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Encyclopedia > Trichinosis
Trichinosis
Classification & external resources
ICD-10 B75.
ICD-9 124
DiseasesDB 13326

Trichinosis, also called trichinellosis, or trichiniasis, is a parasitic disease caused by eating raw or undercooked pork and wild game products infected with the larvae of a species of roundworm Trichinella spiralis, commonly called the trichina worm. The few cases in the United States are mostly the result of eating undercooked game or home reared pigs. It is most common in the developing world and where pigs are commonly fed raw garbage. The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // A00-A79 - Bacterial infections, and other intestinal infectious diseases, and STDs (A00-A09) Intestinal infectious diseases (A00) Cholera (A01) Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers (A010) Typhoid fever (A02) Other Salmonella infections (A03) Shigellosis (A04) Other bacterial intestinal infections (A040) Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection (A045) Campylobacter enteritis (A046) Enteritis due to Yersinia... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... A parasitic disease is a disease caused or transmitted by a parasite. ... Two halves of pork being delivered Pork is the culinary name for meat from pigs. ... Game is any animal hunted for food. ... A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... Classes Adenophorea    Subclass Enoplia    Subclass Chromadoria Secernentea    Subclass Rhabditia    Subclass Spiruria    Subclass Diplogasteria The roundworms or nematodes (Phylum Nematoda from Gr. ... Binomial name (Owen, 1835) The species Trichinella spiralis is an important parasite, occurring in rats, pigs, and humans, and is responsible for the disease trichinosis. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

Contents

Signs and symptoms

Trichinosis initially involves the intestines. Within 1-2 days of contagion, manifestations such as nausea, heartburn, dyspepsia, and diarrhoea; the severity of symptoms depends on the number of worms ingested. Later on, as the worms encyst in different parts of the human body, other manifestations may occur, such as headache, fever, chills, cough, eye swelling, joint pain and muscle pain, petechiae, and itching. For the Beck song, see Nausea (song). ... Diarrhoea is the correct way to spell the word Diarrhoea. ... A headache (cephalalgia in medical terminology) is a condition of pain in the head; sometimes neck or upper back pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This is a list of systemic diseases with ocular manifestations. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Myalgia means muscle pain and is a symptom of many diseases and disorders. ... Petechiae are pinpoint-sized hemorrhages of small capillaries in the skin or mucous membranes. ... An itch (Latin: pruritus) is a sensation felt on an area of skin that makes a person or animal want to scratch it. ...


Most symptoms subside within a few months. The most dangerous case is worms entering the central nervous system. They cannot survive there, but they may cause enough damage to produce serious neurological deficits (such as ataxia or respiratory paralysis), and even death. Infestation of the heart may also lead to death. A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... For other uses, see Ataxia (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ...


Life cycle

The worm can infect any species of mammal that consumes its encysted larval stages. When an animal eats meat that contains infective Trichinella cysts, the acid in the stomach dissolves the hard covering of the cyst and releases the worms. The worms pass into the small intestine and, in 1–2 days, become mature. After mating, adult females produce larvae, which break through the intestinal wall and travel through the lymphatic system to the circulatory system to find a suitable cell. Larvae can penetrate any cell, but can only survive in skeletal muscle. Within a muscle cell, the worms curl up and direct the cell functioning much as a virus does. The cell is now called a nurse cell. Soon, a net of blood vessels surround the nurse cell, providing added nutrition for the larva inside. A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Nurse cell is a term used to describe a process in the disease trichinosis, in which a trichinella larvae takes up residence in a cell. ...


Diagnosis

A blood test or muscle biopsy can identify trichinosis. Stool studies can identify adult worms, with females being about 3 mm long and males about half that size. Blood tests are laboratory tests done on blood to gain an appreciation of disease states and the function of organs. ... In medicine, a muscle biopsy is a procedure in which a piece of muscle tissue is removed from an organism and examined microscopically. ...


Treatment

Symptoms can be treated with aspirin and corticosteroids. Thiabendazole can kill adult worms in the intestine; however, there is no treatment that kills the larvae. Aspirin, or acetylsalicylic acid (IPA: ), (acetosal) is a drug in the family of salicylates, often used as an analgesic (to relieve minor aches and pains), antipyretic (to reduce fever), and as an anti-inflammatory. ... In physiology, corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex. ... Thiabendazole is a fungicide and parasiticide used primarily to control mold, blight, and other fungally caused diseases in fruits and vegetables. ...


Epidemiology

Trichinosis was known as early as 1835 to have been caused by a parasite, but the mechanism of infection was unclear at the time. It was not until a decade later that American scientist Joseph Leidy pinpointed undercooked meat as the primary vector for the parasite, and not until two decades afterwards that this hypothesis was fully accepted by the scientific community [1]. | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Joseph Leidy (1823–1891) was an American paleontologist. ...


Infection was once very common, but is now quite rare in the developed world. From 1991 to 1996, an annual average of 12 cases per year were reported in the United States. The number of cases has decreased because of legislation prohibiting the feeding of raw meat garbage to hogs, increased commercial and home freezing of pork, and the public awareness of the danger of eating raw or undercooked pork products. Today, one of the primary causes of trichinosis in America is the consumption of raw or undercooked wild game meats. The terms First World, Second World, and Third World were used to divide the nations of Earth into three broad categories. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ...


In the developing world, most infections are associated with undercooked pork. For example, in Thailand, between 200 and 600 cases are reported annually around the Thai New Year. In parts of Eastern Europe, the WHO reports that some swine herds have trichinosis infection rates above 50%, and there are correspondingly large numbers of human infections [2]. For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ... New Year celebration near Khao Sarn Road The Thai New Year (Thai: Songkran) is celebrated every year on 13 April to 15 April. ...


It has been suggested that trichinosis may be one of several factors that led to religious prohibitions in Islam, Judaism, etc. against eating pork products, such as in the kashrut and dhabiĥa halal dietary laws. The medieval Jewish philosopher Maimonides advocated such a theory in his Guide for the Perplexed. This topic is controversial. Look up kosher in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Halal (حلال, alāl, halaal) is an Arabic term meaning permissible. In the English language it most frequently refers to food that is permissible according to Islamic law. ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ... The Guide for the Perplexed (Hebrew:מורה נבוכים, translit. ... Look up kosher in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


International Commission on trichinellosis

The International Commission on trichinellosis (ICT) was created in 1958 in Budapest and is aiming to exchange information on the biology, the physiopathology, the epidemiology, the immunology, and the clinical aspects of trichinellosis in humans and animals. Prevention is a primary goal. Since the creation of the ICT, its members (more than 110 from 46 countries) have regularly gathered and worked together during meetings held every 4 years : the International Conference on Trichinellosis. The International Commission on trichinellosis (ICT) was created in 1958 in Budapest and is aiming to exchange information on the biology, the physiopathology, the epidemiology, the immunology, and the clinical aspects of trichinellosis in humans and animals. ...


Prevention

  • Cooking meat products until the juices run clear or to an internal temperature of 140 °F (62 °C).
  • Freezing pork less than 6 inches thick for 20 days at 5 °F (−15 °C) or three days at −4 °F (−20 °C) kills larval worms.
  • Cooking wild game meat thoroughly. Freezing wild game meats, unlike freezing pork products, even for long periods of time, may not effectively kill all worms. This is because the species of trichinella that typically infects wild game is more resistant to freezing than the species that infects pigs.
  • Cooking all meat fed to pigs or other wild animals.
  • Not allowing hogs to eat uncooked carcasses of other animals, including rats, which may be infected with trichinosis.
  • Cleaning meat grinders thoroughly when preparing ground meats.
  • Control and destruction of meat containing trichinae, e.g., removal and proper disposal of porcine diaphragma prior to public sale of meat.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention makes the following recommendation: "Curing (salting), drying, smoking, or microwaving meat does not consistently kill infective worms."[1] However, under controlled commercial food processing conditions some of these methods are considered effective by the United States Department of Agriculture.[2] Kinnikuman character, see Meat Alexandria. ... Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after the German-Dutch physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736), who proposed it in 1724. ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... Two halves of pork being delivered Pork is the culinary name for meat from pigs. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... The United States Department of Agriculture (also called the Agriculture Department, or USDA) is a United States Federal Executive Department (or Cabinet Department). ...


References

  1. ^ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Parasitic Diseases (2004-07-15). Parasitic Disease Information - Trichinellosis. Retrieved on 2007-01-28.
  2. ^ United States Department of Agriculture. Electronic Code of Federal Regulations; Title 9: Animals and Animal Products; PART 318—ENTRY INTO OFFICIAL ESTABLISHMENTS; REINSPECTION AND PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS; § 318.10 Prescribed treatment of pork and products containing pork to destroy trichinae. Retrieved on 2007-01-28.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 28 is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Department of Agriculture (also called the Agriculture Department, or USDA) is a United States Federal Executive Department (or Cabinet Department). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 28 is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Shortcut: WP:PD There are many resources available on the net that are in the public domain, and therefore freely usable without restrictions for Wikipedia content. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ...

Web pages

International Commission on trichinellosis web pages


  Results from FactBites:
 
eMedicine - Trichinosis : Article by L Kristian Arnold, MD (4026 words)
Some authorities believe that trichinosis should be classified as an emerging/reemerging disease, particularly because of increasing reports of cases from some previously unaffected areas (Dupouy-Camet, 2000).
Trichinosis must be considered a risk when eating the flesh of any animal that might have fed on uncooked animal flesh.
Inhibits helminth-specific mitochondrial fumarate reductase and is indicated for alleviating symptoms of trichinosis during invasive phase.
eMedicine - Trichinosis : Article by Clinton Murray (3641 words)
Trichinosis is the result of infection by the nematode Trichinella spiralis.
Rats and pigs are the animals most commonly associated with trichinosis (see Image 1); however, depending on the region, walruses, seals, bears, polar bears, cats, raccoons, wolves, and foxes may also be infected.
Consider trichinosis in cases of heavy infection with evidence of shock, encephalitis, myocarditis, or pneumonitis.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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