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Encyclopedia > Tribunal

A tribunal is a generic term for any body acting judicially, whether or not it is called a tribunal in its title. For example, an advocate appearing before a Court on which a single Judge was sitting could describe that judge as 'their tribunal'. A trial at the Old Bailey in London as drawn by Thomas Rowlandson and Augustus Pugin for Ackermanns Microcosm of London (1808-11). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


In the Roman Catholic Church, a tribunal usually refers to one of three instances of ecclesiastical courts: a diocesan tribunal; a provincial tribunal, that is, of more than one diocese and commonly referred to as an appellate court; and the Sacra Rota Romana, or Sacred Roman Rota, the highest court of appeals. “Catholic Church” redirects here. ... Pope Pius XI blesses Bishop Stephen Alencastre as fifth Apostolic Vicar of the Hawaiian Islands in a Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace window. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Appeal. ... The Sacra Rota Romana or Sacred Roman Rota is the normal appellate tribunal of the Holy See and the second highest ecclesiastical court in the Roman Catholic Church. ...


Many bodies that are titled 'tribunals' are so described to emphasize the fact that they are not courts of normal jurisdiction. For example the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda is a body specially constituted under international law; in Great Britain, Employment Tribunals are bodies set up to hear specific employment disputes. Private judicial bodies are also often styled 'tribunals'. The word 'tribunal' is not conclusive of a body's function. For example, in Great Britain, the Employment Appeal Tribunal is a superior court of record. Wanted poster for the ICTR The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) is a court under the auspices of the United Nations for the prosecution of offenses committed in Rwanda during the genocide which occurred there during April, 1994, commencing on April 6. ... Employment Tribunals are inferior courts in Great Britain which have statutory jurisdiction to hear many kinds of disputes between employers and employees. ... The Employment Appeal Tribunal is a superior court of record in Great Britain. ...


Tribunals in Republic of Ireland

In the Republic of Ireland, the word tribunal is popularly used to refer to a public inquiry established under the Tribunals of Inquiry (Evidence) Act 1921. The main difference between a Parliamentary Inquiry (non statutory) and a Tribunal of Inquiry in Ireland is that non-statutory inquiries are not vested with the powers, privileges and rights of the High Court; Tribunals of Inquiry are. Tribunals are established by resolution of the Houses of the Oireachtas to enquire into matters of urgent public importance. It is not a function of Tribunals to administer justice, their work is solely inquisitorial. Tribunals are obliged to report their findings to the Oireachtas. They have the power to enforce the attendance and examination of witnesses and the production of documents relevant to the work in hand. Tribunals can consist of one or more people. A layperson, or non lawyer, may be the Sole member of a Tribunal. In the politics and government of Commonwealth countries such as Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom, a public inquiry is an official review of events or actions ordered by the government. ... The Houses of the Oireachtas is the official and constitutionally correct name for the two Houses of Parliament of Ireland - Dáil Éireann (House of Representatives) and Seanad Éireann (The Senate). ... The Oireachtas is the National Parliament of the Republic of Ireland. ...

See also: Public Inquiry # List of selected Irish public inquries

In the politics and government of Commonwealth countries such as Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom, a public inquiry is an official review of events or actions ordered by the government. ...

See also


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Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Greek form tribounos) was a title shared by several elected magistracies and other governmental and/or (para)military offices of the Roman Republic and Empire.
The tribune also had the power to exercise capital punishment against any person who interfered in the performance of his duties (the favourite threat of the tribune was therefore to have someone thrown from the Tarpeian Rock).
Tribunes were required to be plebeians, and until 421 BC this was the only office open to them.
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