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Encyclopedia > Trigeminal nerve
Nerve: Trigeminal nerve
Sensory areas of the head, showing the general distribution of the three divisions of the fifth nerve.
Distribution of the maxillary and mandibular nerves, and the submaxillary ganglion.
Latin n. trigeminus
Gray's subject #200 886
Innervates
From
To ophthalmic nerve
maxillary nerve
mandibular nerve
MeSH A08.800.800.120.760
Dorlands/Elsevier {{{DorlandsPre}}}/{{{DorlandsSuf}}}

The trigeminal nerve is the fifth (V) cranial nerve, and carries sensory information from most of the face, as well as motor supply to the muscles of mastication (the muscles enabling chewing), tensor tympani (in the middle ear), and other muscles in the floor of the mouth, such as the mylohyoid and anterior digastric muscle. Image File history File links Gray784. ... Image File history File links Gray778. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... The Ophthalmic nerve is one of the three branches of the trigeminal nerve, one of the cranial nerves. ... The Maxillary nerve is one of the three branches of the trigeminal nerve, one of the cranial nerves. ... The mandibular nerve is the third branch (V3) of the trigeminal nerve. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Elseviers logo Elsevier, the worlds largest publisher of medical and scientific literature, forms part of the Reed Elsevier group. ... Cranial nerves are nerves which start directly from the brainstem instead of the spinal cord. ... Mastication is a name for the process of breaking up of food and mixing it with saliva. ... The tensor tympani muscle arises from the auditory tube and inserts onto the handle of the malleus, damping down vibration in the ossicles and so reducing the amplitude of sounds. ... Mylohyoid can refer to: Mylohyoid muscle Mylohyoid line This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... The digastric muscle (named digastric as it has two bellies) is a small muscle located under the jaw. ...

Contents


Branches

It is named trigeminal because it divides into three branches:

The ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular branches leave through various foramina (holes) in the skull: the superior orbital fissure, foramen rotundum and foramen ovale, respectively. The mnemonic device standing room only can help one remember that the V1 segment branch passes through the superior orbital fissure, V2 passes through the foramen rotundum, and V3 passes through the foramen ovale. The Ophthalmic nerve is one of the three branches of the trigeminal nerve, one of the cranial nerves. ... The Maxillary nerve is one of the three branches of the trigeminal nerve, one of the cranial nerves. ... The mandibular nerve is the third branch (V3) of the trigeminal nerve. ... In anatomy, a foramen is any opening. ... The superior orbital fissure is a foramen in the skull, although strictly it is more of a cleft, lying between the lesser and greater wings of the sphenoid bone. ... At th anterior and medial part of the Sphenoid is a circular aperture, the foramen rotundum, for the transmission of the maxillary nerve. ... At the base of the skull the foramen ovale is a hole that transmits the mandibular nerve, the otic ganglion, the accessory meningeal artery, emissary veins (from the cavernous sinus to the pterygoid plexus) and the lesser superficial petrosal nerve. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Innvervation

Sensory

The trigeminal nerve is the major cutaneous sensory nerve of the head, and is responsible for sensation over most of the skin on the head.


Motor

While all three trigeminal branches carry sensory information, only the mandibular branch carries motor input. The mandibular nerve supplies motor fibres to the temporalinbhjhjhjghgncs, lateral pterygoid, medial pterygoid, masseter (the four main muscles involved in mastication), tensor veli palatini, mylohyoid, the anterior belly of the digastric muscle, and the tensor tympani. The temporalis muscle is one of the muscles of mastication. ... The lateral pterygoid is a muscle of mastication with two heads. ... The medial pterygoid is a muscle of mastication with two heads. ... In human anatomy, the masseter is one of the muscles of mastication. ... Mastication or chewing is the process by which food is torn and/or crushed by teeth. ... The Tensor veli palatini muscle (or Tensor palati) is a muscle of the human body. ... The Mylohyoid muscle, flat and triangular, is situated immediately above the anterior belly of the Digastricus, and forms, with its fellow of the opposite side, a muscular floor for the cavity of the mouth. ... The digastric muscle (named digastric as it has two bellies) is a small muscle located under the jaw. ... The tensor tympani muscle arises from the auditory tube and inserts onto the handle of the malleus, damping down vibration in the ossicles and so reducing the amplitude of sounds. ...


Proprioceptive

The trigeminal nerve caries proprioceptive fibers from the tissues it innervates as well as from the muscles supplied by the facial nerve. Proprioception (from Latin proprius, meaning ones own) is the sense of the position of parts of the body, relative to other neighbouring parts of the body. ... The facial nerve is seventh of twelve paired cranial nerves. ...


Testing the trigeminal nerve

As the trigeminal nerve contains both sensory and motor fibers, and also branches into different regions, these should be tested separately and on both sides of the face.


To test the sensation, the skin is touched lightly (for instance with cotton wool), and also tested for pain (such as the sharpness of a pin prick). This is done on the three regions: forehead, cheeks and chin, as well as around the nose and mouth. Strictly, Cotton wool is the silky fibers from cotton plants in their raw state. ... Pain is an unpleasant sensation which may be associated with actual or potential tissue damage and which may have physical and emotional components. ... In human anatomy, the forehead or brow is the bony vertical part of the head above the eyes. ... Look up Cheek in Wiktionary, the free dictionary The Cheeks are the fleshy area of the face below the eyes and between the nose and the left or right ear, the skin being suspended by the chin and the yaws. ... Chin may refer to: In the human anatomy, the chin is the lowermost part of the face. ... Human nose in profile You may be looking for Nose, a town in Japan, or The Nose, a story by Nikolai Gogol and an opera by Dmitri Shostakovich. ... Sagittal section of nose mouth, pharynx, and larynx. ...


The corneal reflex is dependent on the trigeminal nerve sensing touching the eye (as well as the facial nerve for the motor response). This can be done with a wisp of cotton wool, and approaching from the side (so the person being investigated doesn't blink at the sight approaching). The corneal reflex elicits a blink with both eyes, and feels very uncomfortable for the patient. Corneal reflex This is an automated involuntary blinking of the eyelids (See : Reflex) elicited by stimulation (such as touching or a foreign body) of the eyeballs cornea. ... The facial nerve is seventh of twelve paired cranial nerves. ...


To test whether the motor pathways are functional, the temporalis and masseter muscles may be felt. The temporalis can be felt contracting at the temples (just lateral to the eyes) when a person is chewing (or clenching and unclenching his/her teeth). The masseter can be felt just above the angle of the jaw in the same movement.


The strength of the jaw muscles can be tested by holding a person's jaw closed and telling the person to open it (which tests the pterygoids) and opening the jaw and getting the person to close it (which tests the masseters). The jaw muscles are normally quite strong, and should have little difficulty overcoming pressure from a hand.


If there is unilateral damage to the motor root of the trigeminal nerve, the jaw will tend to deviate towards the paralysed side.


The jaw jerk reflex will be very brisk if there is any upper motor neuron damage above the pons. The jaw jerk reflex is a motor relfex used to test the status of a patients trigeminal nerve (CN V). ... Upper motor neurons, or Betz cells, are motoneurons located in the primary motor cortex. ... Position of the pons in the human brain The pons (sometimes pons Varolii after Costanzo Varolio) is a knob on the brain stem. ...


Conditions involving the trigeminal nerve

Trigeminal neuralgia, or Tic Douloureux, is a neuropathic disorder of the trigeminal nerve that causes episodes of intense pain in the eyes, lips, nose, scalp, forehead, and jaw. ... Cluster headaches are rare headaches that occur in groups or clusters. ... Herpes zoster, colloquially known as shingles, is the reactivation of varicella zoster virus, leading to a crop of painful blisters over the area of a dermatome. ... The Ophthalmic nerve is one of the three branches of the trigeminal nerve, one of the cranial nerves. ... The varicella-zoster virus (VZV), also known as human herpesvirus 3 (HHV-3), is one of the eight herpesviruses known to affect humans (and other vertebrates). ...

See also

The sensory trigeminal nerve nucleus is the largest of the cranial nerve nuclei, and extends through the whole of the brainstem, midbrain to medulla. ...

External links

Major nerves (also see Peripheral nervous system)

Cranial nerves: I olfactory | II optic | III oculomotor | IV trochlear | V trigeminal | V1 ophthalmic (lacrimal, frontal, supratrochlear, supraorbital, nasociliary, ciliary ganglion) | V2 maxillary (sphenopalatine ganglion) | V3 mandibular (buccal - auriculotemporal - lingual - inferior alveolar - otic ganglion) | VI abducens | VII facial (chorda tympani, nervus intermedius) | VIII vestibulocochlear (cochlear, vestibular) | IX glossopharyngeal | X vagus (recurrent laryngeal, Alderman's nerve) | XI accessory | XII hypoglossal NeuroNames is a system of nomenclature for the brain and related structures. ... Nerves (yellow) Nerves redirects here. ... The peripheral nervous system or PNS, is part of the nervous system, and consists of the nerves and neurons that reside or extend outside the central nervous system--to serve the limbs and organs, for example. ... Cranial nerves are nerves that emerge from the brainstem instead of the spinal cord. ... The olfactory nerve is the first of twelve cranial nerves. ... The optic nerve is the nerve that transmits visual information from the retina to the brain. ... The oculomotor nerve () is the third of twelve paired cranial nerves. ... The fourth of twelve cranial nerves, the trochlear nerve controls the function of the superior oblique muscle, which rotates the eye towards the nose and also moves the eye downward. ... The Ophthalmic nerve is one of the three branches of the trigeminal nerve, one of the cranial nerves. ... The Lacrimal Nerve is the smallest of the three branches of the ophthalmic. ... The Frontal Nerve is the largest branch of the ophthalmic, and may be regarded, both from its size and direction, as the continuation of the nerve. ... The supratrochlear nerve, smaller than the Supraorbital nerve, passes above the pulley of the Obliquus superior, and gives off a descending filament, to join the infratrochlear branch of the nasociliary nerve. ... The supraorbital nerve arises from the orbit by the supraorbital foramen and supplies the upper eyelid and forehead integuments. ... The Ophthalmic nerve is one of the three branches of the trigeminal nerve, one of the cranial nerves. ... The ciliary ganglion is small parasympathetic ganglion lying in the orbit between the optic nerve and the lateral rectus muscle that is associated with the nasociliary nerve (a branch of the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve). ... The Maxillary nerve is one of the three branches of the trigeminal nerve, one of the cranial nerves. ... The sphenopalatine ganglion is a parasympathetic ganglion found in the spheno-maxillary fossa. ... The mandibular nerve is the third branch (V3) of the trigeminal nerve. ... A branch of the mandibular nerve (which is itself a branch of the trigeminal nerve), the buccal nerve transmits sensory information from skin over the buccal membrane (in general, the cheek) and from the second and third molar teeth. ... The auriculotemporal nerve is a branch of the mandibular nerve (Viii) and supplies motor fibres to the temporomandibular joint and parasympathetic fibres to the parotid glands. ... The Lingual Nerve supplies the mucous membrane of the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. ... The inferior alveolar nerve is a branch of the mandibular nerve, which is itself the third branch (V3) of the fifth cranial nerve, the trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V). ... The Otic Ganglion is a parasympathetic ganglion located immediately below the foramen ovale. ... The sixth out of twelve cranial nerves, the abducens nerve controls the lateral rectus muscle - this means that the action of this nerve controls each eyes ability to look laterally (away from the midline). ... The facial nerve is seventh of twelve paired cranial nerves. ... The chorda tympani are nerves of special sensation given off the facial nerve (VII) inside the skull. ... The nervus intermedius, or intermediate nerve, is the part of the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII) located between the motor component of the facial nerve and the vestibulocochlear nerve (cranial nerve VIII). ... The vestibulocochlear nerve is the eighth of twelve cranial nerves and also known as the auditory nerve. ... The Cochlear nerve (n. ... The Vestibular nerve is one of the two branches of the Vestibulocochlear nerve (the cochlear nerve is the other. ... The glossopharyngeal nerve is the ninth of twelve cranial nerves. ... The vagus nerve is tenth of twelve paired cranial nerves and is the only nerve that starts in the brainstem (somewhere in the medulla oblongata) and extends all the way down past the head, right down to the abdomen. ... The recurrent laryngeal nerve is a branch of the vagus nerve (the tenth cranial nerve) which supplies motor function and sensation to the larynx (voice box). ... The Auricular branch of the tenth cranial or vagus nerve is often termed the Aldermans nerve. ... The accessory nerve is the eleventh of twelve cranial nerves. ... The hypoglossal nerve is the twelfth cranial nerve. ...


Posterior spinal nerves: greater occipital The term spinal nerve generally refers to the mixed spinal nerve, which is formed from the dorsal and ventral roots that come out of the spinal cord. ... The greater occipital nerve is a spinal nerve arising between the first and second cervical vertebrae, along with the lesser occipital nerve. ...


C1-C4 - Cervical plexus: lesser occipital | greater auricular | lesser auricular | phrenic | ansa cervicalis The cervical plexus is a plexus of the ventral roots of the first four cervical spinal nerves which are located from C1 to C4 cervical segment near the neck. ... The lesser occipital nerve is a spinal nerve arising between the first and second cervical vertebrae, along with the greater occipital nerve. ... The greater auricular nerve originates from the cervical plexus, composed of branches of spinal nerves C2 and C3. ... The lesser auricular nerve originates from the cervical plexus, composed of branches of spinal nerves C2 and C3. ... The phrenic nerve arises from the third, fourth, and fifth cervical spinal nerves (C3-C5). ... The ansa cervicalis (or ansa hypoglossi in older literature) is a loop of nerves that are part of the cervical plexus. ...


C5-C8, T1 - Brachial plexus: supraclavicular branches (dorsal scapular, suprascapular, long thoracic) | lateral cord (musculocutaneous, lateral antibrachial cutaneous, lateral head of median nerve) | medial cord (ulnar, medial head of median nerve, medial antibrachial cutaneous, medial brachial cutaneous) | posterior cord (axillary, radial) The brachial plexus is an arrangement of nerve fibres (a plexus) running from the spine (vertebrae C5-T1), through the neck, the axilla (armpit region), and into the arm. ... The dorsal scapular nerve arises from the brachial plexus, specifically from spinal nerves C4 and C5. ... The Nervus suprascapularis (Suprascapular nerve) is a nerve of the plexus brachialis. ... The long thoracic nerve supplies motor innervation to the serratus anterior muscle. ... The Lateral cord is a division of the brachial plexus. ... The major end branch of the lateral cord, courses inferiorly within the anterior arm, supplying motor fibers to the arm muscles that flex the forearm (the biceps brachii and brachialis). ... The lateral antibrachial cutaneous nerve (branch of musculocutaneous nerve, also sometimes spelled antebrachial) passes behind the cephalic vein, and divides, opposite the elbow-joint, into a volar and a dorsal branch. ... Diagram from Grays anatomy, depicting the peripheral nerves of the upper extremity, amongst others the median nerve The median nerve is a nerve that runs down the arm and forearm. ... The Medial cord is a division of the brachial plexus. ... Grays Fig. ... Diagram from Grays anatomy, depicting the peripheral nerves of the upper extremity, amongst others the median nerve The median nerve is a nerve that runs down the arm and forearm. ... The Medial Antibrachial Cutaneous Nerve (internal cutaneous nerve, also sometimes spelled antebrachial) arises from the medial cord of the brachial plexus. ... The Medial Brachial Cutaneous Nerve (lesser internal cutaneous nerve; nerve of Wrisberg) is distributed to the skin on the ulnar side of the arm. ... The Posterior cord is a division of the brachial plexus. ... The axillary nerve is a nerve of the human body, that comes off the posterior cord of the brachial plexus at the level of the axilla (armpit) and carriers nerve fibers from C5 and C6. ... The radial nerve is a nerve in the human body, that supplies the arm, the forearm and the hand. ...


T2-T11: intercostal The thoracic spinal nerves T3 through T12. ...


T12, L1-L5 - Lumbar plexus: iliohypogastric | ilioinguinal | genitofemoral | lateral femoral cutaneous | femoral | obturator Grays Fig. ... The Iliohypogastric Nerve arises from the first lumbar nerve. ... The Ilioinguinal Nerve, smaller than the Iliohypogastric nerve, arises with it from the first lumbar nerve. ... In human anatomy, the genitofemoral nerve originates from the upper part of the lumbar plexus of spinal nerves. ... The Lateral Femoral Cutaneous Nerve (external cutaneous nerve) arises from the dorsal divisions of the second and third lumbar nerves. ... The Femoral Nerve supplies innervation the anterior portion of the leg. ... The Obturator Nerve arises from the ventral divisions of the second, third, and fourth lumbar nerves; the branch from the third is the largest, while that from the second is often very small. ...


S1-S4 - Sacral plexus: gluteal | posterior femoral cutaneous | tibial | sciatic | sural | common peroneal In human anatomy, the Sacral plexus refers to the nerve plexus emerging from the sacral vertebrae (S1-S4), and which provides nerves for the pelvis and lower limbs. ... The Superior Gluteal Nerve () arises from the dorsal divisions of the fourth and fifth lumbar and first sacral nerves: it leaves the pelvis through the greater sciatic foramen above the Piriformis, accompanied by the superior gluteal vessels, and divides into a superior and an inferior branch. ... The Posterior Femoral Cutaneous Nerve (small sciatic nerve) is distributed to the skin of the perineum and posterior surface of the thigh and leg. ... The Tibial Nerve The tibial nerve passes through the popliteal fossa to pass below the arch of soleus. ... The sciatic nerve is a large nerve that runs down the lower limb. ... The sural nerve (short saphenous nerve), formed by the junction of the medial sural cutaneous with the peroneal anastomotic branch, passes downward near the lateral margin of the tendo calcaneus, lying close to the small saphenous vein, to the interval between the lateral malleolus and the calcaneus. ... The Common peroneal nerve is a branch of the Sciatic nerve. ...


S2-S5 - Pudendal plexus: perforating cutaneous | pudendal | visceral | muscular | anococcygeal The pudendal plexus is not sharply marked off from the sacral plexus, and as a consequence some of the branches which spring from it may arise in conjunction with those of the sacral plexus. ... The Perforating Cutaneous Nerve usually arises from the posterior surface of the second and third sacral nerves. ... The pudendal nerve is responsible for orgasm, urination, and defecation in both sexes. ... The Visceral Branches arise from the third and fourth, and sometimes from the second, sacral nerves, and are distributed to the bladder and rectum and, in the female, to the vagina; they communicate with the pelvic plexuses of the sympathetic. ... The Muscular Branches are derived from the fourth sacral, and supply the Levator ani, Coccygeus, and Sphincter ani externus. ... Anococcygeal Nerves: The fifth sacral nerve receives a communicating filament from the fourth, and unites with the coccygeal nerve to form the coccygeal plexus. ...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Trigeminal nerve - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (688 words)
The trigeminal nerve is the fifth (V) cranial nerve, and carries sensory information from most of the face, as well as motor supply to the muscles of mastication (the muscles enabling chewing), tensor tympani (in the middle ear), and other muscles in the floor of the mouth, such as the mylohyoid and anterior digastric muscle.
The mandibular nerve supplies motor fibres to the temporalinbhjhjhjghgncs, lateral pterygoid, medial pterygoid, masseter (the four main muscles involved in mastication), tensor veli palatini, mylohyoid, the anterior belly of the digastric muscle, and the tensor tympani.
Trigeminal neuralgia is an example of a disorder of the trigeminal nerve where the sufferer experiences pain in the territory of the trigeminal nerve innervation.
IX. Neurology. 5e. The Trigeminal Nerve. Gray, Henry. 1918. Anatomy of the Human Body. (5634 words)
The ciliary ganglion is connected with the ophthalmic nerve; the sphenopalatine ganglion with the maxillary nerve; and the otic and submaxillary ganglia with the mandibular nerve.
Nerves of the orbit, and the ciliary ganglion.
It passes forward on the lateral side of the optic nerve, and enters the postero-superior angle of the ciliary ganglion; it is sometimes joined by a filament from the cavernous plexus of the sympathetic, or from the superior ramus of the trochlear nerve.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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