FACTOID # 21: 15% of Army recruits from South Dakota are Native American, which is roughly the same percentage for female Army recruits in the state.
 
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Encyclopedia > Tribal chief


A traditional tribal chief is the leader of a tribe, or the head of a tribal form of self-government. Image File history File links Nuvola_apps_browser. ... In common usage, leadership generally refers to: the position or office of an authority figure, such as a President [1] a group of influential people, such as a union leadership [2] guidance or direction, as in the phrase the emperor is not providing much leadership capacity or ability to lead... Viewed historically or developmentally, a tribe consists of a social formation existing before the development of, or outside of, states. ...


The notion of a figurative "tribal chief" is rather vague and arbitrary; neither chief nor tribe is clearly defined, so in many cases other designations are used for the same institution , such as petty ruler or even headman (in a very small but autonomous community, e.g. in the jungle). In some cases they merely lead a traditional consultative entity within a larger polity, in other cases tribal autonomy comes closer to statehood.


There are many variations on it, but the most common types are the chairman of a council (usually of 'elders') and/or a (broader) popular assembly in 'parliamentary' cultures, the war chief (can be an alternative or additional post in war time), the hereditary chief, the politically dominant medicineman ('theocratic' cultures). A council is a group of people who usually possess some powers of governance. ... An elder can refer to various topics: Elder (administrative title) Elder (religious) Elder - person of knowledge or high degree Elderberry plant (Sambucus) Box-elder plant (maple) Box elder bug (Leptocoris trivittatus or Boisea trivittatus) Elderly person - see: Old age William Henry Elder bishop and Archbishop of Cincinnati Joycelyn Elders Elder... The term theocracy is used to describe a form of government in which a religion or faith plays a dominant role. ...


The term is usually distinct from chiefs at still lower levels, such as village headman (geographically defined) or clan chief (an essentially genealogical notion), as the notion 'tribal' rather requires a ethno-cultural identity (racial, linguistic, religious, etc.) as well as some political expression

Contents


Modern states providing an organized form of tribal chiefships

Canada

In 2003, there were 633 Native American tribal entities (First Nations, or formally, Indian Bands) recognized by Canada under the Constitution Act, treaties, statutes and court decisions as "self-governing aboriginal nations within Canada." They have formal government-to-government relations with the Crown, enjoy limited internal self-government and administer their territories, the Indian Reserves.


India

Adivasi in sanskrit refers to indigenous people who are living from ages.(Adi meaning first and vasi meaning habitant.) These tribes do have "Chiefs" and they are referred by various names.The north eastern states of India with a large tribal population is a valid case study, with tribal chiefs enjoying a lot of power and status in the region. Tribal peoples in India comprise a substantial minority of the population of India. ...


United States

Goyathlay, or Geronimo, Apache chieftain for the Chiricahua
Goyathlay, or Geronimo, Apache chieftain for the Chiricahua

Download high resolution version (500x840, 53 KB)Geronimo (Goyathlay) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (500x840, 53 KB)Geronimo (Goyathlay) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Geronimo Geronimo (Chiricahua Goyaałé One Who Yawns; often spelled Goyathlay in English), (June 16, 1829–February 17, 1909) was a prominent Native American leader of the Chiricahua Apache who long warred against the encroachment of settlers of European descent on tribal lands. ... Group of Apaches Apache is the collective name for several culturally related tribes of Native Americans, aboriginal inhabitants of North America, who speak a Southern Athabaskan language. ... Bands According to Opler (1941) the Chiricahuas consisted of three bands: Chíhéne Red Paint People (a. ...

Composition of the tribes

A tribe can be considered to be composed of bands or clans, which are understood to be smaller than a tribe. Thus, the five ancestral clans of the Menominee tribe -- the Awaehsaeh (Bear clan), Kene ( Eagle clan), Mahwah (Wolf clan), Otea ciah (Crane clan), and Mos (Moose clan), are examples of the seats of traditional power in the tribe. Conversely, a nation can be considered to be composed of tribes. In the US the nations were treated as sovereign; thus the Navajo nation, or Cherokee nation, for example. A Band Society or Lineage Bonded Society is the simplest form of human society. ... A clan is a group of people united by kinship and descent, which is defined by perceived descent from a common ancestor. ... The Menominee are a nation of Native Americans living in Wisconsin. ... In religion, the term Animism is used in a number of ways. ... One of the most influential doctrines in history is that all humans are divided into groups called nations. ... The term Navajo (occasionally spelled Navaho) or Diné refers to the Navajo Nation and its people, and to the Navajo language. ... For other uses, see Cherokee (disambiguation). ...


Historical cultural differences between tribes

Generally, a tribe or nation are considered to be part of an ethnic group, usually sharing cultural values. For example, the forest-dwelling Chippewa historically built dwellings from the bark of trees, as opposed to the Great Plains-dwelling tribes, who would not have access to trees, except by trade, for example for lodgepoles. Thus the tribes of the Great Plains might typically dwell in skin-covered tipis rather than bark lodges. But some Plains tribes built their lodges of earth, as for example the Pawnee[1]; the Pueblo people built their dwellings of stone and earth; some Puebloans were matrilineal. Value is a term that expresses the concept of worth in general, and it is thought to be connected to reasons for certain practices, policies, or actions. ... A dense growth of softwoods (a forest) in the Sierra Nevada Range of Northern California A forest is an area with a high density of trees (or, historically, a wooded area set aside for hunting). ... For other uses of Chippewa, see Chippewa (disambiguation). ... The Great Plains is the broad expanse of prairie which lies east of the Rocky Mountains in the United States of America and Canada, covering all or parts of the U.S. states of New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota and North Dakota and the... Binomial name Pinus contorta Douglas Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta) is a common tree in western North America. ... Nez Perce tipi A tipi (also teepee, tepee) is a conical tent originally made of skins and popularised by the American Indians of the Great Plains. ... Earth, also known as Terra, and Tellus mostly in the 19th century, is the third-closest planet to the Sun. ... Pawnee The Pawnee (also Paneassa, Pari, Pariki) are a Native American tribe that historically lived along the Platte River in what is now Nebraska. ... The Zia symbol is on the New Mexico state flag. ... Matrilineality is a system in which one belongs to ones mothers lineage; it may also involve the inheritance of property or titles through the female line. ...


Political power in a tribe

A chief might be considered to hold political power, say by oratory or by example. But on the North American continent, it was historically possible to evade the political power of another by migration. The Mingos, for example, were Iroquois who migrated further west to the sparsely populated Ohio Country during the 18th century. Two Haudenosaunee, or Iroquois, Hiawatha and the Great Peacemaker, formulated a constitution for the Iroquois Confederation. This article is about non-human migration. ... // Tribal Name Mingo is thought to be a corruption of mingwe, which is an Algonquian word meaning stealthy or treacherous. ... The Iroquois Confederacy (Haudenosaunee, also known as the League of Peace and Power, Five Nations, or Six Nations) is a group of First Nations/Native Americans. ... The Ohio Country, showing the present-day U.S. state boundaries The Ohio Country (sometimes called the Ohio Territory) was the name used in the 18th century for the regions of North America west of the Appalachian Mountains and in the region of the upper Ohio River south of Lake... Statue of Hiawatha carrying Minnehaha (based on Longfellows story) Hiawatha (also known as Ha-yo-went-ha) who lived around 1550, was variously a leader of the Onondaga and Mohawk nations of Native Americans. ... The Great Peacemaker was the traditional founder, with Hiawatha, of the Haudenosaunee (commonly called the Iroquois) confederacy, a political and cultural union of Native American tribes in what is now New York State. ... The Iroquois Confederacy (also known as the League of Peace and Power) is a group of First Nations/Native Americans. ...


The tribes were pacified by units of the US Army in the nineteenth century, and were also subject to forced schooling in the decades afterward. Thus it is uncommon for today's tribes to have a purely Native American cultural background, and today Native Americans are simply another ethnicity of the secular American people. Since education is respected, some like Peter McDonald, a Navajo, left their jobs in the mainstream US economy to become chairman of the tribal council. Peter McDonald was first elected tribal council chairman of the Navajo nation in 1970. ...


Not all tribal leaders need be men; Wilma Mankiller (1945- ) was a well-known Chief of the Cherokee Nation. Also, though the seat of power might be the chief, they were not free to wield power without the consent of a council of elders. For example: Cherokee men were not permitted to go to war without the consent of the council of women. Wilma Pearl Mankiller (born November 18, 1945 in Tahlequah, Oklahoma) became the first female Chief of the Cherokee nation in 1985. ... For other uses, see Cherokee (disambiguation). ...


Tribal government is an official form of government in the United States[2] and in other countries around the world.


Historically the US government treated tribes as seats of political power, and made treaties with the tribes as legal entities. But frequently the territority of the tribes fell under the authority of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) as reservations held in trust for the tribes. Citizenship was formerly considered a tribal matter. For example, it was not until 1924 that the Pueblo people were granted US citizenship, and it was not until 1948 that the Puebloans were granted the right to vote in state elections in New Mexico. In Wisconsin, the Menominee Nation has its own county Menominee County, Wisconsin with special car license plates; 87% of the county's population is Native American. The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) responsibility is the administration and management of 55. ... Reservation is something reserved. ... The Zia symbol is on the New Mexico state flag. ... State nickname: Land of Enchantment Official languages English and Spanish Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Governor Bill Richardson (D) Senators Pete Domenici (R) Jeff Bingaman (D) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 5th 315,194 km² 0. ... The Menominee are a nation of Native Americans living in Wisconsin. ... Menominee County is a county located in the state of Wisconsin. ...


Secular (mainstream) Americans often find pride and comfort in realizing that at least part of their ethnic ancestry is Native American, although the connection is usually only sentimental and not economic or cultural. Thus there is some political power in one's ability to claim a Native American connection (as in the Black Seminole). 19th-century engraving depicting a Black Seminole warrior of the First Seminole War (1817–8). ...


Economic power in a tribe

Since the Nations were sovereign, with Treaty rights with the Federal government, the Wisconsin tribes innovated Indian gaming (1988), that is, on-reservation gambling casinos, a 14 billion dollar industry, nationwide. This has been imitated in many of the respective states which still have Native American tribes. The money to be made has engendered some political scandal. For example, the Tigua tribe, which fled their ancestral lands in New Mexico during the Pueblo revolt of 1680, and who then settled on land in El Paso County, Texas has paid 4.2 million dollars in political contributions in Texas for a low probable return to the tribe because of the Jack Abramoff publicity. In 1987 the U.S. Supreme Court recognized that as sovereign political entities, Native American tribes could operate gaming facilities free of state regulation. ... Tiwa, in Spanish Tigua, is a group of closely related languages spoken by some Pueblo people in New Mexico. ... El Paso County is a county located in the state of Texas. ... This article needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ...


Many of the tribes use professional management for their money. Thus the Mescalero Apache have renovated their Inn of the Mountain Gods to include gambling as well as the previous tourism, lodging, and skiing in the older Inn, as of 2005. Categories: Stub | Na-Dené languages | Native American tribes | Native American languages | Apachean languages | Apache tribe | Languages of North America | Athabaskan languages ...


The Navajo nation defeated bids to open casinos in 1994, but by 2004, the Shiprock casino was a fait accompli. Shiprock Shiprock, or Shiprock Peak (Dine: Tsé Bit Aí, winged rock) is a rock formation rising nearly 1,800 feet (540 meters) above the high-desert plain on the Navajo reservation, near the northern New Mexico town of Shiprock. ... Here are some examples of French words and phrases used by English speakers. ...


See also: Economy of the Iroquois Iroquois women at work grinding corn or dried berries (1664 engraving) The Economy of the Iroquois originally focused on communal production and combined elements of both agricultural and hunter-gatherer systems. ...


Tribal government in the United States

There are distinct differences between the modern day "Chair" of a sovereign Indian Nation's governing body and the role of "Chief." Generally speaking, while each is organized in its own distint way, there are loose similarities to the British system blending ceremony and government. The individual who "chairs" the governing body is akin to Prime Minister and the "Chief" is more akin to a monarch or spiritual leader.


Many Native American tribes in the United States have formed a leadership council, often called the "Tribal Council", and have a leader of the council who generally carries the title of "Chair" (Chairman, Chairperson, Chairwoman). Some simply appoint a "spokesperson" for the Tribal Council. Generally the leadership position is either elected by popular vote of the tribal membership or appointed/elected from among his/her elected tribal council peers in a more parliamentary type of approach. Many of today's tribal chairs are women. It has been suggested that List of Native American tribes be merged into this article or section. ...


All too often non-Native Americans naively refer to the individual who chairs the governmental organization as "Chief," incorrectly. Presumably many are familiar with the mystic of a "Chief" as he is often portrayed on film or in literature. That individual is recognized because of birthright or perhaps some spiritual circumstance.


Many Tribes do still recognize the rightful "Chief" as part of ceremonial and culture events in a way somewhat similar to the role of, or defference to, a modern-day British monarch.


There are over 100 tribal governments in the United States.


Tribal government around the world

Brazilian indian chiefs
Brazilian indian chiefs

Many minority ethnic groups in many countries have founded semi-autonomous regions in their part of the country such as the Kurds in Iraq. Also, weak governments in Africa usually have no control over far-flung regions with ethnic minorities. During the 600 BC to 200 BC Period, there were many tribes in India. The Tribal Chief, also known as Raja in those times, lead the tribe and was generally the oldest and wisest in the tribe. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2480x1488, 690 KB) Brazilian indian chiefs, Kaiapos tribe. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2480x1488, 690 KB) Brazilian indian chiefs, Kaiapos tribe. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most populous continent, after Asia. ... In sociology and in voting theory, a minority is a sub-group that is outnumbered by persons who do not belong to it. ...


In Gaelic Ireland, up to its destruction in the Sixteenth Century, hundreds of families such as the O'Neills, MacCarthys and O'Flahertys, organised as clans like tribes, were ruled by tribal chiefs or taoisigh, titled according to their family name as The O'Neill, The O'Flaherty etc. This system came to an end at the end of the Sixteenth Century (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... ONeill (also spelled ONeil) is a common surname of Irish origin. ... MacCarthy coat of arms McCarthy (a variant of MacCarthy) is a popular surname that originated in Ireland. ... A major Irish clan, originally reported to inhabit the area around Galway, Ireland. ...


Specific tribal chief titles

The following lists are doubtlessly quite incomplete

There are titles for the most prestigious tribal leaderships, see rather under terms marking them out as such, e.g. High Chief, or even as princely titles. This terminology, which ultimately is only a western rendering of widely varied cultural and historical traditions, is quite inconsistent; for instance Polynesian titles using Tu'i are someties rendered as Paramount Chief, sometimes as King.

Masta Killa (born Elgin Turner, born August 18, 1969 in Brooklyn, New York) is an African American rapper and member of the Wu-Tang Clan. ... A paramount chief is the highest-level traditional (usually tribal) chief or political leader in a region or country typically administered politically with a chief-based system. ...

In Asian tribes

  • The datus were the chieftains who led the immigrations to the Philippines. When Magellan arrived in the Philippines, they found that some local (Hindu or Buddhist) kings were called Rajahs, or in the Muslim islands, the local kings were called Sultans

Datu is the title for ancient tribal chieftains in the pre-hispanic Philippines. ... Datu is the title for ancient tribal chieftains in the pre-hispanic Philippines. ... A Raja (sometimes spelled Rajah) is a king, or princely ruler. ... A sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ...

In American tribes

  • The Aztecs had Tlacatecuhtli ("chief of men")

The Aztecs were a Mesoamerican people of central Mexico in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries. ...

In African tribes

  • Gbong Gwon
  • MorĂȘna
  • Orkoiyot (Nandi people, in Kenya)

An orkoiyot is the supreme chief of the Nandi people of Africa. ...

In Oceania

Iroijlaplap is the title given to the Paramount chief in the Marshall Islands. ... Ratu is a title used by Fijians of chiefly rank. ...

Notes

^  The Field Museum, Chicago, Illinois has an exhibit on the Pawnee earth lodge. Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago The Field Museum of Natural History, in Chicago, Illinois, USA, sits on Lake Shore Drive next to Lake Michigan, part of a scenic complex called known as the Museum Campus which includes Soldier Field, the football stadium that is the home of the Chicago... Chicago, known as the Second City and the Windy City, is the third-largest city in population in the United States, following New York City and Los Angeles. ... Pawnee The Pawnee (also Paneassa, Pari, Pariki) are a Native American tribe that historically lived along the Platte River in what is now Nebraska. ...


^  The Field Museum has exhibits with artifacts, dress, tools, and pottery of the Pueblo people, the Northwest tribes, the Plains tribes and the Woodland tribes, especially those of the Midwest. Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago The Field Museum of Natural History, in Chicago, Illinois, USA, sits on Lake Shore Drive next to Lake Michigan, part of a scenic complex called known as the Museum Campus which includes Soldier Field, the football stadium that is the home of the Chicago... The Zia symbol is on the New Mexico state flag. ... A compass rose with Northwest highlighted Northwest is the ordinal direction halfway between West and North on a compass. ... The Midwest is a common name for a region of the United States of America. ...


Sources and references

See also

This article is about the leader. ... Indirect rule is a type of European colonial policy as practiced by the British Empire, in which the traditional local power structure, or at least part of it, is incorporated into the colonial administrative structure. ... A paramount chief is the highest-level traditional (usually tribal) chief or political leader in a region or country typically administered politically with a chief-based system. ... An Israelite is a member of the Twelve Tribes of Israel, descended from the twelve sons of the Biblical patriarch Jacob who was renamed Israel by God in the book of Genesis, 32:28. ... Clan map of Scotland Scottish clans give a sense of Scottish Highland identity and shared descent both to people in Scotland and to their relations throughout the world, with a formal structure of Clan Chiefs officially registered with the court of the Lord Lyon, King of Arms which controls the...

External links

  • Death of Andamanese Tribal Chief in India

  Results from FactBites:
 
tribal chief: Information from Answers.com (1717 words)
A traditional tribal chief is the leader of a tribe, or the head of a tribal form of self-government.
The north eastern states of India with a large tribal population is a valid case study, with tribal chiefs enjoying a lot of power and status in the region.
Tribal government is an official form of government in the United States[2] and in other countries around the world.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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