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Encyclopedia > Tripoli

Coordinates: 32°54′N 13°11′E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

Tripoli, Libya
Capital city Libya (ليبيا)
Population 1,682,000
Area 400 km²
Coordinates 32°54′ N 13°11′ E
Elevation 81 m AMSL
Founded 7th century BCE
Website http://www.tripoli.info
Tripoli location map

Tripoli (Arabic: طرابلس Tarābulus) is the capital city of Libya. It has a population of 1.68 million. The city is located in the northwest of the country on the edge of the desert, on a point of rocky land projecting into the Mediterranean Sea and forming a bay. Tripoli was founded, in the 7th century BCE, by the Phoenicians, who named it Oea. It is located at 32°54'8" North, 13°11'9" East (32.90222, 13.185833).[1] Image File history File links Tripoli,_Libya_city_seal. ... Motto: Freedom, socialism, unity Anthem: Allahu Akbar Capital Tripoli Largest city Tripoli Official language(s) Arabic Government Jamahiriya  - Leader Muammar al-Gaddafi (de facto) Zenati Muhammad az-Zenati (de jure)  - Prime Minister Baghdadi Mahmudi Independence    - Relinquished by Italy February 10, 1947   - From France and the United Kingdom under United Nations... The term above mean sea level (AMSL) refers to the elevation (on the ground) or altitude (in the air) of any object, relative to the average sea level. ... (8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC - other centuries) (700s BC - 690s BC - 680s BC - 670s BC - 660s BC - 650s BC - 640s BC - 630s BC - 620s BC - 610s BC - 600s BC - other decades) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Scythians arrived in Asia Collapse... Image File history File links LibyaTripoli. ... The Arabic language (Arabic: ‎ translit: ), or simply Arabic (Arabic: ‎ translit: ), is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... In politics, a capital (also called capital city or political capital — although the latter phrase has an alternative meaning based on an alternative meaning of capital) is the principal city or town associated with its government. ... Satellite image The Mediterranean Sea is a part of the Atlantic Ocean almost completely enclosed by land, on the north by Europe, on the south by Africa, and on the east by Asia. ... Phoenicia was an ancient civilization in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coastal plains of what is now Lebanon. ...


Tripoli is the largest city, the principal sea port, and the largest commercial and manufacturing centre in Libya. It is also the site of Al-Fateh University. Due to the city's long history, there are many sites of archaeological significance in Tripoli. The climate is typical Mediterranean, with hot dry summers, cool winters and some modest rainfall. The University of Libya is now known as The University of Al-Fatah, which situated at the outskirts of Tripoli, the capital city of Libya. ...


The city was subjected to an air strike by the United States in 1986, in retaliation for what the US saw as Libya's proven support of terrorism. United Nations sanctions against Libya were lifted in 2003, which is expected to increase traffic through the Port of Tripoli and have a positive impact on the city's economy. A military strike is a limited attack on a specified target. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Contents


History

Foundation

The city was founded in the 7th century BCE, by the Phoenicians. Tripoli then passed into the hands of the rulers of Cyrenaica (Barca), from whom it was wrested away by the Carthaginians. It next belonged to the Romans, who included it within their province of Africa, and gave it the name of Regio Syrtica. Around the beginning of the 3rd century CE, it became known as the Regio Tripolitana (region of the three cities, namely Oea, Sabrata and Leptis).It was probably raised to the rank of a separate province by Septimius Severus, who was a native of Leptis. Like the rest of North Africa, it was conquered by the Muslims early in the 8th century. Phoenicia was an ancient civilization in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coastal plains of what is now Lebanon. ... The Roman Empire ca. ... Lucius Septimius Severus, (April 11, 146-February 4, 211) was Roman emperor from April 9, 193 to 211. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ...


The Ottoman province (vilayet) of Tripoli (including the dependent sanjak of Cyrenaica) lay along the southern shore of the Mediterranean Sea between Tunisia in the west and Egypt in the east. Besides the city itself, the area included Cyrenaica (the Barca plateau), the chain of oases in the Aujila depression, Fezzan and the oases of Ghadames and Ghat, separated by sandy and stony wastelands. Sanjak and Sandjak (other variants: sinjaq, sanjaq) are the most common English transliterations of the Turkish word Sancak, which literally means banner. In Arabic the sanjaks were also called liwas. ... The Roman Empire ca. ... Satellite image The Mediterranean Sea is a part of the Atlantic Ocean almost completely enclosed by land, on the north by Europe, on the south by Africa, and on the east by Asia. ... Oasis in the Libyan part of the Sahara In geography, an oasis is an isolated area of vegetation in a desert, typically surrounding a spring or similar water source. ... Fezzan is a desert region in south-western Libya. ...


In 1510, it was taken by Don Pedro Navarro, Count of Oliveto for Spain, and, in 1523, it was assigned to the Knights of St. John, who had lately been expelled by the Ottoman Turks from their stronghold in the island of Rhodes. The knights kept it with some trouble until 1551, when they were compelled to surrender to the Turkish admiral Sinan. Tripoli then joined in the general piracy which made the Barbary states the terror of maritime Christendom. Don Pedro Navarro, Count of Oliveto (es: Pedro Navarro, conde de Oliveto) (Garde, Navarre, c. ... The Knights Hospitaller (also known as Knights of Rhodes, Knights of Malta, Cavaliers of Malta, and the Order of St John of Jerusalem) is a tradition which began as a Benedictine hospitaller Order founded in Jerusalem, following the First Crusade, ca. ... The Ottoman Turks were the ethnic subdivision of the Turkish people who dominated the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire. ... Rhodes, Greek: Ρόδος (pron. ... Sinan Pasha (died 1596) was a Turkish soldier and statesman, of Albanian low origin. ... The states along the Barbary Coast, Algiers, Morocco, Tripoli, and Tunis, were collectively known as the Barbary States. ...


In 1714, the ruling pasha, Ahmed Karamanli, assumed the title of bey, and asserted a sort of semi-independence of the Sultan, and this order of things continued under the rule of his descendants, accompanied by the brazen piracy and blackmailing until 1835, when the Ottoman Empire ("the Porte") took advantage of an internal struggle in Tripoli to reassert its authority. A new Turkish pasha, with vice-regal powers, was appointed and the state was made a vilayet of the Ottoman empire. Ahmed Karamanli (r. ...


The Barbary Wars

Tripoli Harbour during the Tripolitan War
Tripoli Harbour during the Tripolitan War

In the early part of the 19th century, the regency at Tripoli, owing to its piratical practices, was twice involved in war with the United States. In May 1801, the pasha demanded an increase in the tribute ($83,000) which the US government had been paying since 1796 for the protection of their commerce from piracy. The demand was refused, and a naval force was sent from the United States to blockade Tripoli. The First Barbary War dragged on for four years, the Americans in 1803 losing the frigate, Philadelphia, the commander (Captain William Bainbridge) and the whole crew being made prisoners. The most colourful incident in the war was the expedition undertaken by William Eaton with the object of replacing the pasha with an elder brother living in exile, who had promised to accede to all the wishes of the United States. Eaton at the head of a motley crew of 500 US Marines and Muslim Mercenaries marched across the desert from Alexandria. Egypt, and with the aid of American ships, succeeded in capturing Derna. Soon afterwards, on June 3, 1805, peace was concluded. The pasha ended his demands and received $60,000 as ransom for the Philadelphia prisoners. Burning of the USS Philadelphia (painting) Copied from public domain archive of the US Navy at http://www. ... Burning of the USS Philadelphia (painting) Copied from public domain archive of the US Navy at http://www. ... The flag of 18th-century pirate Calico Jack This article is about sea piracy; for other uses of Piracy or Pirate, see Pirate (disambiguation). ... Combatants United States Barbary States ( Ottoman Empire regencies) Commanders Richard Dale William Eaton Edward Preble Hassan Bey Strength 7 Ships 10 US Marines and Soldiers 70 Christian Mercenaries 4000 400 Arab Mercenaries Casualties 2 Ships destroyed 2 Marines killed, 3 wounded 9 Christian Mercenaries killed and wounded Unknown The First... The second USS Philadelphia of the United States Navy was a 36 gun sailing frigate. ... William Bainbridge (1774-1833). ... William Eaton (23 February 1764 - 1 June 1811) was an American Army officer, involved with the First Barbary War. ... Alexandria Modern Alexandria, from Qaitbays Citadel Antiquity and modernity stand side-by-side in Egypts chief Mediterranean seaport. ... Combatants United States Ottoman vilayet of Tripoli Commanders William Eaton Hassan Bey Strength 10 US Marines & Soldiers 70 Christian mercenaries 400 Arab mercenaries 4,000 Casualties Americans 2 killed, 3 wounded Christian Mercenaries: 9 killed and wounded Arab Mercenaries: unknown Unknown {{{notes}}} The Battle of Derna was a decisive victory... June 3 is the 154th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (155th in leap years), with 211 days remaining. ... 1805 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


In 1815, in consequence of further outrages, Captains Bainbridge and Stephen Decatur, at the head of an American squadron, again visited Tripoli and forced the pasha to comply with the demands of the United States. See Second Barbary War. Stephen Decatur, Jr. ... The Second Barbary War (1815, also known as the Algerian War) was the second of two wars fought between the United States of America and the semi-autonomous North African city-states of Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli, known collectively as the Barbary States. ...


Later history

In 1835, the Turks took advantage of a local civil war to reassert their direct authority. After that date, Tripoli was under the direct control of the Sublime Porte. Rebellions in 1842 and 1844 were unsuccessful. After the occupation of Tunisia by the French (1881), the Turks increased their garrison in Tripoli considerably. Synonym of the government of the Ottoman Empire often confusing the Sublime Porte and the High Porte. ...


Italy had long claimed that Tripoli fell within its zone of influence and that Italy had the right to preserve order within the state. Under the pretext of protecting its own citizens living in Tripoli from the Turkish Government, it declared war against Turkey on September 29, 1911, and announced its intention of annexing Tripoli. On October 1, 1911, a naval battle was fought at Prevesa, European Turkey, and three Turkish vessels were destroyed. By the Treaty of Lausanne, Italian sovereignty was acknowledged by Turkey, although the Caliph was permitted to exercise religious authority. September 29 is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years). ... 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ... October 1 is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ... Preveza is a town in north-western Greece. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Conference of Lausanne. ... Caliph is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ...


Tripoli was controlled by Italy until 1943. After that, it was occupied by British forces until independence in 1951.


Law and Government

The city of Tripoli and its surrounding suburbs all lie within the Tripoli sha'biyah (municipality). In accordance with Libya's Jamahiriya political system, Tripoli comprises of Local People's Congresses where, in theory, the city's population discuss different matters and elect their own people's committee; At present there are 29 Local People's Congresses. In reality, the revolutionary committees severely limit the democratic process by closely supervising committee and congress elections at the branch and municipal levels of governments, Tripoli being no exception. The current head of the Tripoli People's Committee is Abdullatif Abdulrahman Aldaali (عبد اللطيف عبد الرحمن الدالي). Shabiyah (Arabic: ‎) is a subdivision term translated as municipality. ... Jamahiriya (Arabic جماهيرية) is an Arabic term generally translated as state of the masses. ...


Tripoli is sometimes referred to as the de-facto capital of Libya. This is because none of the country's ministries are actually located in the capital. Even the National General People's Congress is held annualy in the city of Surt and not the capital. As part of a radical decentralisation programme undertaken in September 1988, all General People's Committee secretariats (ministries), except those responsible for foreign liaison (foreign affairs) and information, were located away from Tripoli. According to diplomatic sources, the former Secretariat for Economy and Trade was moved to Benghazi; the Secretariat for Health to Kufra; and the remainder, excepting one, to Surt, Col. Gaddafi's birthplace. In early 1993 it was announced that the Secretariat for Foreign Liaison and International Co-operation was to be moved to Ras Lanouf. Look up De facto in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the municipality of Libya. ... Decentralisation (American: decentralization) is any of various means of more widely distributing decision-making to bring it closer to the point of service or action. ... A ministry is a department of a government, led by a minister. ... This article is about a journal. ... Benghazi (Arabic بنغازي, transliterated Banġāzī) is a seaport in Libya, Africa. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Muammar al-Gaddafi visits Brussels in 2004 (photo courtesy of the EC). ...


Geography

A dust storm, making its way from the Sahara to Western Libya, passes over Tripoli.
A dust storm, making its way from the Sahara to Western Libya, passes over Tripoli.

Tripoli lies at the western extremity of Libya close to the Tunisian border. Over a thousand kilometeres seperate Tripoli from Libya's second largest city, Benghazi. Along the shores of Tripolitania for more than 300 kilometers, coastal oases alternate with sandy areas and lagoons. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2000x1556, 838 KB) Dust Storm over Libya and Egypt A thin sheet of dust blew northeastward from deserts in northern Africa and out across the Mediterranean Sea (upper right) on March 1, 2005. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2000x1556, 838 KB) Dust Storm over Libya and Egypt A thin sheet of dust blew northeastward from deserts in northern Africa and out across the Mediterranean Sea (upper right) on March 1, 2005. ... Tripolitania is a historic region of western Libya, centered around the coastal city of Tripoli. ... Oasis in the Libyan part of the Sahara In geography, an oasis is an isolated area of vegetation in a desert, typically surrounding a spring or similar water source. ... See lagoon (disambiguation) for other possible meanings. ...


The dominant climatic influences in Tripoli, a coastal lowland city, are Mediterranean. The city enjoys warm summers and mild winters with an average July temperature of between 22° and 29°C. In December temperatures have reached as low as 1°C, but the average remains at between 9° and 18°C. The average annual rainfall is less than 400mm, but can be very erratic.[2] A degree Celsius (°C) is a unit of temperature named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius (1701-1744), who first proposed a similar system in 1742. ... A degree Celsius (°C) is a unit of temperature named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius (1701-1744), who first proposed a similar system in 1742. ... A degree Celsius (°C) is a unit of temperature named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius (1701-1744), who first proposed a similar system in 1742. ...

Al Saaha Alkhadhraa (The Green Square), located in the city centre is mostly landscaped with palm trees as is much of Tripoli.
Al Saaha Alkhadhraa (The Green Square), located in the city centre is mostly landscaped with palm trees as is much of Tripoli.

For example, epic floods in 1945 left Tripoli under water for several days, but two years later an unprecedentedly severe drought caused the loss of thousands of head of cattle. Deficiency in rainfall is no doubt reflected in an absence of permanent rivers or streams in Tripoli as well as an absence throughout the entire country. The allocation of limited water is considered of sufficient importance to warrant the existence of the Secretariat of Dams and Water Resources, and damaging a source of water can be penalized by a heavy fine or imprisonment. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 649 KB) Summary Tripolis Green Square located near the waterfront. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 649 KB) Summary Tripolis Green Square located near the waterfront. ... A drought usually refers to an extended period of below-normal rainfall. ...


The Great Manmade River, a network of pipelines that transport water from the desert to the coastal cities, supplies Tripoli with its water.[3] The grand scheme was initiated by Gaddafi in 1982 and has had a positive impact on the city's inhabitants. The Great Manmade River Project (GMRP) is a network of pipes that supplies water to the Sahara Desert in Libya. ...


Tripoli is dotted with public spaces, but few fit under the category of large city parks. The Green Square located near the waterfront is scattered with palm trees, the most abundant plant used for landscaping in the city. Tripoli zoo, located south of the city centre, is a large reserve of plants, trees and open green spaces and is the country's biggest zoo.
An Australian park A park is any of a number of geographic features. ... Genera Many; see list of Arecaceae genera Arecaceae (also known as Palmae or Palmaceae), the palm family, is a family of flowering plants, belonging to the monocot order Arecales. ...


Economy

The central business district.
The central business district.

Tripoli is Libya's economic hub. It is the leading center of banking, finance and communication in the country as well as the leading commercial and manufacturing center. Many of the country's largest corporations locate their headquarter's home offices in Tripoli as well as the majority of international companies. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 186 KB) Summary Tripoli Central Business District. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 186 KB) Summary Tripoli Central Business District. ... For other uses, see Bank (disambiguation). ... Finance studies and addresses the ways in which individuals, businesses and organizations raise, allocate and use monetary resources over time, taking into account the risks entailed in their projects. ... Mass media is a term used to denote, as a class, that section of the media specifically conceived and designed to reach a very large audience (typically at least as large as the whole population of a nation state). ... Commercial may mean: as a noun: a form of advertising, as in a television commercial as an adjective: referring to commerce or for-profit activities or trade (compare with non-profit organization) a breed of cattle, Commercial This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Major manufactured goods include processed food, textiles, construction materials, clothing and tobacco products. Since the lifting of sanctions against Libya in 1999 and again in 2003, Tripoli has seen a rise in foreign investment as well as an increase in tourism. Increased traffic has also been recorded in the city's port as well as Libya's main international airport, Tripoli International. Food preservation is the process of treating and handling food in such a way as to stop or greatly slow down spoilage to prevent foodborne illness while maintaining nutritional value, texture and flavor. ... This article is about the type of fabric. ... Cranes are essential in large construction projects, such as this skyscraper In project architecture and civil engineering, construction is the building or assembly of any infrastructure. ... Men and women wearing suits, an example of one of the many modern forms of clothing (from the 1937 Chicago Woolen Mills catalog) Clothing is defined, in its broadest sense, as coverings for the torso and limbs as well as coverings for the hands (gloves), feet (socks, shoes, sandals, boots... Species Nicotiana acuminata Nicotiana alata Nicotiana attenuata Nicotiana benthamiana Nicotiana clevelandii Nicotiana excelsior Nicotiana forgetiana Nicotiana glauca Nicotiana glutinosa Nicotiana langsdorffii Nicotiana longiflora Nicotiana obtusifolia Nicotiana paniculata Nicotiana plumbagifolia Nicotiana quadrivalvis Nicotiana repanda Nicotiana rustica Nicotianasuaveolens Nicotiana sylvestris Nicotiana tabacum Nicotiana tomentosa Ref: ITIS 30562 as of August 26, 2005... Tripoli International Airport (IATA: TIP, ICAO: HLLT) (Arabic: مطار طرابلس العالمي) serves Tripoli, Libya. ...


The city is home to the Tripoli International Fair, an international, industrial, agricultural and commercial event located on Omar Muktar Street. One of the active members of the Global Association of the Exhibition Industry (UFI), located in the French capital Paris, the international fair is organised annualy and takes place from the 2nd to the 12th of April. Participation averages around 30 countries as well as more than 2000 companies and organisations. UFI — The Global Association of the Exhibition Industry is the association of trade show organisers, fairground owners, national and international associations of the exhibition industry, and its partners. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) Administration Subdivisions 20 arrondissements Département Paris (75) Région ÃŽle-de-France Mayor Bertrand Delanoë (PS) City (commune) Characteristics Land Area 86. ...


Since the rise in tourism and influx of foreign businesspeople, there has been an increased demand for hotels in the city. To cater for these increased demands, the Corinthia Bab Africa hotel located in the central business district was constructed in 2003 and is the largest hotel in Libya. Other large hotels include the Bab El Bahr hotel and the Kabir Hotel as well as others.


Sites of Interest

Tripoli Castle (Assaraya al-Hamra).
Tripoli Castle (Assaraya al-Hamra).

Tripoli is the main port of the country. It houses most of Libya's administrative buildings. The old part of the town retains much of its old-world ambience and is the most character-rich city in the country. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 122 KB) Summary Al Sarai al Hamrah, Tripoli Castle. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 122 KB) Summary Al Sarai al Hamrah, Tripoli Castle. ...


The Assaraya al-Hamra (the Red Castle), a vast palace complex with numerous courtyards, dominates the city skyline. There are some lovely classical statues and fountains from the Ottoman period scattered about the castle. The Gurgi and Karamanli mosques, with their intricate decorations and tilework, are fine examples of the artistic skills of local craftsmen. Night view of Taipei City. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Söğüt (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul) (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah...


The old walled city of Tripoli, the Medina, is one of the classical sites of the Mediterranean. The basic street plan of the medina was laid down in the Roman period when the walls were constructed as protection against attacks from the interior of Tripolitania. In the 8th century a wall on the sea-facing side of the city was added. The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Tripolitania is a historic region of western Libya, centered around the coastal city of Tripoli. ...

The Hotel Al Kabir (Grand Hotel).
The Hotel Al Kabir (Grand Hotel).

Three gates provided access to the town: Bab Zanata in the west, Bab Hawara in the southeast and Bab Al-Bahr in the north wall. The old city walls are still standing and can be climbed for good views. The Harbour Monument stands at the gates of the old city and there are a number of restored houses, consulates and a synagogue in the narrow streets here. The medina is filled with traditional ware including some fine jewellery and clothes, and a very good museum, the new Jamahiriya Museum. The only surviving Roman monument in the city, the Arch of Marcus Aurelius, marks the northern end of the medina. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 169 KB) Summary Al-Kabir Hotel (Grand Hotel) in Tripoli, one of the Libyan capitals older hotels. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 169 KB) Summary Al-Kabir Hotel (Grand Hotel) in Tripoli, one of the Libyan capitals older hotels. ... Lesko synagogue, Poland A synagogue (Hebrew: בית כנסת ; beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: שול, shul) is a Jewish place of religious worship. ... The National Gallery in London, a famous museum. ... Imperator Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (April 26, 121[1] – March 17, 180) was Roman Emperor from 161 to his death. ...


Tripoli has some good museums and archives, including the National Archives, the Government Library, the Ethnographic Museum, the Archaeological Museum, the Epigraphy Museum and the Islamic Museum.
For alternate uses see: Archive (disambiguation). ... Epigraphy (Greek, επιγραφή - written upon) is the study of inscriptions engraved into stone or other permanent materials, or cast in metal, the science of classifying them as to cultural context and date, elucidating them and assessing what conclusions can be deduced from them. ...


Town twinning

Sign denoting twin towns of Neckarsulm Town twinning or sister cities is a concept where towns or cities from geographically and politically distinct areas are paired, with the goal of fostering human contact and cultural links. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bosnia_and_Herzegovina. ... Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: Country Bosnia and Herzegovina Entity Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Canton Sarajevo Canton Mayor Semiha Borovac Area    - City 142 km²  (54. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Location in Brazil Coordinates: ) Country Region State Brazil Southeast Minas Gerais Founded December 12, 1897 Mayor Fernando Damata Pimentel (PT) Area    - City 330. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Serbia_(state)_(bordered). ... Belgrade (Serbian: Београд/Beograd ) is the capital and largest city of Republic of Serbia. ... Motto: none Anthem: Bože Pravde Capital Belgrade Largest city Belgrade Official language(s) Serbian1 Government Republic  - President Boris Tadić  - Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Formation and independence    - Formation of Serbia 814   - Formation of the Serbian Empire 1345   - Independence from the Ottoman Empire July 13, 1878   - Serbia and Montenegro union... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Location Location of Madrid in Europe Coordinates : 40° 23’N , 3°43′0″W Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Villa de Madrid (Spanish) Spanish name Villa de Madrid Founded 9th century Postal code 28001-28080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 91 (Villa de...

References

  1. ^ (July 18, 2006), "Names Files of Selected Countries - Libya", National Geospace Intelligance Agency, Accessed July 23 2006
  2. ^ (2006), "Average Conditions, Tripoli Libya", BBC Weather, Accessed Sep 10 2006
  3. ^ Watkins, John, (March 18), 2006), "Libya's thirst for 'fossil water'", BBC News, Accessed Sep 10 2006
  • Includes text from Collier's New Encyclopedia (1921).

July 18 is the 199th day (200th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 166 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 18 is the 77th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (78th in leap years). ...

Further reading

  • London, Joshua E.Victory in Tripoli: How America's War with the Barbary Pirates Established the U.S. Navy and Shaped a NationNew Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2005.

See also

Tripoli International Airport (IATA: TIP, ICAO: HLLT) (Arabic: مطار طرابلس العالمي) serves Tripoli, Libya. ... Combatants United States Barbary States ( Ottoman Empire regencies) Commanders Richard Dale William Eaton Edward Preble Hassan Bey Strength 7 Ships 10 US Marines and Soldiers 70 Christian Mercenaries 4000 400 Arab Mercenaries Casualties 2 Ships destroyed 2 Marines killed, 3 wounded 9 Christian Mercenaries killed and wounded Unknown The First... The Second Barbary War (1815, also known as the Algerian War) was the second of two wars fought between the United States of America and the semi-autonomous North African city-states of Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli, known collectively as the Barbary States. ... The Barbary Treaties refer to several treaties between the United States of America and the semi-autonomous North African city-states of Morocco, Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli, known collectively as the Barbary States. ...

External links

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The Avalon Project : The Barbary Treaties 1786-1816 - Treaty of Peace and Friendship, Signed at Tripoli November 4, ... (1071 words)
Treaty of Peace and Friendship, signed at Tripoli November 4, 1796 (3 Ramada I, A. 1211), and at Algiers January 3, 1797 (4 Rajab, A. Original in Arabic.
There is a firm and perpetual Peace and friendship between the United States of America and the Bey and subjects of Tripoli of Barbary, made by the free consent of both parties, and guaranteed by the most potent Dey & regency of Algiers.
And he by virtue of his signature to this treaty engages for himself and successors to declare the justice of the case according to the true interpretation of the treaty, and to use all the means in his power to enforce the observance of the same.
Tripoli (540 words)
Is situated in northwestern Libya, 90 km east of the border to Tunisia.
Tripoli is now sole capital of Libya, a position the city shared with Benghazi from independence in 1951 until the 1970's.
Tripoli is a principal seaport, and the commercial centre of Libya.
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