to major influx of refugees from Bangladesh to India, mainly to Assam, Tripura and West Bengal, which has affected the demographic profile of the North-Eastern states. Tripuri childrens in traditional attire grouping up for song presentation A beautiful and colourful pattern of rigwnai. ... The Bengali people are the ethnic community from Bengal (divided between India and Bangladesh) in Indian subcontinent with a history going back more than two millennia. ... Britains holdings on the Indian subcontinent were granted independence in 1947 and 1948, becoming four new independent states: India, Burma (now Myanmar), Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), and Pakistan (including East Pakistan, modern-day Bangladesh). ...


These has resulted in wide-spread insurgency and militancy in the state with groups such as TNV (Tripura National Volunteers), NLFT (National Liberation Front of Tripura) and ATTF (All Tripura Tiger Force), whose main motive is to drive away the Bengali people. In the recent years, there has been relative peace and co-existance between the Bengalis and Tribal people. Tripura National Volunteers (initially called Tribal National Volunteers) was a group that launched an armed struggle in the early 1980s separate Tripura from India. ... The National Liberation Front of Tripura (NLFT) was formed in December 1989 for the purpose of seceding from India in order to create an independent state of Tripura. ... The Bengali people are the ethnic community from Bengal (divided between India and Bangladesh) in Indian subcontinent with a history going back more than two millennia. ...


Culture

Communities in Tripura
Community Language Language Family
Bengali Bengali Indo-European
Manipuri Meitei Sino-Tibetan
Tripuri clan Kokborok Sino-Tibetan
Jamatia Kokborok Sino-Tibetan
Reang Kokborok Sino-Tibetan
Noatia Kokborok Sino-Tibetan
Koloi Kokborok Sino-Tibetan
Murasing Kokborok Sino-Tibetan
Chakma Changma Vaj Indo-European
Halam
Garo Garo Sino-Tibetan
Kuki Kuki Sino-Tibetan
Lushai
Mogh
Munda Mundari Austroasiatic
Oraon Kurukh Dravidian
Santhal Santhali Austroasiatic
Uchoi Kokborok Sino-Tibetan

Tripura has a rich cultural heritage of music, fine arts, handicrafts and dance. It is a state inhabited by various ethnic groups; Tripura is home to representatives of the four major language families of the Indian Subcontinent: Indo-European, Dravidian, Sino-Tibetan, and Austroasiatic. The Bengali people are the ethnic community from Bengal (divided between India and Bangladesh) in Indian subcontinent with a history going back more than two millennia. ... Bengali or Bangla (বাংলা, IPA: ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the eastern Indian subcontinent, evolved from Prakrit, Pāli and Sanskrit. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... Meiteia are the major ethnic group in Manipur. ... Manipuri or Meiteilon is the predominant language and lingua-franca in the state of Manipur, in northeastern India. ... Sino-Tibetan languages in red. ... ... Kokborok is the native language of the Tripuri community in the northeast Indian state of Tripura. ... Sino-Tibetan languages in red. ... Baba Goria celebrations of the Jamatia Hoda Jamatia is one of the 21 scheduled tribes of Tripura state of India. ... Kokborok is the native language of the Tripuri community in the northeast Indian state of Tripura. ... Sino-Tibetan languages in red. ... Reang or Riang, as it may be spelt, is one of the 21 scheduled tribes of Tripura state of India. ... Kokborok is the native language of the Tripuri community in the northeast Indian state of Tripura. ... Sino-Tibetan languages in red. ... Noatia is one of the 21 scheduled tribes of Tripura state of India. ... Kokborok is the native language of the Tripuri community in the northeast Indian state of Tripura. ... Sino-Tibetan languages in red. ... Koloi is one of the 21 scheduled tribes of Tripura state of India. ... Kokborok is the native language of the Tripuri community in the northeast Indian state of Tripura. ... Sino-Tibetan languages in red. ... Murasing is one of the 21 scheduled tribes of Tripura state of India. ... Kokborok is the native language of the Tripuri community in the northeast Indian state of Tripura. ... Sino-Tibetan languages in red. ... The Chakma, who are also known as the Changma, is a Mongoloid tribe inhabiting the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... The Garos are a tribe in Meghalaya, India who call themselves Achik. ... Garo is the language of the majority of the people of the Hills which bear their name in the state of Meghalaya of India. ... Sino-Tibetan languages in red. ... The term Kuki refers to an ethnic entity that spreads out in a contiguous region in Northeast India, Northwest Burma (Myanmar), and the Chittagong Hill tracts in Bangladesh. ... Sino-Tibetan languages in red. ... The Munda are a tribal (Adivasi) people of Jharkhand land which is spread over on five states e. ... The Mundari language is a member of the Munda language family, which includes the Austro-Asiatic language group, and is closely related to Santali. ... Austro-Asiatic languages The Austro-Asiatic languages are a large language family of Southeast Asia, and also scattered throughout India and Bangladesh. ... The Oraon, or Uraon, people inhabit various states across central India. ... The Oraon are a tribal (Adivasi) people of Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, Chhattisgarh and West Bengal, India. ... The Dravidian family of languages includes approximately 73[1] languages that are mainly spoken in southern India and Sri Lanka, as well as certain areas in Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, and eastern and central India, as well as in parts of Afghanistan and Iran, and by overseas Dravidians in other countries... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Santali is a language in the Munda subfamily of Austro-Asiatic, related to Ho and Mundari. ... Austro-Asiatic languages The Austro-Asiatic languages are a large language family of Southeast Asia, and also scattered throughout India and Bangladesh. ... Uchoi is one of the 21 scheduled tribes of Tripura state of India. ... Kokborok is the native language of the Tripuri community in the northeast Indian state of Tripura. ... Sino-Tibetan languages in red. ... Fine art is a term used to refer to fields traditionally considered to be artistic. ... Handicraft, also known as craftwork or simply craft, is a type of work where useful and decorative devices are made completely by hand or using only simple tools. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... The Dravidian family of languages includes approximately 73[1] languages that are mainly spoken in southern India and Sri Lanka, as well as certain areas in Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, and eastern and central India, as well as in parts of Afghanistan and Iran, and by overseas Dravidians in other countries... Sino-Tibetan languages in red. ... Austro-Asiatic languages The Austro-Asiatic languages are a large language family of Southeast Asia, and also scattered throughout India and Bangladesh. ...


Around 70% of the population are Bengalis and Manipuris, while the tribal population includes 19 distinct communities. Of these, the Tripuri's are found throughout the state and form 16% of the state's population. Jamatia, Reang, Noatia, Koloi, Murasing, Chakma, Halam, Garo, Kuki, Lushai, Mogh, Munda, Oraon, Santhal and Uchoi are the other significant tribal communities of the state. This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Tripuri childrens in traditional attire grouping up for song presentation A beautiful and colourful pattern of rigwnai. ...

Image:Lebang Bumani.jpg
Lebang Bumani dance Khumulwng. Photo by Pankaj Debbarma

Music is an integral part of the tribal people of Tripura. Some of their improvised instruments are the Sarinda, Chongpreng and Sumui (flute). Songs are sung during festivals, marriages, jhum and other festivals. Their life used to be jhum oriented previously. Kaunsil Nok, Khumulwng, Tripura. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...


Dance is vital to the tribal way of life. They dance and sing not only to observe festivals and in joy but in sorrow also. The Goria dance is very popular among the Jamatias, Debbarma, Reangs, and all other clans of Tripuri and are participated by young men and women. The Hojagiri dance is performed by standing on a pitcher and is performed by the Reangs clans. The Biju dance is performed by the Chakmas during the Chaitra Sankranti. Goria is name of the deity worshipped by majority of Tripuris. ...


Resources

Tripura is not rich in mineral resources. The principal minerals of the state are kaolin, iron ore, limestone, coal and natural gas. Kaolin Kaolinite (Aluminium Silicate Hydroxide) Kaolinite is a mineral with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4. ... This heap of iron ore pellets will be used in steel production. ... Limey shale overlaid by limestone. ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel extracted from the ground by underground mining or open-pit mining (surface mining). ... Natural gas is a gaseous fossil fuel consisting primarily of methane. ...


Transport and communication

National Highway No. 44 is the lifeline of the state. The state is connected with the rest of the country through Assam by a 44 km railway line. The capital Agartala, has an airport (Agartala Airport), which is connected with Kolkata, Guwahati and Silchar. Agartala Airport Agartala Airport serves Agartala, Tripura. ...   (IPA: [] Bengali: কলকাতা) (formerly  ) is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal. ... Guwahati   (Assamese: গুৱাহাটী) is a major city in eastern India, often considered as the gateway to the North-East Region (NER) of the country and is the largest city within the region. ... Silchar (Bengali: Shilchôr, Assamese: শিলচৰ Xilsôr, Sylheti: শিলচর Hilsôr) is the headquarters of Cachar district in the state of Assam in India. ...


Places of interest

Tripura can be termed as a laboratory of exotic cultural region and can be turned into a veritable tourists' paradise. It will not only strengthen the revenue-base of these state, but also promote national integration.


Jampui Hills, about 250 km from Agartala, is known as the seat of the permanent spring. Jampui Hills is located at an altitude of approximately 1000 metres. ...


Neermahal, the water palace built by Maharaja Bir Bikram Kishore Manikya in 1930, is 53 km from Agartala. It is located in the center of lake Rudrasagar and is an assimilation of Hindu and Muslim architectural design. This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish: Müslüman, Persian and Urdu: مسلمان, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of Islam. ...


In Unakoti, stone and rock cut images on hill slopes belongs to 7th to 9th century. The rocky walls, the central Shiva head and gigantic Ganesh figures deserve special mention. It is the largest Bas-relief sculpture in India. Shiva (English IPA: Sanskrit: शिव; Hindi: शिव; Telugu:శివ ;Malayalam ശിവന്‍; Tamil: சிவன் (when used to distinguish lordly status), also known as Siva and written Åšiva in the official IAST transliteration, pronounced as ) is a form of Ishvara or God in the later Vedic scriptures of Hinduism. ... Popular image of Ganesh In Hinduism, Ganesha (Gaṇeśa, lord of the hosts, also spelled Ganesa and sometimes referred to as Ganesh in Hindi, Bengali and other Indian vernaculars) is the god of wisdom, intelligence, education and prudence. ...


Other places of interest are Tripura Sundari Temple, which is regarded as one of the 51 Peethas of Hindu pilgrims. Bhuvaneshwari Temple on the bank of the Gomati and the Kali Temple at Kamalasagar, near the Bangladesh border, which was built in the 15th century. Sepahijala Wildlife Sanctuary, about 30 km from Agartala, covers an area of 18.53 km². Here more than 150 species of residential birds, migratory birds, orchid garden and boating facilities attract visitors. The Trishna Wildlife Sanctuary is another spot which is the home of the bison apart from migratory and resident birds. Orchid re-directs here; for alternate uses see Orchid (disambiguation) Genera Over 800 See List of Orchidaceae genera. ... Boating on the Royal Military Canal at Hythe. ... Species B. antiquus B. bison B. bonasus B. priscus Bison is a taxonomic genus containing six species of large even-toed ungulates within the subfamily Bovinae. ...


Shopping pleasure in Tripura

Tripura is known for its exceptional hand woven cotton fabrics with tribal motifs, wood carvings, decorative articles made from bamboo roots, bamboo and cane furniture and other exquisite handicrafts. Ideal places to shop in Agartala besides Purbasha [1] [2], the State Government Emporia, are Priyadarshini, Tantumita, Aitorma and other private shops. Cotton ready for harvest. ...


Cultural heritage of Tripura

See also: Tripuri

Tripura represents a composite culture with several ethnic groups residing in the State. Though the cultural heritage of one community differs from the other, the manifested efforts have mingled them into a single whole, giving birth to a unique cultural genre. Tripura can be termed as a laboratory of exotic cultural synthesis. Tripuri childrens in traditional attire grouping up for song presentation A beautiful and colourful pattern of rigwnai. ...


Important places of Tripura

Agartala

Main article: Agartala

Agartala is the State capital which is connected by road to Guwahati via Shillong by National Highway No. 44. It takes about 24 hrs by road from Guwahati to reach Agartala. There are fligh connections as well with Kolkata, Guwahati and Silchar. Bus services are available to out of state destinations like Silchar, Shillong, Guwahati and Kolkata. Some of the city-based important locations are: Agartala is the capital of the Indian state of Tripura. ... Guwahati   (Assamese: গুৱাহাটী) is a major city in eastern India, often considered as the gateway to the North-East Region (NER) of the country and is the largest city within the region. ... Shillong (Hindi: शिलांग, Bengali: শিলং) is the capital of Meghalaya, one of the smaller states in India. ...

  • Buddha Vihar: This shrine though small in size, preserves some beautiful metal idols of Lord Buddha and Bodhisatva, the idols being Burmese in origin. Here Buddha Jayanti is celebrated on the Buddha Purnima Day.
  • Maharaja Bir Bikram College: It is situated on a hillock beside a lake in the eastern part of the city. This beautiful college building was designed by Maharaja Bir Bikram Kishore Manikya Debbarma. It is yet another monument of the old architectural tradition, this building is exquisite both from the exterior as well as the interior.
  • State Museum: It is situated in the heart of town, it preserves some rare images, epigraphs and numismatic evidence which throw light on the glorious past of Tripura and some adjoining states.

A stone image of the Buddha. ... Prince Siddhartha Gautama as a bodhisattva, before becoming a Buddha. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... It has been suggested that Epigraphy, Epigrapher and Epigraphist be merged into this article or section. ... Numismatics (ancient Greek: νομισματική) is the scientific study of money and its history in all its varied forms. ...

Brahmakunda

Brahmakunda is about 45 km north of Agartala. This shrine is famous for its colourful fairs held every year in the month of March - April and November. The deity installed in the temple of Lord Shiva is said to be over 90 years old. This article is about the Hindu God. ...


Kamalasagar

The huge lake was excavated by Maharaja Dhanya Manikya Bahadur Debbarma in the late 15th century while the Kali temple atop the hillock dates back to the 17th century. Famous for the great fair held in October, this place is equally popular with the picnickers.


Sipahijola Lake

This expansive lake within Sipahijola Wildlife Sanctuary is a unique spot for picnickers and offers ideal pedal boating and rowing for nature lovers. Sipahijola Wild Life Sanctuary is a place of interest and a tourist spot in Tripura [1]. It covers a vast area of about 18. ... Boating on the Royal Military Canal at Hythe. ...


Tripura Sundari Temple

It is situated in the ancient Udaipur, believed to be one of the holiest Hindu shrines in this part of the country. Popularly known as Matabari, crowns the Dhanisagar hillock and is served by the red-robed priests who traditionally, minister to the mother goddess. Considered to be one of the 51 Shakti Peethas, consists of a square type sanctum of the typical Bengali hut. It was constructed by Maharaja Dhanya Manikya Debbarma in 1501 A.D., there are two identical images of the same deity inside the temple named Chhotima, one is around 2 feet in height and the other about 5 feet in height. It is situated in the ancient Udaipur, believed to be one of the holiest Hindu shrines in this part of the country. ... Udaipur is a city in South Tripura district in the state of Tripura, in India. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... The Shakti Peethas are places of worship consecrated to the Goddess Shakti, the female principal of Hinduism and the main deity of the Shakta sect. ... Sanctum is a two-player computer collectible card game, played exclusively online against human opponents. ... Bengal, known as Bôngo (Bengali: বঙ্গ), Bangla (বাংলা), Bôngodesh (বঙ্গদেশ), or Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ) in the Bengali language, is a region in the northeast of South Asia. ...


Jampui Hills

Main article: Jampui Hills

It is located at an altitude of approximately 1000 metres. It is an interesting place to visit. The summit of the Jampui Hills commands a breathtaking natural view of the towns nearby. It is in North Tripura district. It can be accessed by road from Dharmanagar and Kailashahar. Orange plantations of Jampui Hills are very famous throughout India. Every year during December-January the Orange Festival is held. The people here are predominantly Lushais and Reangs. Jampui Hills is located at an altitude of approximately 1000 metres. ... North Tripura is an administrative district in the state of Tripura in India. ... Kailashahar is the head-quarters of North Tripura district in the state of Tripura in India. ... Orange—specifically, sweet orange—refers to the citrus tree Citrus sinensis (syn. ... Reang or Riang, as it may be spelt, is one of the 21 scheduled tribes of Tripura state of India. ...


Chaturdasha Temple

This temple is situated near Old Agartala, features the Bengal dome patterned after the roofs of village huts in Bengal. The dome is surmounted by a stupa-like structure which might reveal a trace of Buddhist influence. Interestingly this temple was built for fourteen head images of Gods and Goddessess called Chaturdasha Devta by King Krishna Manikya Debbarma and these head images are ceremoniously worshipped during the Kharchi Puja. Tripuri names of fourteen gods and goddesses are however: Lampra, Akhatra, Bikhatra, Burasa, Thumnairok, Bonirok, Sangroma, Mwtaikotor, Twima, Songram, Noksumwtai, Mailuma, Khuluma and Swkalmwtai. A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Tripuri childrens in traditional attire grouping up for song presentation A beautiful and colourful pattern of rigwnai. ...


Amarpur

Main article: Amarpur

It is an idyllic quiet picnic spot, on the banks of Amarsagar, the 16th century artificial lake, stands on the ruins of a palace. On the southern bank lies a temple dedicated to the eight headed goddess, Mangalchandi. A fair is held here during Basant Panchami (February). Picturesque riverside in Amarpur Amarpur is a town and a nagar panchayat in South Tripura district in the state of Tripura [1], India. ...


Tirthamukh

It is situated nearby Dumbur which woos pilgrims from different parts of the world. During Uttarayana Sankranti (January-February), thousands of people assemble here to take a holy bath.


Badar Mokam

It is a holy and sacred place of the Muslims who reside in Tripura. A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish: Müslüman, Persian and Urdu: مسلمان, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of Islam. ...


See also


Kokborok is the native language of the Tripuri community in the northeast Indian state of Tripura. ... Bengal, known as Bôngo (Bengali: বঙ্গ), Bangla (বাংলা), Bôngodesh (বঙ্গদেশ), or Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ) in the Bengali language, is a region in the northeast of South Asia. ... Agartala is the capital of the Indian state of Tripura. ... The Tripuri (Tipra or Tipperah) people are the original inhabitants of the state of Tripura in North East India. ... Tripuri childrens in traditional attire grouping up for song presentation A beautiful and colourful pattern of rigwnai. ...

References

  1. ^ Govt.of Tripura
  2. ^ Tripura

External links

  • Tripura travel guide from Wikitravel
  • Official website of the government of Tripura.
  • tripurainfo.com Online Tripura web portal.
  • twipra.com, A web portal of Twipra (Tripura).
  • tripuranews.co.uk A Tripuri news and web portal.
  • tripurasociety.org, Delhi Tripura Society website.
  • Tripura from the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica
  • Introduction to Tripura by Indira Gandhi National Centre for Arts (IGNCA)

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Philosophy of Tripura Tantra (4008 words)
Parasurama having heard Dattatreya's lectures on the greatness of the Supreme Deity Tripura Sundari as embodied in the Mahatmya Khanda expressed a desire to the Master to be enlightened on the methods of worship for propitiating the Goddess.
He was subsequently initiated in due form into the mysteries of Tripura worship and practiced penances for 12 years, under instructions from his tutor, at a hermitage on the Mahendra Hill in the South.
The Kalpa Sutra, treating of the secrets of the Tripura worship in ten Khandas and containing 335 Sutras, is attributed to Parasurama who is described as a scion of the family of Bhrgu, a disciple of Shiva and the son of Jamadagni and Renuka.
Tripura (1103 words)
Tripura is steeped in history with linkages established from the legendary Limar dynasty.
Tripura is situated southeast of Bangladesh and is located between the parallels of 22056'' and 24032" North latitudes and 91021" east longitudes.
Tripura's basic problem, rather the indigenous Tripuri peoples' problem, is the huge influx of foreigners, mainly Hindu Bengalis and the resultant alienation of indigenous land thereby causing the threat to the distinctive identity of the Tripuri people and their very existence.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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