Trichlorosilane is a chemical compound containing silicon, hydrogen, and chlorine. At high temperatures, it decomposes to produce silicon, and as such, purified trichlorosilane is the principle source of ultrapure silicon in the semiconductor industry. In water, it rapidly decomposes to produce a silicone polymer while giving off hydrochloric acid. Because of its reactivity and wide availability, it is frequently used in the synthesis of silicon-containing organic compounds.
Industrially, trichlorosilane is produced by blowing hydrochloric acid through a bed of silicon powder at 300°C. There, they combine to make trichlorosilane and hydrogen according to the chemical equation
Si + 3 HCl → HSiCl3 + H2
A properly designed reactor can achieve a yield of 80-90% trichlorosilane. The major byproducts are silicon tetrachloride (chemical formula SiCl4), hexachlorodisilane (Si2Cl6), and dichlorosilane (H2SiCl2), from which trichlorosilane can be separated by distillation.
Trichlorosilane is dismutated to dichlorosilane in the presence, as catalyst, of a tetraalkylurea.
It is known that by dismutation of trichlorosilane dichlorosilane is obtained, and it is also known that dischlorosilane is used for the preparation of a deposit of silicon of very high purity in the electronics industry (silicon epitaxy).
573 g of trichlorosilane and 57 g of tetramethylurea are introduced into a flask kept under a nitrogen atmosphere, the mixture is heated to the reflux temperature (33.degree.) and the dichlorosilane is distilled under atmospheric pressure at the rate at which it is formed.
At high temperatures, it decomposes to produce silicon, and as such, purified trichlorosilane is the principal source of ultrapure silicon in the semiconductor industry.
Industrially, trichlorosilane is produced by blowing hydrogen chloride through a bed of silicon powder at 300Â°C. There, they combine to make trichlorosilane and hydrogen according to the chemical equation
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