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Encyclopedia > Trinitrotoluene
Trinitrotoluene
IUPAC name 2-Methyl-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene
Other names 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene
Trotyl
2,4,6-Trinitromethylbenzene
Identifiers
Abbreviations TNT
CAS number 118-96-7
PubChem 8376
SMILES Cc1c(cc(cc1N(=O)=O)N(=O)=O)N(=O)=O
Properties
Molar mass 227.131 g/mol
Appearance yellow needles
Density 1.654 g/cm³
Melting point

80.35 °C Image File history File links Trinitrotoluene. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1063x1100, 188 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Trinitrotoluene ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... PubChem is a database of chemical molecules. ... The simplified molecular input line entry specification or SMILES is a specification for unambiguously describing the structure of chemical molecules using short ASCII strings. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In physics, density is mass m per unit volume V. For the common case of a homogeneous substance, it is expressed as: where, in SI units: ρ (rho) is the density of the substance, measured in kg·m-3 m is the mass of the substance, measured in kg V is... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ...

Boiling point

295 °C (decomposition) Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ...

Solubility in water 130 mg/L of H2O (20 °C)
Solubility ether
acetone
benzene
pyridine
Hazards
NFPA 704

Solubility refers to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Solubility refers to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... Ether is the general name for a class of chemical compounds which contain an ether group — an oxygen atom connected to two (substituted) alkyl or aryl groups — of general formula R – O–R.[1] A typical example is the solvent and anesthetic diethyl ether, commonly referred to simply as ether... The chemical compound acetone (also known as propanone, dimethyl ketone, 2-propanone, propan-2-one and β-ketopropane) is the simplest representative of the ketones. ... Benzene is an organic chemical compound with the formula C6H6. ... Pyridine is a chemical compound with the formula C5H5N. It is a liquid with a distinctively putrid odour. ... NFPA 704 is a standard maintained by the U.S. National Fire Protection Association. ... Image File history File links NFPA_704. ...

4
3
4
 
R-phrases R2 R23/24/25 R33 R51/53
S-phrases S35 S45 S61
Related Compounds
Related compounds picric acid
hexanitrobenzene
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references

Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a chemical compound with the formula C6H2(NO2)3CH3. This yellow-coloured solid is a reagent (reactant) in chemistry but is best known as a useful explosive material with convenient handling properties. The explosive yield of TNT is considered the standard measure of strength of bombs and other explosives. In chemistry, TNT is used to generate charge transfer salts. R-phrases are defined in Annex III of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Nature of special risks attributed to dangerous substances and preparations. ... S-phrases are defined in Annex IV of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Safety advice concerning dangerous substances and preparations. ... Picric acid is the common term for the chemical compound 2,4,6-trinitrophenol, also known as TNP; the material is a yellow crystalline solid. ... Hexanitrobenzene is a high-density explosive compound with chemical formula C6N6O12, obtained by oxidizing the amine group of pentanitroaniline with hydrogen peroxide in sulfuric acid. ... In chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 kilopascals) and 25 degrees Celsius (298. ... A chemical compound is a chemical substance of two or more different chemically bonded chemical elements, with a fixed ratio determining the composition. ... A reagent or reactant is any substance used in a chemical reaction. ... Preparing C-4 explosive This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... Unit of energy commonly used to quantify laerge amounts of energy. ... This article is about explosive devices. ... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... A charge transfer complex (CT complex) is defined as an electron donor–electron acceptor complex, characterized by electronic transition(s) to an excited state. ...

Contents

Explosive character

Upon detonation, TNT decomposes as follows:

2 C7H5N3O6 → 3 N2 + 5 H2O + 7 CO + 7 C

The reaction is exothermic but has a high activation energy. Because of the production of carbon, TNT explosions have a sooty appearance. In thermodynamics, the word exothermic describes a process or reaction that releases energy in the form of heat. ... The sparks generated by striking steel against a flint provide the activation energy to initiate combustion in this Bunsen burner. ... General Name, symbol, number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Standard atomic weight 12. ...

property value
Shock sensitivity Insensitive
Friction sensitivity Insensitive
Figure of Insensitivity ~100
RE factor 1.00
Explosive velocity 6,900 m/s (density: 1,6 g/cm³)
Steam pressure at 20 °C 150 to 600 Pa
Lead block test 300 ml/10 g
Sensitivity to impact 15 N·m
Friction sensitivity to 353 N (36 kp) no reaction

TNT used to be the reference point for the Figure of Insensitivity (exactly 100 by definition), but the reference point is now the more sensitive (or less insensitive) RDX which is deemed to have a FofI of exactly 80. Shock sensitivity is a comparative measure of the sensitivity to sudden movement of a chemical compound, usually of an explosive. ... Friction Sensitivity This is an approximation of the amount of friction or rubbing a compound can withstand before prematurely exploding. ... Figure of Insensitivity (or FofI) is an inverse scale of measure of the sensitivity of an explosive substance. ... Relative effectiveness factor () is a measurement of an explosives power for military demolitions purposes. ... djbdasjkhfohasoiflkasdfioalkjsfoijaoislkna wu9832u09q1b oai iu3y hq oi23u89q This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Metre per second (U.S. spelling: meter per second) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds. ... Trauzl lead block test, also called Trauzl test or just Trauzl, is a test used to measure the strength of explosive materials. ... Newton metre is the unit of moment (torque) in the SI system. ... RDX redirects here. ...


Toxicity, environmental concerns, and degradation

TNT is poisonous, and skin contact can cause skin irritation, causing the skin to turn a bright yellow-orange color. During the First World War, munition workers who handled the chemical found that their skin turned bright yellow, which resulted in their acquiring the nickname "canary girls" or simply "canaries." TNT also slowly changes ginger-coloured hair to green. A 1916 British Government inquiry on female workers at the Royal Arsenal, Woolwich, found that 37% had severe pains from loss of appetite, nausea, and constipation; 25% suffered from dermatitis; and 34% experienced changes in menstruation. Before respirators and protective grease applied to the skin were introduced, about 100 workers died from the disease.[citation needed] Beyond overall skin structure, refer below to: See-also. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Royal Arsenal, originally known as the Woolwich Arsenal, carried out armaments manufacture, ammunition proofing and explosives research. ... , Woolwich town hall dates from when this was a borough in its own right. ... The appetite is the desire to eat food, felt as hunger. ... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... Constipation or irregularity, is a condition of the digestive system where a person (or animal) experiences hard feces that are difficult to egest; it may be extremely painful, and in severe cases (fecal impaction) lead to symptoms of bowel obstruction. ... Dermatitis is a blanket term literally meaning inflammation of the skin. It is usually used to refer to eczema, which is also known as Dermatitis eczema. ... Menstrual cycle. ... It has been suggested that gas mask be merged into this article or section. ...


People exposed to TNT over a prolonged period tend to experience anemia and abnormal liver functions. Blood and liver effects, spleen enlargement and other harmful effects on the immune system have also been found in animals that ingested or breathed trinitrotoluene. There is evidence that TNT adversely affects male fertility, and TNT is listed as a possible human carcinogen. Consumption of TNT produces red urine.[[[1]] 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene] (September 1996). Anemia (AmE) or anæmia (BrE), from the Greek () meaning without blood, is a deficiency of red blood cells (RBCs) and/or hemoglobin. ... The liver is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... The spleen is an organ located in the abdomen, where it functions in the destruction of old red blood cells and holding a reservoir of blood. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... Fertility is the natural capability of giving life. ... The hazard symbol for carcinogenic chemicals in the Globally Harmonized System. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Trinitrotoluene (TNT, or Trotyl) is a pale yellow crystalline aromatic hydrocarbon compound that melts at 354 K (178 Â°F, 81 °C). ... 1996 is a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ...


Some military testing grounds are contaminated with TNT. Wastewater from munitions programs including contamination of surface and subsurface waters may be colored pink because of the presence of TNT. Such contamination, called "pinkwater", may be difficult and expensive to remedy. Groundwater is water located beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of lithologic formations. ... Wastewater from munitions programs including contamination of surface and subsurface waters may be colored pink as the result of TNT and RDX contamination. ... Generally, remediation means giving a remedy. ...


Applications

TNT is one of the most commonly used explosives for military and industrial applications. It is valued because of its insensitivity to shock and friction, which reduces the risk of unexpected detonations. TNT melts at 80 °C (180 °F), far below the temperature at which it will spontaneously detonate, allowing it to be poured as well as safely combined with other explosives. TNT neither absorbs nor dissolves in water, which allows it to be used effectively in wet environments. Additionally, it is comparatively stable when compared to other high explosives.


Although blocks of pure TNT are available in various sizes (250, 500, and 1,000 g), it is more commonly encountered in synergistic explosive blends that comprise a variable percentage of TNT plus other ingredients. Examples of explosive blends containing TNT include: This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ...

Amatol is a highly explosive material, a mixture of TNT and ammonium nitrate, and used as an explosive in military weapons. ... Ammonal is an explosive mixture of ammonium nitrate, aluminium dust and stearic acid. ... Baratol is an explosive made of a mixture of TNT and barium nitrate, with a small quantity of wax used as a binder. ... Composition B is an explosive consisting of castable mixtures of RDX and TNT as well as, in some instances, additional desensitizing agents. ... OKTOL or OCTOL is an explosive that consists of 75% HMX and 25% TNT. See also OKFOL, another HMX based explosive. ... Pentolite is a high explosive used for military and civilian purposes e. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Torpex is a secondary explosive 50% more powerful than TNT by weight. ... Tritonal is a mixture of 80% TNT and 20% aluminum powder, used in several types of ordnance. ...

History

TNT was first prepared in 1863 by German chemist Joseph Wilbrand and originally used as a yellow dye. Its potential as an explosive was not appreciated for several years mainly because it was so difficult to detonate and because it was less powerful than alternatives. TNT can be safely poured when liquid into shell cases, and is so insensitive that in 1910, it was exempted from the UK's Explosives Act 1875 and was not considered an explosive for the purposes of manufacture and storage. A chemist pours from a round-bottom flask. ... Joseph Wilbrand (dates?) was a German chemistry scientist. ...


The German armed forces adopted it as a filling for artillery shells in 1902. TNT-filled armour-piercing shells would explode after they had penetrated the armour of British capital ships, whereas the British lyddite-filled shells tended to explode upon striking armour, thus expending much of their energy outside the ship. The British started replacing lyddite with TNT in 1907. Artillery with Gabion fortification Cannons on display at Fort Point Continental Artillery crew from the American Revolution Firing of an 18-pound gun, Louis-Philippe Crepin, (1772 – 1851) A forge-welded Iron Cannon in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu. ... A shell is a payload-carrying projectile, which, as opposed to a bullet, contains an explosive or other filling, though modern usage includes large solid projectiles previously termed shot (AP, APCR, APCNR, APDS, APFSDS and Proof shot). ... The capital ships of a navy are its important warships; the ones with the heaviest firepower and armor. ... Picric acid is the common term for the chemical compound 2,4,6-trinitrophenol, also known as TNP; the material is a yellow crystalline solid. ...


Preparation

TNT is synthesized in a two-step process. First, toluene is nitrated with a mixture of sulfuric and nitric acid to produce mono- and dinitrotoluene. Next, the mixture of mono- and dinitrotoluene is further nitrated with a mixture of nitric acid and oleum, a more potent nitration recipe. The waste acid from this second step can be recycled for use in the first. Toluene, also known as methylbenzene or phenylmethane is a clear, water-insoluble liquid with the typical smell of paint thinners, redolent of the sweet smell of the related compound benzene. ... Sulfuric (or sulphuric) acid, H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. ... The chemical compound nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is an aqueous solution of hydrogen nitrate (anhydrous nitric acid). ... Dinitrotoluene or Dinitro C6H3(CH3)(NO2)2. ... Oleum refers to a solution of sulfur trioxide in sulfuric acid or sometimes more specifically to pyrosulfuric acid, disulfuric acid. ...


Difference from dynamite

It is a common misconception that TNT and dynamite are the same, or that dynamite contains TNT. In fact, whereas TNT is a specific chemical compound, dynamite is an absorbent mixture soaked in nitroglycerin that is compressed into a cylindrical shape and wrapped in paper. A misconception happens when a person believes in a concept that is objectively false. ... Dynamite is an explosive based on the explosive potential of nitroglycerin, initially using diatomaceous earth (kieselguhr) as an adsorbent. ... Nitroglycerin (NG), also known as nitroglycerine, trinitroglycerin, and glyceryl trinitrate, is a chemical compound. ...


See also

A megaton or megatonne is a unit of mass equal to 1,000,000 metric tons, i. ... Almost all the common explosives were mixtures of TNT, RDX or PETN. See also : Explosive material, Little Boy, Fat Man. ...

External links

  • Video showing the shockwave and typical black smoke cloud from a pure TNT detonation
  • Video showing detonation of 453 metric tons of TNT - note shockwave and black smoke residue
  • Computational Chemistry Wiki
  • [2] Detailed Preparation

  Results from FactBites:
 
Highbeam Encyclopedia - Search Results for trinitrotoluene (477 words)
trinitrotoluene TRINITROTOLUENE [trinitrotoluene] or TNT, CH 3 C 6 H 2 (NO 2) 3, crystalline, aromatic compound that melts at 81°C. It is prepared by the nitration of toluene.
Trinitrotoluene is a high explosive, but, unlike nitroglycerin, it is unaffected by ordinary shocks and jarring, and must be set off by
Compounds that contain a nitro group, e.g., picric acid and trinitrotoluene (TNT), are called nitro compounds; many nitro compounds are unstable and are used as explosives.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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