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Encyclopedia > Trinidad and Tobago
Republic of Trinidad and Tobago
Flag of Trinidad and Tobago
Flag Coat of arms
Motto
"Together we aspire, together we achieve"
Anthem
Forged From The Love of Liberty
Location of Trinidad and Tobago
Capital Port of Spain
10°40′N, 61°31′W
Largest town Chaguanas [1]
Official languages English
Demonym Trinidadian, Tobagonian
Government Republic
 -  President George Maxwell Richards
 -  Prime Minister Patrick Manning
Independence
 -  from the United Kingdom 31 August 1962 
Area
 -  Total 5,128 km² (172nd)
1,979 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) negligible
Population
 -  July 2005 estimate 1,305,000 (152nd)
 -  Density 207.8 /km² (47th)
538.6 /sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2005 estimate
 -  Total $18.352 billion (113th)
 -  Per capita $19,700 (46th)
HDI (2004) 0.809 (high) (57th)
Currency Trinidad and Tobago dollar (TTD)
Time zone (UTC-4)
 -  Summer (DST)  (UTCn/a)
Internet TLD .tt
Calling code [[+1-868]]

The Republic of Trinidad and Tobago (IPA: [ˈtrɪnɪdad ɒnd təˈbego]) is an archipelagic state[1] in the southern Caribbean, lying northeast of the South American nation of Venezuela and south of Grenada in the Lesser Antilles. It also shares maritime boundaries with Barbados to the northeast and Guyana to the southeast. The country covers an area of 5,128 square kilometres (1,979 sq mi) and consists of two main islands, Trinidad and Tobago, and 21 smaller islands. Trinidad is the larger and more populous of the main islands; Tobago is much smaller, comprising about 6% of the total area and 4% of the population. The nation lies outside the hurricane belt. Trinidad (Spanish for Trinity) is the name of many places throughout the world, especially: Trinidad, the principal island of Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad, Bolivia, capital of the Beni department Trinidad, Cuba Trinidad, United States Trinidad, California Trinidad, Colorado Trinidad, Texas A neighborhood of Washington, DC Non-geographical referents of the... Image File history File links Flag_of_Trinidad_and_Tobago. ... Image File history File links Trinidad_and_tobago_coa. ... Flag ratio: 2:3 The flag of Trinidad and Tobago was adopted in 1962. ... The Coat of arms of Trinidad and Tobago is centered on Columbus ships, under a divers helmet, over a banner reading Together we aspire, together we achieve. Columbus landed in Trinidad in 1498. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogising the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognised either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Forged From the Love of Liberty is the national anthem of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Port of Spain, population 49,000 (2000), is the capital of Trinidad and Tobago and the countrys second largest city by population, after San Fernando. ... Trinidad and Tobagos people are mainly of African or East Indian descent. ... The Borough of Chaguanas is the largest (67,433, 2000 census) and fastest-growing[1][2] town in Trinidad and Tobago. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... Trinidad (Spanish, Trinity) most commonly refers to the larger island of the nation Trinidad and Tobago, the subject of this article. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The President of Trinidad and Tobago is the countrys head of state and commander in chief of the countrys armed forces. ... George Maxwell Richards, T.C., CMT, Ph. ... This page lists prime ministers of Trinidad and Tobago. ... For other persons named Patrick Manning, see Patrick Manning (disambiguation). ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 1,000 km² and 10,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... Gross domestic product (by purchasing power parity) in 2006 The purchasing power parity (PPP) theory was developed by Gustav Cassel in 1920. ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... Map of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita for the year 2006. ... World map indicating Human Development Index (2006). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Coloured world map indicating Human Development Index (2006) (colour-blind compliant map) This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Programmes Human Development Report 2006, compiled on the basis of 2004 data. ... The dollar (ISO 4217 code: TTD; also TT$) is the currency of Trinidad and Tobago. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... “UTC” redirects here. ... Though DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... “UTC” redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .tt is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Trinidad and Tobago. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... The area code (868) is the local telephone area code of Trinidad and Tobago. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... The Mergui Archipelago The Archipelago Sea, situated between the Gulf of Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland, the largest archipelago in the world by the number of islands. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... “West Indian” redirects here. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Location of the Lesser Antilles (green) in relation to the rest of the Caribbean Islands of the Lesser Antilles The Lesser Antilles, also known as the Caribbees,[1] are part of the Antilles, which together with the Bahamas and Greater Antilles form the West Indies. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Look up Trinidad in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Castara village beach looking south, Tobago Tobago is the smaller of the two main islands that make up the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. ... Trinidad and Tobago is an archipelagic republic in the southern Caribbean which consists of 23 distinct islands. ... The Hurricane Belt is an area in the Atlantic Ocean, including the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico, which are prone to Hurricanes during the Atlantic Hurricane Season. ...


Originally settled by Amerindians of South American origin at least 7,000 years ago,[2] Trinidad and Tobago was occupied by Arawakan- and Cariban-speaking peoples at the time of European contact in 1498. A history of slavery and indentureship has left the country with a mixture of African, Indian, European, Middle Eastern and Chinese people. All these groups have left an imprint on the national culture, and there is an increasingly high percentage of mixed-race people. Trinidad and Tobago became an independent nation (from the United Kingdom) in 1962 and a republic in 1976. Native Americans (also Indians, Aboriginal Peoples, American Indians, First Nations, Alaskan Natives, or Indigenous Peoples of America) are the indigenous inhabitants of The Americas prior to the European colonization, and their modern descendants. ... The Arawakan languages (also Arahuacan, Arawakanas, Arahuacano, Maipurean, Maipuran, Maipureano, Maipúrean) are a hypothetical indigenous language family of South America and the Caribbean. ... The Cariban languages are an indigenous language family of South America. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Slave redirects here. ... An indentured servant (also called a bonded laborer) is a labourer unde from the employer in exchange for an extension to the period of their indenture, which could thereby continue indefinitely. ... Afro-Trinidadian refers to people of African descent who are citizens or nationals of Trinidad and Tobago. ... The European peoples are the various nations and ethnic groups of Europe. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Actress Halle Berry was born to a white mother of British extraction and a black father of American extraction. ...


Officially Trinidadians or Tobagonians, the people from Trinidad and Tobago are often informally referred to as Trinbagonians or Trinis. Unlike most of the English-speaking Caribbean, Trinidad and Tobago is a primarily industrialised country whose economy is based on petroleum and petrochemicals. Trinidad and Tobago is famous for its pre-Lenten Carnival and as the birthplace of steelpan, calypso, Soca music, and limbo. Trini is common slang for a person born on the island of Trinidad, part of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago in the West Indies. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... Petrochemicals are chemical products made from raw materials of petroleum (hydrocarbon) origin. ... In Western Christianity, Lent is the period preceding the Christian holy day of Easter. ... Carnival in Trinidad and Tobago is the event of the year! It is often said that if the islanders are not celebrating it then they are preparing for it while reminiscing about the past years festival. ... Steelpan (also known as steeldrums or pans, and sometimes collectively with the musicians as a steelband) is a musical instrument and a form of music originating in Trinidad and Tobago. ... Calypso is a style of Afro-Caribbean music which originated in Trinidad at about the start of the 20th century. ... Limbo is a novelty dance that originated on the island of Trinidad. ...


The capital city Port-of-Spain, is currently a leading candidate (along with Miami) to serve as the headquarters of the Permanent Secretariat of the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA-ALCA). Port of Spain is the capital of Trinidad and Tobago and the countrys third largest municipality, after Chaguanas and San Fernando. ... This article is about the city in Florida. ... This article or section needs to be updated. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of Trinidad and Tobago

Both Trinidad and Tobago were originally settled by Amerindians of South American origin. Trinidad was first settled by pre-agricultural Archaic people at least 7,000 years ago,[2] making it the earliest-settled part of the Caribbean. Ceramic-using agriculturalists settled Trinidad around 250 BCE and then moved further up the Lesser Antillean chain. At the time of European contact Trinidad was occupied by various Arawakan-speaking groups including the Nepoya and Suppoya, and Cariban-speaking groups such as the Yao, while Tobago was occupied by the Island Caribs and Galibi. The Amerindian name for Trinidad was Kairi or Iere which is usually translated as The Land of the Hummingbird, although others have reported that it simply meant island. Christopher Columbus encountered the island of Trinidad on July 31, 1498 and named it after the Holy Trinity. Columbus reported seeing Tobago, which he named Bella Forma, but did not land on the island. The name Tobago is probably derived from tobacco, although the correct pronunciation is "tah-BAY-go". The history of Trinidad and Tobago begins with the settlements of the islands by Amerindians. ... Native Americans (also Indians, Aboriginal Peoples, American Indians, First Nations, Alaskan Natives, or Indigenous Peoples of America) are the indigenous inhabitants of The Americas prior to the European colonization, and their modern descendants. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Arawakan languages (also Arahuacan, Arawakanas, Arahuacano, Maipurean, Maipuran, Maipureano, Maipúrean) are a hypothetical indigenous language family of South America and the Caribbean. ... The Cariban languages are an indigenous language family of South America. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Galibi were a Cariban-speaking people who lived in the Lesser Antilles and northern South America at the time of European settlement. ... Kairi Age: 14 Sex: Female Kairi moved to Sora and Riku’s island a few years ago. ... Irere is the prononciation of the Arawak Amerindian word for what is now called Trindad, in the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. ... For other uses, see Hummingbird (disambiguation). ... Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator and colonialist who is one of the first Europeans to discover the Americas, after the Vikings. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1498 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the Christian Trinity. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ...


The Spanish established a presence in Trinidad, but due to a lack of settlers, eventually allowed any Roman Catholic European to settle on the island, leading to substantial immigration from France and elsewhere. Meanwhile, Tobago changed hands between British, French, Dutch and Courlanders from modern-day Latvia. Britain consolidated its hold on both islands during the Napoleonic Wars, and they were combined into the colony of Trinidad and Tobago in 1899. As a result of these colonial struggles, Amerindian, Spanish, French and English place names are all common in the country. African slaves and Chinese, Indian, and free African indentured labourers, as well as Portuguese from Madeira, arrived to supply labour in the nineteenth and early twentieth century. Emigration from Barbados and the other Lesser Antilles, Venezuela, Syria, and Lebanon also impacted on the ethnic make-up of the country. The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... The Duchy of Courland was the smallest nation to colonize the Americas with a short-lived colony in Tobago during the 1654–1659, and again 1660–1689. ... Combatants Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Sicily  Spain[3]  Sweden United Kingdom[4] French Empire Holland Italy Naples [5] Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[6] Saxony[7] Denmark-Norway [8] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich João Francisco de Saldanha Oliveira e Daun Gebhard von... This article is about a type of political territory. ... Map of Trinidad and Tobago List of cities towns and villages in Trinidad and Tobago: A Arima Arnos Vale Arouca Auzonville Avocat B Bacolet Balmain Bamboo Village Barataria Barrackpore Basterhall Beetham Gardens Belle Gardens Belmont Ben Lomond Biche Black Rock Blanchisseuse Boissiere Village Bon Accord Bon Aventure Bonasse Borde Narve... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... An indentured servant (also called a bonded laborer) is a labourer unde from the employer in exchange for an extension to the period of their indenture, which could thereby continue indefinitely. ...


Although originally a sugar colony, cacao (cocoa) dominated the economy in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. After the collapse of the cacao crop (due to disease and the Great Depression) petroleum increasingly came to dominate the economy. The Depression and the rise of the oil economy led to changes in the social structure. Species Ref: ITIS 42058 as of 2004-05-05 Sugarcane is one of six species of a tall tropical southeast Asian grass (Family Poaceae) having stout fibrous jointed stalks whose sap at one time was the primary source of sugar. ... For the town in French Guiana, see Cacao, French Guiana. ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ...


The presence of American military bases in Chaguaramas and Cumuto in Trinidad during World War II profoundly changed the character of the society. In the post-war period, the wave of decolonisation that swept the British Empire led to the formation of the West Indies Federation in 1958 as a vehicle for independence. Chaguaramas was the proposed site for the federal capital. The Federation dissolved after the withdrawal of Jamaica, and Trinidad and Tobago elected for independence in 1962. i love my mother The Destroyers for Bases Agreement between the United States and the United Kingdom, September 2, 1940, transferred fifty destroyers from the United States Navy in exchange for land rights on British possessions. ... Chaguaramas lies in the North West Peninsula of Trinidad west of Port-of-Spain; the name if often applied to the entire peninsula, but is sometimes used to refer to the most developed area. ... Cumuto is a town and district in Trinidad. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Decolonization generally refers to a movement following the Second World War in which the various European colonies of the world were granted independence. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Flag Motto To dwell together in unity Anthem God Save the Queen Capital Chaguaramas Language(s) English Government Constitutional monarchy Queen Elizabeth II Governor-General Lord Hailes Prime minister Grantley Herbert Adams¹ History  - Established January 3, 1958  - Disestablished May 31, 1962 Area  - 1960 20,253 km² Population  - 1960 est. ...


In 1976 the country severed its links with the British monarchy and became a republic within the Commonwealth, though it retained the British Privy Council as its final Court of Appeal. This article is about the monarchy of the United Kingdom, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1 April 2000) Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total...


In 1990, 114 members of the Jamaat al Muslimeen, led by Yasin Abu Bakr, formerly known as Lennox Phillip, stormed the Red House (the seat of Parliament), and Trinidad and Tobago Television, the only television station in the country at the time, and held the country's government hostage for six days before surrendering (see Jamaat al Muslimeen coup attempt). For other uses, see Jamaat al Muslimeen (disambiguation). ... Yasin Abu Bakr, born Lennox Philip is the leader of the Jamaat al Muslimeen a black Muslim group in Trinidad and Tobago. ... The red House is the seat of parliament in Trinidad and Tobago. ... The Parliament of Trinidad and Tobago is the legislative branch of the Government of Trinidad and Tobago. ... The Trinidad and Tobago Television Company, was a national television broadcaster in Trinidad and Tobago. ... On Friday July 27, 1990, 114 members of the Jamaat al Muslimeen, led by Yasin Abu Bakr and Bilaal Abdullah attempted to stage a coup détat against the government of Trinidad and Tobago. ...


Petroleum, petrochemicals and natural gas continue to be the backbone of the economy. Tourism is the mainstay of the economy of Tobago, and the island remains a favorite destination for many European tourists. Trinidad and Tobago is one of the most prosperous nations in the Caribbean, although less so than it was during the "oil boom" between 1973 and 1983. Recently, economic turmoil has caused an increase in violence and political instability. This article is about the fossil fuel. ...


Politics

Trinidad and Tobago is a liberal democracy with a two-party system and a bicameral parliamentary system based on the Westminster System. The Head of State of Trinidad and Tobago is the President, currently Professor Emeritus George Maxwell Richards. The Head of Government is the Prime Minister. The President is elected by an Electoral College consisting of the full membership of both houses of Parliament. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President. The President is required to appoint the leader of the party who in his opinion has the most support of the members of the House of Representatives to this post; this has generally been the leader of the party which won the most seats in the previous election (except in the case of the 2001 General Elections). Politics of Trinidad and Tobago takes place in a framework of a unitary state, with a parliamentary democracy modelled on that of the UK, from which it gained independence in 1962. ... Liberal democracy is a form of government. ... Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A two-party system is a form of party system where two major political parties dominate the voting in nearly all elections. ... Image:WashingtonDC Capitol USA2. ... The Houses of Parliament, also known as the Palace of Westminster, in London. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... The President of Trinidad and Tobago is the countrys head of state and commander in chief of the countrys armed forces. ... A professor is a senior teacher and researcher, usually in a college or university. ... George Maxwell Richards, T.C., CMT, Ph. ... The head of government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ... This page lists prime ministers of Trinidad and Tobago. ... An electoral college is a set of electors, who are empowered as a deliberative body to elect a candidate to a particular office. ... The Parliament of Trinidad and Tobago is the legislative branch of the Government of Trinidad and Tobago. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, trade unions, universities, and countries. ... Elections in Trinidad and Tobago gives information on election and election results in Trinidad and Tobago. ...


The Parliament consists of two chambers, the Senate (31 seats) and the House of Representatives (36 seats, will increase to 41 seats in the next general election scheduled for November 5, 2007 [2]). The members of the Senate are appointed by the president. Sixteen Government Senators are appointed on the advice of the Prime Minister, six Opposition Senators are appointed on the advice of the Leader of the Opposition and nine Independent Senators are appointed by the President to represent other sectors of civil society. The 36 members of the House of Representatives are elected by the people for a maximum term of five years. The Parliament of Trinidad and Tobago is the legislative branch of the Government of Trinidad and Tobago. ... The Senate is the appointed Upper House of the bicameral Parliament of Trinidad and Tobago. ... The House of Representatives is the elected Lower House of the bicameral Parliament of Trinidad and Tobago. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


Since December 24, 2001, the governing party has been the People's National Movement led by Patrick Manning; the Opposition party is the United National Congress led by Kamla Persad-Bissessar. Support for these parties appears to fall along ethnic lines with the PNM consistently obtaining a majority Afro-Trinbagonian vote, and the UNC gaining a majority of Indo-Trinbagonian support. is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... The Peoples National Movement is the ruling conservative political party in Trinidad and Tobago. ... For other persons named Patrick Manning, see Patrick Manning (disambiguation). ... Parliamentary Opposition is a form of political opposition to a designated government, particularly in a Westminster-based parliamentary system. ... The United National Congress (UNC) is one of the two major political organisations in the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. ... Kamla Persad-Bissessar, a Trinidad and Tobago politician and lawyer, was the first woman to serve as Attorney General of Trinidad and Tobago. ...


Trinidad and Tobago is a leading member of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and the CARICOM Single Market and Economy (CSME). It is also the Seat of the Caribbean Court of Justice (CCJ), which was inaugurated on 16th April 2005. The CCJ is intended to replace the British Privy Council as the final Appellate Court for the member states of the CARICOM. Since its inauguration, only two states, Barbados and Guyana, have acceded to the appellate jurisdiction of the CCJ. Map showing CARICOM members, associates and observers Seat of Secretariat Georgetown, Guyana Official languages English4 Membership  15 full members1  5 associate members2  7 observers3 Leaders  -  Secretary-General Edwin W. Carrington (since 1992)  -  CARICOM Heads of Government   Establishment  -  August 1, 1973  Website http://www. ... Flag of CARICOM and the CSME The CARICOM Single Market and Economy also known as the Caribbean Single Market and Economy or CSME is an integrated development strategy envisioned at the 10th Meeting of the Conference of Heads of Government of the Caribbean Community which took place in July 1989...


Geography

Map of Trinidad and Tobago

Trinidad and Tobago are southeasterly islands of the Antilles or West Indies, situated between 10° 2' and 11° 12' N latitude and 60° 30' and 61° 56' W longitude. At the closest point, Trinidad is just 11 kilometres (7 miles) off the Venezuelan coast. Covering an area of 5,128 square kilometres (1,979 sq mi), the country consists of the two main islands, Trinidad and Tobago, and 21 smaller islands – including Chacachacare, Monos, Huevos, Gaspar Grande (or Gasparee), Little Tobago, and St. Giles Island. Trinidad is 4,768 square kilometres (1,841 sq mi) in area (comprising 93.0% of the country's total area) with an average length of 80 kilometres (50 mi) and an average width of 59 kilometres (37 mi). Tobago has an area of about 300 square kilometres (115 sq mi), or 5.8% of the country's area, is 41 kilometres (25.5 mi) long and 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) at its greatest width. Map of Trinidad and Tobago showing main towns, highest point, and other pertinent information. ... Map of Trinidad and Tobago showing main towns, highest point, and other pertinent information. ... Map of Trinidad and Tobago Location: Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Venezuela Geographic coordinates: 11°00′ N 61°00′ W Map references: Central America and the Caribbean Area: total: 5,128 sq km land: 5,128 sq km water: 0 sq km... The Antilles (the same in French; Antillas in Spanish; Antillen in Dutch) refers to the islands forming the greater part of the West Indies in the Caribbean. ... “West Indian” redirects here. ... This article is about the geographical term. ... Longitude is the east-west geographic coordinate measurement most commonly utilized in cartography and global navigation. ... Look up Trinidad in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Castara village beach looking south, Tobago Tobago is the smaller of the two main islands that make up the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. ... Trinidad and Tobago is an archipelagic republic in the southern Caribbean which consists of 23 distinct islands. ... Chacachacare is an island in the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. ... Monos is an island in the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. ... Huevos (Spanish: Eggs) is an island in the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. ... Gaspar Grande or Gasparee is an island in the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. ... Little Tobago is a small island off the northeastern coast of Tobago, and part of the republic of Trinidad and Tobago. ... The St Giles Islands are a small chain of islands off the northeast tip of Tobago. ...

Hillside along Diego Martin
Hillside along Diego Martin

The terrain of the islands is a mixture of mountains and plains. The highest point in the country is found on the Northern Range at El Cerro del Aripo which is situated at 940 metres (3,085 ft) above sea level. The climate is tropical. There are two seasons annually: the dry season for the first six months of the year, and the wet season in the second half of the year. Winds are predominantlly from the northeast and are dominated by the northeast trade winds. Unlike most of the other Caribbean islands, both Trinidad and Tobago have frequently escaped the wrath of major devastating hurricanes including Hurricane Ivan, the most powerful storm to pass close to the islands in recent history in September 2004. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 397 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 1544 pixel, file size: 556 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Author: Anthony Mendenhall File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 397 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 1544 pixel, file size: 556 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Author: Anthony Mendenhall File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The Northern Range is the range of tall hills across the northern portion of Trinidad, the major island in the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. ... El Cerro del Aripo (940 m a. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A wet season or rainy season is a season in which the average rainfall in a region is significantly increased. ... Ordinal directions are the four compass directions: northeast, southeast, southwest, and northwest, located halfway between the cardinal directions. ... Image:Atmospheric circulatlion. ... Lowest pressure 910 mbar (hPa) Damage $19. ...


As the majority of the population live in Trinidad, this is the location of most major towns and cities. There are three major municipalities in Trinidad: Port of Spain, the capital, San Fernando, and Chaguanas. Of these three, Chaguanas is the fastest growing. The main town in Tobago is Scarborough. Port of Spain, population 49,000 (2000), is the capital of Trinidad and Tobago and the countrys second largest city by population, after San Fernando. ... The City of San Fernando is the larger of the two cities, and the second largest municipality in Trinidad and Tobago. ... The Borough of Chaguanas is the largest (67,433, 2000 census) and fastest-growing[1][2] town in Trinidad and Tobago. ... Scarborough, Tobago is the largest town on Tobago, one of the two islands of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago and contains more than half of the population of the island. ...


Trinidad is made up of a variety of soil types, the majority being fine sands and heavy clays. The alluvial valleys of the Northern Range and the soils of the East-West Corridor being the most fertile. The East-West Corridor is the peri-urban area of development in north Trinidad stretching from the capital, Port-of-Spain, east to Arima. ...


The Northern Range consists mainly of Upper Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks, mostly andesites and schists. The Northern Lowlands (East-West Corridor and Caroni Plains) consist of Pleistocene or younger soft sands and clays with superficial gravel terraces and river and swamp alluvia. South of this, the Central Range is a folded anticlinal uplift consisting of Cretaceous and Eocene rocks, with Miocene formations along the southern and eastern flanks. The Naparima Plains and the Nariva Swamp form the southern shoulder of this uplift. The Southern Lowlands consist of Miocene and Pliocene sands, clays, and gravels. These overlie oil and natural gas deposits, especially north of the Los Bajos Fault. The Southern Range forms the third anticlinal uplift. It consists of several chains of hills, most famous being the Trinity Hills. The rocks consist of sandstones, shales and siltstones and clays formed in the Miocene and uplifted in the Pleistocene. Oil sands and mud volcanoes are especially common in this area. The Jurassic Period is a major unit of the geologic timescale that extends from about 199. ... // The Cretaceous Period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... A sample of andesite (dark groundmass) with amygdaloidal vesicules filled with zeolite. ... Schist The schists form a group of medium-grade metamorphic rocks, chiefly notable for the preponderance of lamellar minerals such as micas, chlorite, talc, hornblende, graphite, and others. ... The East-West Corridor is the peri-urban area of development in north Trinidad stretching from the capital, Port-of-Spain, east to Arima. ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) on the geologic timescale is the period from 1,808,000 to 11,550 years BP. The Pleistocene epoch had been intended to cover the worlds recent period of repeated glaciations. ... The Central Range is a mountain range on the island of Trinidad. ... hfajhfiudshfas == == == --24. ... The Miocene Epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23. ... The Nariva Swamp is the largest freshwater wetland in Trinidad and Tobago and has been designated a Wetland of International Importance under the Ramsar Convention. ... The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts) is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... This article is about the fossil fuel. ... The Trinity Hills are a range of hills in southeastern Trinidad. ... Red sandstone interior of Lower Antelope Canyon, Arizona, worn smooth due to erosion by flash flooding over millions of years Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-size mineral or rock grains. ... Shale Shale is a fine-grained sedimentary rock whose original constituents were clays or muds. ... Siltstone Siltstone is a geological term for a sedimentary rock whose composition is intermediate in grain size between the coarser sandstone and the finer mudstone. ... Athabasca Oil Sands Tar sands, also referred to as oil sands, bituminous sands, or (in Venezuela) extra-heavy oil, are a mixture of sand or clay, water, and extremely heavy crude oil. ... A gaseous mud volcano The term mud volcano or mud dome is used to refer to formations created by geologically excreted liquids and gases, although there are several different processes which may cause such activity. ...


Although it is located just off-shore from South America, Trinidad and Tobago is not considered to be part of the South American continent by virtue of its geographical and historical heritage. See Bicontinental countries. South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... A bicontinental country is a country whose contiguous continental territory (or in case an island state - its different islands) lie in two different continents. ...


Economy

Trinidad's economy is strongly influenced by the petroleum industry. Tourism and manufacturing are also important to the local economy. Tourism is a growing sector, although not proportionately as important as in many other Caribbean islands. The economy benefits from low inflation and a trade surplus. Agricultural products include sugar cane, citrus, cocoa, and other products. Sugar cane was and continues to be a prominent crop of Trinidad. Trinidad and Tobago experienced a real growth rate of 3. ...


Trinidad and Tobago experienced a real growth rate of 3.2% in 2002. This made 9 straight years of real growth after 8 years of economic decline. The government of Prime Minister Patrick Manning has continued the sound macroeconomic policies of the previous regime, and is trying to further improve the investment climate. Long-term growth looks promising, as Trinidad and Tobago further develops its hydrocarbon, petrochemical, and metals sectors--with significant increases in exports--and continues its diversification efforts in services, tourism, manufacturing, and agriculture. Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... Invest redirects here. ... Oil refineries are key to obtaining hydrocarbons; crude oil is processed through several stages to form desirable hydrocarbons, used in fuel and other commercial products. ... Petrochemicals are chemical products made from raw materials of petroleum (hydrocarbon) origin. ... This article is about metallic materials. ... “Tourist” redirects here. ... Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, making by hand) is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale. ...


Trinidad and Tobago's strong growth rate over the past few years has led to trade surpluses over the past 4 years, even with high import levels due to industrial expansion and increased consumer demand. The debt service ratio was a moderate 4.7% in 2004, and fell to 2.5% in 2005[3]. In 2006, unemployment fell to 5% down from 6.7% in 2005[4]. It has been suggested that Commerce be merged into this article or section. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The petrochemical sector, including methanol, ammonia, urea, and liquefied natural gas (LNG), has continued to grow and has experienced a new burst of activity with the resumption of full-scale production of all existing facilities. Natural gas production continues to expand and should meet the needs of the many industrial plants coming on stream in the next 3 years. Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naptha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH. It is the simplest alcohol, and is a light, volatile, colourless, flammable, poisonous liquid with a distinctive odor that is somewhat milder and sweeter than ethanol (ethyl alcohol). ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... Urea is an organic compound with the chemical formula (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known as carbamide, especially in the recommended International Nonproprietary Names (rINN) in use in Europe. ... Liquefied natural gas or LNG is natural gas that has been processed to remove either valuable components e. ...


Trinidad and Tobago is the 5th largest exporter of liquefied natural gas in the world[5]. The expansion of Atlantic LNG over the next 4 years could create the largest-single sustained phase of economic growth in Trinidad and Tobago. It has become the leading exporter of LNG to the United States, and now supplies some 70% of U.S. LNG imports.


Trinidad and Tobago is experiencing a transition from an oil-based economy to a natural gas based economy. In 2006, natural gas production averaged 4 million standard cubit feet per day (mmscf/d), compared with 3.2 mmscf/d in 2005. In December 2005, the Atlantic LNG fourth production module or "train" for liquefied natural gas (LNG) began production. Train 4 has increased Atlantic LNG's overall output capacity by almost 50% and is among the largest LNG trains in the world at 5.2 million tons/year of LNG.


In 2002, methanol production reached 2,828.9 thousand tons, an increase of 1.4% from the previous year. Exports at 2,782.4 thousand tons were marginally lower than in the previous year[6]. Work continued on the two large scale methanol plants at the Point Lisas Industrial Estate during 2002. The first of these, the Atlas methanol facility, is slated to come on stream by the first quarter of 2004. The process design on the second plant, the M5000, was completed during the year. The M5000 is the largest methanol plant in the world at this time[7].


Reductions in subsidies to state enterprises have contributed to fiscal soundness and lent credibility to the government's ongoing divestment program. Companies all or partially divested since 1987 include the National Fisheries Company, BWIA West Indies Airways (now Caribbean Airlines), National Flour Mills (NFM), the Trinidad and Tobago Electricity Commission, TT Methanol Company, Trinidad Cement, the Iron and Steel Company of Trinidad and Tobago (ISCOTT), and the Water and Sewerage Authority (WASA). BWIA has now been dissolved by the government and replaced by a new carrier. In May 1997, the government sold its remaining 69% interest in the Trinidad and Tobago Methanol Company to a consortium consisting of the local firm CL Financial and Germany's Ferrostaal and Helm. NFM was divested by an additional 14% in 1997, bringing the government's holding down to 51%. The government is currently considering creating a holding company to bring its remaining shares in several formerly wholly government-owned enterprises to market. In finance and economics, divestment or divestiture is the reduction of some kind of asset, for either financial or social goals. ... Electric redirects here. ... In the most general sense of the word, cement is a binder, a substance which sets and hardens independently, and can bind other materials together. ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ...


Trinidad and Tobago's infrastructure is adequate by regional standards. The national airport has recently been expanded. There is an extensive network of paved roads, and utilities are fairly reliable in the cities. Some areas, however, especially rural districts, still suffer from water shortages, power failures, and inadequate drainage. Some companies presently constructing large industrial plants at the Point Lisas Industrial Estate in central Trinidad are concerned that water supply to their plants will not be adequate. The government is addressing this problem with the construction of a desalinization plant. Infrastructure improvement, especially rural roads and bridges, rural electrification and telephone service, and drainage and sewerage, are among the government's budget priorities, and are generously supported by the multilateral development agencies and the European Union. Drainage is the natural or artificial removal of surface and sub-surface water from a given area. ... Desalination refers to any of several processes that removes the excess salt and minerals from water in order to obtain fresh water suitable for animal consumption or for irrigation, sometimes producing table salt as a byproduct. ... This article is about the edifice (including an index to articles on specific bridge types). ... Electrification refers to changing a thing or system to operate using electricity. ... For other uses, see Telephone (disambiguation). ... Look up budget in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Telephone service is relatively modern and reliable, although higher priced than comparable U.S. service, since the government is contractually bound to the monopoly supplier TSTT (Telecommunication Services of Trinidad and Tobago Ltd., a joint venture between the State and Cable & Wireless (United Kingdom). Cellular service is widespread and has been the major area of growth for several years. Digicel and Laqtel were granted cellular licenses in 2005, breaking TSTT's monopoly. The Internet has come into widespread use, although service can be slow at peak times. The government has been slow to open up this market to competition as well.


Trinidad and Tobago does not import or export any electricity. Conferences are being held by the government to find alternative energy sources, with a heavy focus on renewable energy.


The government's economic strategy is based on fiscal and monetary discipline, private sector investment, and export-led growth.


Demographics

Of the country's 1.3 million inhabitants (as of 2005), most (96%) reside on the island of Trinidad with most of the remainder (4%) in Tobago. The ethnic composition of Trinidad and Tobago reflects a history of conquest and immigration. Two major ethnic groups - Indo-Trinidadians and Afro-Trinidadians - account for almost 80% of the population, while people of Mixed-race, Euro-Trinidadian/European, Chinese Trinidadian/Chinese and Arab-Trinidadian/Syrian-Lebanese descent make up most of the rest of the population. According to the 1990 census, Indo-Trinidadians make up 40.3% of the population, Afro-Trinidadians 39.5%, Mixed-race people 18.4%, Euro-Trinidadian 0.6% and Chinese, Syrians and others 1.2%. Euro-Trinidadians, especially those descendant of the former plantocracy, are often referred to as French Creoles, even if they are descended from Spanish, British, or German settlers. The mixed-race Cocoa Payols are descendant of the original Spanish settlers and later immigrants from Venezuela. Today, the Trinidadian Portuguese population includes both whites and mixed people. The small Amerindian population is largely mixed-race. The Carib population, which is descendant of the indigenous inhabitants, is primarily organised around the Santa Rosa Carib Community. Trinidad and Tobagos people are mainly of African or East Indian descent. ... Indo-Trinidadians are people of South Asian descent who are citizens or nationals of Trinidad and Tobago. ... Afro-Trinidadian refers to people of African descent who are citizens or nationals of Trinidad and Tobago. ... Actress Halle Berry was born to a white mother of British extraction and a black father of American extraction. ... The European peoples are the various nations and ethnic groups of Europe. ... Chinese Trinidadians or Sino-Trinidadian are Trinidadian(s) of Chinese ancestry who were born in or have immigrated to Trinidad & Tobago. ... Actress Halle Berry was born to a white mother of British extraction and a black father of American extraction. ... A plantocracy, also known as a slavocracy,[1] is a ruling class, political order or government comprised of (or dominated by) plantation owners. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Cocoa Payols are a Hispanic ethnic group in Trinidad and Tobago. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Santa Rosa Carib Community is the major organisation of indigenous people in Trinidad and Tobago. ...


Emigration from Trinidad and Tobago, as with other Caribbean nations, has historically been high; most emigrants go to the United States, Canada and Britain. Emigration has continued, albeit at a lower rate, even as the birth rate sharply dropped to levels typical of industrialised countries. Largely because of this phenomenon, as of 2007, Trinidad and Tobago has the second lowest population growth rate in the world (-0.87%). A memorial statue in Hanko, Finland, commemorating the thousands of emigrants who left the country to start a new life in the United States Emigration is the act and the phenomenon of leaving ones native country to settle in another country. ...


English is the country's only official language, but Bhojpuri, locally known as Hindi, is also spoken by a few Indo-Trinidadians and widely used in popular music such as chutney and chutney soca. The main spoken language is a dialect or variety of English. The major spoken language in Tobago is Tobagonian Creole English. Both languages contain elements from a number and variety of African languages; Trinidadian English, however, is also largely influenced by French and French Creole, Spanish (still spoken in the south of the island), and by Bhojpuri/Hindi. The creole languages and other vernaculars are normally spoken in informal situations, and there is no formalized system of writing (other than as in standard English). English-speaking visitors generally have no problem understanding the local dialect. Although Patois (a variety of French Creole) was once the most widely spoken language on the island (and also on the Venezuelan Paria coast), it is now rarely heard. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Categories: Indo-Aryan languages | Languages of India | Language stubs ... Hindi ( , Devanagari: or , IAST: , IPA: ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the two central official languages of India, the other being English. ... A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος, dialektos) is a variety of a language characteristic of a particular group of the languages speakers. ... Tobagonian Creole English is a dialect of Creole English which is the general spoken language in Tobago. ... A creole language, or simply a creole, is a stable language that originates seemingly as a new language, sometimes with features that are not inherited from any apparent source, without however qualifying in any appreciable way as a mixed language. ...


Due to Trinidad's location on the coast of South America, the country has been slowly redeveloping a connection with the Spanish-speaking peoples, but has been impeded by the fact that in 2004, only 1,500 inhabitants spoke Spanish. In 2004 the government initiated the Spanish as a First Foreign Language (SAFFL) initiative [3], with a public launch in March 2005. Government regulations now require Spanish to be taught to all beginning at the primary school level, while thirty percent of public employees are to be linguistically competent within five years. Venezuelans often come to Trinidad and Tobago to learn English, and many English schools have expanded to feature both English and Spanish. South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


Because of the country's colonial heritage, the names of towns in Trinidad are in roughly equal proportions of English (Chatham, Brighton, Green Hill, St. Mary's), French (Blanchisseuse, Sans Souci, Point-a-Pierre, Basse Terre), Spanish (Puerto Espana, San Fernando, Sangre Grande, Rio Claro, San Juan,) and Amerindian (Guayaguayare, Carapichaima, Mucurapo, Chaguaramas). In Tobago, English names predominate.


Religion

Many different religions are present in Trinidad and Tobago. The largest two are the Roman Catholics (26%) and Hindus (22%); the Anglicans (8%), Muslims (6%), Seventh-day Adventists (4%), Presbyterians, Jehovah's Witnesses and Methodists are among the smaller faiths. Two African syncretic faiths, the Shouter or Spiritual Baptists and the Orisha faith (formerly called Shangos, a less than complimentary term) are among the fastest growing religious groups, as are a host of evangelical and fundamentalist churches usually lumped as "Pentecostal" by most Trinidadians (although this designation is often inaccurate). Trinidad and Tobago is a multi-religious nation. ... “Catholic Church” redirects here. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... The Anglican Communion is a world-wide organisation of Anglican Churches. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Seventh-day Adventist (abbreviated Adventist[1]) Church is a Christian denomination which is distinguished by its observance of Saturday, the seventh day of the week, as the Sabbath. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... The United Methodist Church is the largest Methodist denomination, and the second-largest Protestant one, in the United States. ... World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... Syncretism is the attempt to reconcile disparate, even opposing, beliefs and to meld practices of various schools of thought. ... The Spiritual Baptist (or Shouter Baptist) faith is a Afro-Caribbean syncretic religion which combines elements of traditional West African religions with Christianity. ... No one across the vast world, truly knows from where the Spiritual/Shouter Baptists of Trinidad and Tobago originated from. ... This article is about a type of spirit. ... In Yorùbá mythology, Shango (Xango, Shango), or Changó in Latin America, is perhaps the most popular Orisha; he is a Sky Father, god of thunder and lightning. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The word evangelicalism often refers to... Fundamentalist Christianity is a fundamentalist movement, especially within American Protestantism. ... The Pentecostal movement within Protestant Christianity places special emphasis on the gifts of the Holy Spirit. ...


Human rights

The Cat o' nine tails is still used to flog prisoners. On 11 March, 2005 the Government of Trinidad & Tobago was ordered by the Inter-American Court of Human Rights to pay US$ 50,000 for "moral damages" to a prisoner who had received 15 strokes of the "Cat" plus expenses for his medical and psychological care (http://www.worldlii.org/int/cases/IACHR/2005/4.html). {{Caesar vs. Trinidad and Tobago - Series C No. 123 [2005] IACHR 4 (11 March 2005) }} It is unclear whether the Court's decisions were met. Prisoners sentenced to death for capital crimes used to be hanged, but recent attempts to execute persons sentenced to death have been blocked by the Privy Council, with sentences being commuted to life imprisonment. A leather cat o nine tails This article discusses an implement of punishment. ... The Inter-American Court of Human Rights is an autonomous judicial institution based in the city of San José, Costa Rica. ...


Homosexual acts are illegal in Trinidad and Tobago (see Gay rights in Trinidad and Tobago) and under Article 8 (18/1) of the Immigration Act, homosexuals are not allowed to enter the country. However, homosexuals have not been actively targeted under current law, but Trinidadian society is considerably less tolerant towards homosexuality than their European and American counterparts. Homosexuality is illegal in Trinidad and Tobago. ...


Culture

The Chaconia (Warszewiczia coccinea) flower is the national flower of Trinidad and Tobago.
The Chaconia (Warszewiczia coccinea) flower is the national flower of Trinidad and Tobago.

Trinidad and Tobago is famous for its pre-Lenten Carnival. It is also the birthplace of calypso music and the steelpan, which is widely claimed to be the only acoustic musical instrument invented during the 20th century. The diverse cultural and religious background allows for many festivities and ceremonies throughout the year. Other indigenous art forms include soca (a derivate of calypso), Parang (Venezuelan-influenced Christmas music), chutney, Rapso music, which was made famous by Cheryl Byron and pichakaree (musical forms which blend the music of the Caribbean and India) and the famous Limbo dance. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 261 KB) Warszewiczia coccinea, Double Chaconia cultivar. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 261 KB) Warszewiczia coccinea, Double Chaconia cultivar. ... The Culture of Trinidad and Tobago reflects the influence of African, Indian, French, Amerindian, Chinese, British, Spanish, Portuguese, Venezuelan, Caribbean, and American culture. ... It has been suggested that Cuaresma be merged into this article or section. ... Carnival in Trinidad and Tobago is the event of the year! It is often said that if the islanders are not celebrating it then they are preparing for it while reminiscing about the past years festival. ... Calypso is a style of Afro-Caribbean music which originated in Trinidad at about the start of the 20th century. ... Steelpan (also known as steeldrums or pans, and sometimes collectively with the musicians as a steelband) is a musical instrument and a form of music originating in Trinidad and Tobago. ... Soca, or soul calypso, is a dance music that originated in Trinidad from calypso. ... Parang is a musical style which fuses together Venezuelan and Calypso influences to create up beat tempos with a Spanish style and is popular in Trinidad & Tobago and various areas of Venezuela. ... Chutney music is a form of music indigenous to the southern Caribbean (primarily Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana and Suriname) which derives elements from soca and Indian filmi songs. ... Rapso is a form of Trinidadian music that grew out of the social unrest of the 1970s. ... It is proposed that this article be deleted, because of the following concern: fails WP:BIO If you can address this concern by improving, copyediting, sourcing, renaming or merging the page, please edit this page and do so. ... Pichakaree (or pichakaaree) is an Indo-Trinidadian musical form which originated in Trinidad and Tobago. ... Limbo is a novelty dance that originated on the island of Trinidad. ...


The artistic scene is vibrant. Trinidad and Tobago claims two Nobel Prize-winning authors, V. S. Naipaul and St. Lucian-born Derek Walcott. Mas' designer Peter Minshall is renowned not only for his Carnival costumes, but also for his role in opening ceremonies of the Barcelona Olympics, the 1994 Football World Cup, the 1996 Summer Olympics and the 2002 Winter Olympics, for which he won an Emmy Award. Hasely Crawford was the first Trinidadian to win the Olympic Gold Medal in the men's 100 m dash. Nobel Prize in Literature medal. ... Sir Vidiadhar Surajprasad Naipaul, T.C. (born August 17, 1932, in Chaguanas, Trinidad and Tobago), better known as V. S. Naipaul, is a Trinidadian-born British writer of Indo-Trinidadian ethnicity and Bhumihar Brahmin heritage from Gorakhpur in Eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. ... Motto The Land, The People, The Light Anthem Sons and Daughters of Saint Lucia Royal anthem God Save the Queen Capital (and largest city) Castries Government (constitutional monarchy)  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II  -  Governor-General Dame Pearlette Louisy  -  Prime Minister Sir John Compton Independence  -  22 February 1979  Area  -  Total 620 km... Derek Walcott, courtesy of the Nobel Foundation Derek Alton Walcott (born January 23, 1930) is a West-Indian poet, playwright, writer and visual artist who writes mainly in English. ... Peter Minshall is the foremost artist working in the field of dancing mobiles, a form of performance art that combines the three-dimensional quality of large-scale sculpture with the dramatic and choreographic expressiveness of a live human performer. ... The Games of the XXV Olympiad were held in 1992 in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. ... -1... The 1996 Summer h Olympics, formally known as the Games of the XXVI Olympiad and informally known as the Centennial Olympics, were held in 1996 in Atlanta, Georgia, United States. ... The 2002 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XIX Olympic Winter Games, were held in 2002 in Salt Lake City, Utah, United States. ... An Emmy Award. ...


Sport

Olympic Games: The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ...

Main article: Trinidad and Tobago at the Olympics

Hasely Crawford won the first and only Olympic gold medal for Trinidad and Tobago in the men's 100 m dash in the 1976 Summer Olympics. Nine different athletes from Trinidad and Tobago have won twelve medals at the Olympics, beginning with a silver medal in weightlifting, won by Rodney Wilkes in 1948 [4], and most recently, a bronze medal by George Bovell III [5] in 2004. Ato Boldon has won the most Olympic and World Championship medals for Trinidad and Tobago in athletics with 8 total - 4 from the Olympics and 4 from the World Championships. Boldon is also the only world champion Trinidad and Tobago has ever had in athletics competition. He won the 1997 200 m World Championship in Athens, Greece. Trinidad and Tobago first participated in the Summer Olympic Games in 1948, before they attained their independence from Great Britain. ... Hasely Joachim Crawford (born August 16, 1950) is an athlete from Trinidad and Tobago. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... Gold Medal is an album by American band The Donnas, released in 2004. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... The 1976 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXI Olympiad, were held in 1976 in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ... A silver medal is a medal awarded to the second place finisher of contests (typically athletics competitions) such as the Olympic Games, Commonwealth Games, etc. ... This article is about the sport of weightlifting. ... The Games of the XIV Olympiad were held in 1948 at Wembley Stadium in London, England. ... George Bovell III (born on July 18, 1983) is the ninth person ever to win an Olympic medal for Trinidad and Tobago. ... The ceremony for the lighting of the flame is arranged as a pagan pageant, with priestesses dancing. ... Ato Jabari Boldon (born December 30, 1973) is a retired athlete from Trinidad and Tobago, the 1997 200 m World Champion and four-time Olympic medal winner. ...


Football: The national football team qualified for the 2006 FIFA World Cup by beating Bahrain in Manama on 16 November 2005, making them the smallest country ever (in terms of population) to qualify. This was their first successful qualification and brought their ranking to 51st in the World. The team, coached by Dutchman Leo Beenhakker, drew their first group game - against Sweden in Dortmund - 0-0, but lost the second game to England on late goals, 0-2. Because Scotland did not qualify for the 2006 world cup, the Tartan Army supported Trinidad and Tobago and made their own song (primarily about player Jason Scotland) because they played England, Scotland's arch rival. They were eliminated after losing 2-0 to Paraguay in the last game of the Group Stage. Trinidad and Tobago was host to 2001 FIFA Under-17 World Championship. A player (wearing the red kit) has penetrated the defence (in the white kit) and is taking a shot at goal. ... First international Trinidad and Tobago 3 - 3 Dutch Guiana (Trinidad and Tobago; August 6, 1934) Biggest win Trinidad and Tobago 11 - 0 Aruba (Grenada; June 4, 1989) Biggest defeat Mexico 7 - 0 Trinidad and Tobago (Mexico City, Mexico; October 8, 2000) World Cup Appearances 1 (First in 2006) Best result... “2006 World Cup” redirects here. ... Bahrain from space, June 1996 Manama (Arabic: المنامة Al-Manāmah) is the capital city of Bahrain and is the countrys largest city with a population of approximately 155,000, roughly a quarter of countrys entire population. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Dutch (Ethnonym: Nederlanders meaning Lowlanders) are the dominant ethnic group[1] of the Netherlands[2]. They are usually seen as a Germanic people. ... Leo Beenhakker (born August 2, 1942 in Rotterdam) is an international Dutch football coach. ... First international Scotland 0–0 England  (Partick, Scotland; 30 November 1872) Biggest win Scotland 11–0 Ireland  (Glasgow, Scotland; 23 February 1901) Biggest defeat  Uruguay 7–0 Scotland (Basel, Switzerland; 19 June 1954) World Cup Appearances 8 (First in 1954) Best result Round 1, all European Championship Appearances 2 (First... The Tartan Army are travelling supporters of the Scottish national football team. ... Jason Kelvin Scotland (born February 18, 1979 in Morvant, Trinidad and Tobago) is a Trinidadian footballer who plays as a striker for Welsh club Swansea City. ...


Cricket: Trinidad and Tobago plays both one day international and Test cricket as a member of the West Indies team. The national team plays at the first-class level in regional competitions. Triple world record holder for the most runs scored in a Test and First class innings Brian Lara is from Trinidad and Tobago. Bowler Shaun Pollock bowls to batsman Michael Hussey. ... A One-day International (ODI) cricket match is a one-day cricket match played between two international teams each representing a particular country. ... For the womens version of the game, see Womens Test cricket. ... Learie Constantine, was one of the first great West Indian players. ... Trinidad & Tobago The Trinidad and Tobago cricket team is the representative cricket team of the country of Trinidad and Tobago. ... First-class cricket matches are those between international teams or the highest standard of domestic teams in which teams have two innings each. ... Brian Charles Lara (born May 2, 1969) (nicknamed, The Prince of Port-of-Spain or simply The Prince) was a record-breaking cricketer, the greatest batsman of his generation, and one of the greatest cricketers ever. ...


Horse Racing: Trinidad has Santa Rosa Park, a horse racing track. There is also goat racing and crab racing in Tobago. Horse-racing is an equestrian sporting activity which has been practiced over the centuries; the chariot races of Roman times were an early example, as was the contest of the steeds of the god Odin and the giant Hrungnir in Norse mythology. ...


Sailing: As Trinidad and Tobago is just south of the hurricane belt it is very popular with international cruising yachtsmen, especially from August to October. Consequently there have been a number of repair centres and other facilities developed, the majority of these are situated in Chaguaramas. This international community is also part of the tourism industry along with eco tours and carnival. For either of the songs named Sailing, see Sailing (song). ... Chaguaramas lies in the North West Peninsula of Trinidad west of Port-of-Spain; the name if often applied to the entire peninsula, but is sometimes used to refer to the most developed area. ...


Holidays

The following holidays are observed in Trinidad and Tobago.

Date English Name Remarks
January 1 New Year's Day
Variable Carnival Monday and Tuesday immediately preceding Ash Wednesday. Even though many businesses and schools close for Carnival Monday and Tuesday, they are not official public holidays.
Variable Eid-ul-Fitr End of Ramadan. It is the only public holiday in Trinidad and Tobago that recognizes Islam. It is the most important holiday on the Islamic calendar and the most widely and publicly celebrated Muslim holiday in the country.
Variable Easter Good Friday and Easter Monday
March 30 Spiritual Baptist/Shouter Liberation Day First country in the world to recognize the Spiritual Baptist faith with a national holiday
Variable Corpus Christi
May 30 Indian Arrival Day The first country in the world to recognise East-Indian Indentureship.
June 19 Labour Day Marks the labour uprising on 19th June 1937 which is generally recognised as the start of the modern trade union movement in Trinidad and Tobago.
August 1 Emancipation Day First country in the world to recognise emancipation from slavery.
August 31 Independence Day
September 24 Republic Day
Variable Divali The Hindu festival of lights and the only holiday given in recognition of the Hindu faith.
December 25 Christmas
December 26 Boxing Day

is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about January 1 in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article describes the festival season. ... In the Western Christian calendar, Ash Wednesday is the first day of Lent. ... The Islamic holiday of Eid ul-Fitr (Arabic: عيد الفطر) marks the end of Ramadan. ... This article is about Islamic religious observances in the month of Ramadan. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwÄ«m al-hijrÄ«; Persian: تقویم هجري قمری ‎ taqwÄ«m-e hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... This article is about the Christian festival. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Spiritual Baptist/Shouter Liberation Day is an annual public holiday celebrated in the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, on March 30. ... Corpus Christi Procession in Germany This article is about the Catholic feast of Corpus Christi. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Indian Arrival Day is a holiday celebrated on May 30 in Trinidad and Tobago. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Labour Day Parade in Toronto in the early 1900s A Labour Day is an annual holiday celebrated all over the world that resulted from efforts of the labour union movement, to celebrate the economic and social achievements of workers. ... A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Emancipation Day is celebrated in various locations in observation generally of the emancipation of slaves. ... Slave redirects here. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Independence Day (disambiguation). ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Republic Day is the name of a public holiday in several countries to commemorate the day when they first became republics. ... This article is about the Religious festival. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Boxing Day is a public holiday observed in many Commonwealth countries on 26 December. ...

See also

Topics in Trinidad and Tobago
History Igneri | Spanish missions in Trinidad | Black Power Revolution | Jamaat al Muslimeen coup attempt
Politics President | Prime Minister | Parliament (Senate | House of Representatives) | Elections | Political parties | Foreign relations | Military
Geography Regional Corporations and Municipalities | Towns and cities| Islands | Tobago | Trinidad | Rivers
Economy Trinidad and Tobago dollar
Society Demographics | Religion | Education
Culture Literature | Cuisine | Music
Ecology Dry forests | Birds | Snakes
Other Flag | Transportation | Communications | People | Scout Association | Media

This is a list of topics related to Trinidad and Tobago. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Trinidad_and_Tobago. ... The history of Trinidad and Tobago begins with the settlements of the islands by Amerindians. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Spanish Missions were established in the New World as part of the Spanish Colonisation of its new possessions. ... The Black Power Revolution also known as the 1970 Revolution was an attempt by a number of revolutionary elements, led by Black Power activists, Trade Unionists and Marxists to overthrow the government of Trinidad and Tobago in 1970. ... On Friday July 27, 1990, 114 members of the Jamaat al Muslimeen, led by Yasin Abu Bakr and Bilaal Abdullah attempted to stage a coup détat against the government of Trinidad and Tobago. ... Politics of Trinidad and Tobago takes place in a framework of a unitary state, with a parliamentary democracy modelled on that of the UK, from which it gained independence in 1962. ... The President of Trinidad and Tobago is the countrys head of state and commander in chief of the countrys armed forces. ... This page lists prime ministers of Trinidad and Tobago. ... The Parliament of Trinidad and Tobago is the legislative branch of the Government of Trinidad and Tobago. ... The Senate is the appointed Upper House of the bicameral Parliament of Trinidad and Tobago. ... The House of Representatives is the elected Lower House of the bicameral Parliament of Trinidad and Tobago. ... Elections in Trinidad and Tobago gives information on election and election results in Trinidad and Tobago. ... Political parties in Trinidad and Tobago lists political parties in Trinidad and Tobago. ... Modern Trinidad and Tobago maintains close relations with its Caribbean neighbors and major North American and European trading partners. ... Local Government in Trinidad and Tobago is handled through 5 municipalities, 9 Regional Corporations and the Tobago House of Assembly. ... Map of Trinidad and Tobago List of cities towns and villages in Trinidad and Tobago: A B C D DAbadie(Name origin: French) Debe Delaford Dibe Diego Martin Dinsley E East-West Corridor Ecclesville(Name origin: English) Eckel Village(Name origin: English) Edinburgh(Name origin: Irish-English) El Dorado... Castara village beach looking south, Tobago Tobago is the smaller of the two main islands that make up the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. ... Look up Trinidad in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A list of the major rivers in Trinidad and Tobago Arima River Aripo River Arouca River Black River Caparo River Cano Venturo River Caroni River Cascade River Caura River Chaguaramas River Cipero River Couva River Cuesa River Diego Martin River Guanapo River Guaracara River Honda River La Horquette River Madame... The dollar (ISO 4217 code: TTD; also TT$) is the currency of Trinidad and Tobago. ... Trinidad and Tobagos people are mainly of African or East Indian descent. ... The Culture of Trinidad and Tobago reflects the influence of African, Indian, French, Amerindian, Chinese, British, Spanish, Portuguese, Venezuelan, Caribbean, and American culture. ... The literature of Trinidad and Tobago has its roots in oral story telling among African slaves, the European literary roots of the French creoles and in the religious and folk tales of the Indian indentured immigrants. ... The Cuisine of Trinidad and Tobago is indicative of the blends of Indian, Amerindian, European, African, Creole, Chinese and Lebanese gastronomic influences. ... The Caribbean state of Trinidad and Tobago is best known as the homeland of calypso music, including 1950s stars Lord Kitchener and Mighty Sparrow. ... Trinidad and Tobago has some of the richest natural communities in the Caribbean. ... Trinidad and Tobago dry forests are tropical dry forests located primarily in western and southern parts of the island of Trinidad, in southern parts of the island of Tobago and on smaller offshore islands including Chacachacare, Monos, Huevos, Gaspar Grande, Little Tobago and St. ... 468 species of birds have been recorded on the islands of Trinidad and Tobago. ... This is a list of snakes which have been recorded in Trinidad and Tobago. ... Flag ratio: 2:3 The flag of Trinidad and Tobago was adopted in 1962. ... Telephones - main lines in use: 209,000 (1995) Telephones - mobile cellular: 5,615 (1995) Telephone system: plausible international service; plausible local service domestic: NA international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Barbados and Guyana Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 10, shortwave 0 (1998) Radios: 680... The Scout Association of Trinidad and Tobago is the national Scouting organization of Trinidad and Tobago. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Archipelagic Waters and Exclusive Economic Zone Act No 24 of 1986
  2. ^ a b Banwari Trace in Trinidad - the Oldest Site in the West Indies!, from the Archaeology Centre, University of the West Indies, Trinidad and Tobago
  3. ^ Trinidad and Tobago US Dept. of State Retrieved August 6, 2007.
  4. ^ Trinidad and Tobago US Dept. of State Retrieved August 6, 2007.
  5. ^ Trinidad and Tobago US Dept. of State Retrieved August 6, 2007.
  6. ^ Annual Economic Survey Annual Economic Survey Annual Economic Survey Central Bank of Trinidad and Tobago Retrieved August 6, 2007.
  7. ^ [ methanol plant in the world at this time. M5000 methanol plant] Southern Chemical corporation Retrieved August 6, 2007.

The University of the West Indies, also known as UWI, is an autonomous regional institution supported by and serving 16 countries and territories in the Caribbean - Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, the British Virgin Islands, the Cayman Islands, Dominica, Grenada, Jamaica, Montserrat, St. ...

References

External links

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see also: Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ...

Geographic locale
International membership

Headquarters Washington, D.C. Official languages English, French, Spanish, Portuguese Membership 35 countries Leaders  -  Secretary General José Miguel Insulza (since 26 May 2005) Establishment  -  Charter first signed 30 April 1948 in effect 1 December 1951  Website http://www. ... Motto The Land, The People, The Light Anthem Sons and Daughters of Saint Lucia Royal anthem God Save the Queen Capital (and largest city) Castries Government (constitutional monarchy)  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II  -  Governor-General Dame Pearlette Louisy  -  Prime Minister Sir John Compton Independence  -  22 February 1979  Area  -  Total 620 km... Motto: Pax et justitia (Latin: Peace and justice) Anthem: St Vincent Land So Beautiful Capital (and largest city) Kingstown Official languages English Government Parliamentary democracy Commonwealth Realm  - Monarch Queen Elizabeth II  - Governor-General Sir Frederick Ballantyne  - Prime Minister Ralph Gonsalves Independence From the United Kingdom   - Date 27 October 1979  Area... Motto Country Above Self Anthem O Land of Beauty! Royal anthem God Save the Queen Capital (and largest city) Basseterre Official languages English Government  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II  -  Governor-General Sir Cuthbert Sebastian  -  Prime Minister Dr. Denzil Douglas Independence  -  19 September 1983  Area  -  Total 261 km² (207th) 101 sq mi... Download high resolution version (656x651, 77 KB)Image downloaded from the Organization of American States Photo Gallery, which states: All Photos for free distribution Photographs of official events are available through OAS website and can be used, free of charge, as long as the source is acknowledged. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Trinidad and Tobago - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2968 words)
Trinidad and Tobago is famous for its pre-Lenten Carnival and as the birthplace of steelpan, calypso and limbo.
Trinidad and Tobago is one of the most prosperous nations in the Caribbean, although less so than it was during the "oil boom" between 1973 and 1983.
Twelve athletes from Trinidad and Tobago have won medals at the Olympics, beginning with a silver medal in weightlifting, won by Rodney Wilkes in 1948 [3], and most recently a bronze medal with by George Bovell III [4].
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Trinidad and Tobago - Trinidad and Tobago, officially Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, republic (2005 est.
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