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Encyclopedia > Triassic
Triassic period
251 - 199 million years ago
T
Atmospheric O2 content
ca. 16 Vol %[1]
(80 % of modern level)
Atmospheric CO2 content
ca. 1750 ppm[2]
(6 times pre-industrial level)
Mean surface temperature
ca. 17°C [3]
(3°C above modern level)
Template:Triassic graphical timeline

The Triassic is a geologic period that extends from about 251 to 199 Ma (million years ago). As the first period of the Mesozoic Era, the Triassic follows the Permian and is followed by the Jurassic. Both the start and end of the Triassic are marked by major extinction events. The extinction event that closed the Triassic period has recently been more accurately dated, but as with most older geologic periods, the rock beds that define the start and end are well identified, but the exact dates of the start and end of the period are uncertain by a few million years. The Precambrian (Pre-Cambrian) is an informal name for the supereon comprising the eons of the geologic timescale that came before the current Phanerozoic eon. ... For other uses, see Cambrian (disambiguation). ... Artist impression of the Ordovician Sea. ... For other uses, see Silurian (disambiguation). ... For the Celtic language, see Southwestern Brythonic language; for the residents of the English county, see Devon. ... President Bush- Deres gold in dem dere mines The Carboniferous is a major division of the geologic timescale that extends from the end of the Devonian period, about 359. ... The Permian is a geologic period that extends from about 299. ... The Jurassic Period is a major unit of the geologic timescale that extends from about 199. ... // The Cretaceous Period (pronounced ) is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... Paleogene (alternatively Palaeogene) period is a unit of geologic time that began 65 and ended 23 million years ago. ... Neogene Period is a unit of geologic time consisting of the Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene, and Holocene epochs. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Parts per million (ppm) is a measure of concentration that is used where low levels of concentration are significant. ... In geology, a period or age is a time span of many millions of years that are assumed to have had similar characteristics. ... Annum is a Latin noun meaning year. ... Mesozoic Era is one of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ... The Permian is a geologic period that extends from about 299. ... The Jurassic Period is a major unit of the geologic timescale that extends from about 199. ... An extinction event (also known as: mass extinction; extinction-level event, ELE) occurs when there is a sharp decrease in the number of species in a relatively short period of time. ...


During the Triassic, both marine and continental life show an adaptive radiation beginning from the starkly impoverished biosphere that followed the Permian-Triassic extinction. Corals of the hexacorallia group made their first appearance. The first flowering plants (Angiosperms) may have evolved during the Triassic, as did the first flying vertebrates, the pterosaurs. Four of the 13 finch species found on the Galápagos Archipelago, and thought to have evolved by an adaptive radiation that diversified their beak shapes to adapt them to different food sources. ... For other uses, see Biosphere (disambiguation). ... The Permian-Triassic (P-T or PT) extinction event, sometimes informally called the Great Dying, was an extinction event that occurred approximately 251 million years ago (mya), forming the boundary between the Permian and Triassic geologic periods. ... Zoantharia (also known as Hexacorallia, as they have 6-fold symmetry) is a subclass of the class Anthozoa within the phylum Cnidaria. ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants (also angiosperms or Magnoliophyta) are one of the major groups of modern plants, comprising those that produce seeds in specialized reproductive organs called flowers, where the ovulary or carpel is enclosed. ... Suborders Pterodactyloidea Rhamphorhynchoidea * Pterosaurs (, from the Greek πτερόσαυρος, pterosauros, meaning winged lizard, often referred to as pterodactyls, from the Greek πτεροδάκτυλος, pterodaktulos, meaning winged finger ) were flying reptiles of the clade Pterosauria. ...

Contents

Dating and subdivisions

The Triassic was named in 1834 by Friedrich Von Alberti from the three distinct layers (Latin trias meaning triad) —red beds, capped by chalk, followed by black shales— that are found throughout Germany and northwest Europe, called the 'Trias'. Dr. Friedrich August von Alberti (September 4, 1795—September 12, 1878) was a German geologist who recognized the unity of the three characteristic strata that compose the Triassic period (Latin trias meaning triad), in a ground-breaking 1834 publication[1]. From the fossils contained in the three distinct layers— of... Red beds are strata of sedimentary rock that are red due to the presence of iron oxides. ... For other uses, see Chalk (disambiguation). ... Shale Shale is a fine-grained sedimentary rock whose original constituents were clays or muds. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


The Triassic is usually separated into Early, Middle, and Late Triassic Epochs, and the corresponding rocks are referred to as Lower, Middle, or Upper Triassic. The faunal stages from the youngest to oldest are: The Early Triassic (also known as Lower Triassic, Buntsandstein, or Scythian) is the first of three epochs of the Triassic period. ... The Middle Triassic (also known as Muschelkalk) is the second of three epochs of the Triassic period. ... The Late Triassic (also known as Upper Triassic, or Keuper) is the third and final of three epochs of the Triassic period. ... A division of geologic time less than a period and greater than an age. ... Faunal stages are a subdivision of geologic time used primarily by paleontologists who study fossils rather than by geologists who study rock formations. ...

Upper/Late Triassic (Tr3)
  Rhaetian (203.6 ± 1.5 – 199.6 ± 0.6 Ma)
  Norian (216.5 ± 2.0 – 203.6 ± 1.5 Ma)
  Carnian (228.0 ± 2.0 – 216.5 ± 2.0 Ma)
Middle Triassic (Tr2)
  Ladinian (237.0 ± 2.0 – 228.0 ± 2.0 Ma)
  Anisian (245.0 ± 1.5 – 237.0 ± 2.0 Ma)
Lower/Early Triassic (Scythian)
  Olenekian (249.7 ± 0.7 – 245.0 ± 1.5 Ma)
  Induan (251.0 ± 0.4 – 249.7 ± 0.7 Ma)

The Late Triassic (also known as Upper Triassic, or Keuper) is the third and final of three epochs of the Triassic period. ... The Rhaetian Stage is the most recent stage of the Late Triassic. ... Annum is a Latin noun meaning year. ... The Norian Stage was a portion of the Triassic geological period. ... The Carnian is a stage on the geologic time scale occuring from 228 +/- 2 to 216. ... The Middle Triassic (also known as Muschelkalk) is the second of three epochs of the Triassic period. ... The Ladinian (also known as the Falangian) is a stage of the Middle Triassic epoch. ... In the geologic timescale, the Anisian is the age of the Middle Triassic epoch of the Triassic period of the Mesozoic era of the Fanerozoic eon that is comprehended between 245 million and 237 million years ago, approximatedly. ... The Early Triassic (also known as Lower Triassic, Buntsandstein, or Scythian) is the first of three epochs of the Triassic period. ... The Olenekian (also known as the Yongningzhenian) is a stage of the Early Triassic epoch. ... The Induan (also known as the Feixianguanian) is the first stage of the Early Triassic epoch. ...

Paleogeography

230 Ma plate tectonic reconstruction
230 Ma plate tectonic reconstruction

During the Triassic, almost all the Earth's land mass was concentrated into a single supercontinent centered more or less on the equator, called Pangaea ("all the land"). From the east a vast gulf entered Pangaea, the Tethys sea. It opened farther westward in the mid-Triassic, at the expense of the shrinking Paleo-Tethys Ocean, an ocean that existed during the Paleozoic. The remaining shores were surrounded by the world-ocean known as Panthalassa ("all the sea"). All the deep-ocean sediments laid down during the Triassic have disappeared through subduction of oceanic plates; thus, very little is known of the Triassic open ocean. The supercontinent Pangaea was rifting during the Triassic—especially late in the period—but had not yet separated. The first nonmarine sediments in the rift that marks the initial break-up of Pangea—which separated New Jersey from Morocco—are of Late Triassic age; in the U.S., these thick sediments comprise the Newark Group.[4] Because of the limited shoreline of one super-continental mass, Triassic marine deposits are globally relatively rare, despite their prominence in Western Europe, where the Triassic was first studied. In North America, for example, marine deposits are limited to a few exposures in the west. Thus Triassic stratigraphy is mostly based on organisms living in lagoons and hypersaline environments, such as Estheria crustaceans. In geology, a supercontinent is a land mass comprising more than one continental core, or craton. ... For other uses, see Pangaea (disambiguation). ... Tethys Ocean (here labeled Tethys Sea) divides Pangea into two supercontinents, Laurasia and Gondwana The Tethys Ocean was a Mesozoic era ocean that existed between the continents of Gondwana and Laurasia before the opening of the Indian Ocean. ... The Paleo-Tethys Ocean was an ancient Paleozoic ocean. ... The Paleozoic Era (from the Greek palaio, old and zoion, animals, meaning ancient life) is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ... Panthalassa (Greek for all seas) was the vast ocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangaea during the late Paleozoic era and the early Mesozoic era. ... Geometry of a subduction zone - insets to show accretionary prism and partial melting of hydrated asthenosphere. ... In geology, a rift is a place where the Earths lithosphere is expanding. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The Newark Group--also known as the Newark Supergroup--is an assemblage of Triassic sedimentary rocks which outcrop intermittently along the United States East Coast; the exposures extend from Massachusetts to North Carolina, with more still in Nova Scotia. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... North American redirects here. ... Stratigraphy, a branch of geology, studies rock layers and layering (stratification). ...


Climate

Middle Triassic marginal marine sequence, southwestern Utah
Middle Triassic marginal marine sequence, southwestern Utah

The Triassic climate was generally hot and dry, forming typical red bed sandstones and evaporites. There is no evidence of glaciation at or near either pole; in fact, the polar regions were apparently moist and temperate, a climate suitable for reptile-like creatures. Pangaea's large size limited the moderating effect of the global ocean; its continental climate was highly seasonal, with very hot summers and cold winters.[5] It probably had strong, cross-equatorial monsoons.[6] This article is about the U.S. state. ... Banded Iron Formations are a distinctive type of rock often found in old sedimentary rocks. ... Red sandstone interior of Lower Antelope Canyon, Arizona, worn smooth due to erosion by flash flooding over millions of years Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-size mineral or rock grains. ... A sample of evaporite material Evaporites (IPA: ) are water-soluble, mineral sediments that result from the evaporation of bodies of surficial water. ... Perito Moreno Glacier Patagonia Argentina Aletsch Glacier, Switzerland Icebergs breaking off glaciers at Cape York, Greenland This article is about the geological formation. ... For the usage in virology, see temperate (virology). ... Regions containing a continental climate exist in portions of Northern Hemisphere continents, and also at higher elevations in certain other parts of the world. ... Also known as the Latin cross or crux ordinaria. ... World map showing the equator in red In tourist areas, the equator is often marked on the sides of roads The equator marked as it crosses Ilhéu das Rolas, in São Tomé and Príncipe. ... A monsoon is a periodic wind, especially in the Indian Ocean and southern Asia. ...


Life

Triassic flora as depicted in Meyers Konversations-Lexikon (1885-90)
Triassic flora as depicted in Meyers Konversations-Lexikon (1885-90)

Three categories of organisms can be distinguished in the Triassic record: holdovers from the Permian-Triassic extinction, new groups which flourished briefly, and other new groups which went on to dominate the Mesozoic world. Meyers Konversations-Lexikon was a German encyclopaedia. ... The Permian-Triassic (P-T or PT) extinction event, sometimes informally called the Great Dying, was an extinction event that occurred approximately 252 million years ago (mya), forming the boundary between the Permian and Triassic geologic periods. ... Mesozoic Era is one of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ...


In marine environments, new modern types of corals appeared in the Early Triassic, forming small patches of reefs of modest extent compared to the great reef systems of Devonian times or modern reefs. The shelled cephalopods called ammonites recovered, diversifying from a single line that survived the Permian extinction. The fish fauna was remarkably uniform, reflecting the fact that very few families survived the Permian extinction. There were also many types of marine reptiles. These included the Sauropterygia, which featured pachypleurosaurs and nothosaurs (both common during the Middle Triassic, especially in the Tethys region), placodonts, and the first plesiosaurs; the first of the lizardlike Thalattosauria (askeptosaurs); and the highly successful ichthyosaurs, which appeared in Early Triassic seas and soon diversified, some eventually developing to huge size during the late Triassic. Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... A coral reef can be an oasis of marine life. ... A reef surrounding an islet. ... For the Celtic language, see Southwestern Brythonic language; for the residents of the English county, see Devon. ... Orders Subclass Nautiloidea †Plectronocerida †Ellesmerocerida †Actinocerida †Pseudorthocerida †Endocerida †Tarphycerida †Oncocerida †Discosorida Nautilida †Orthocerida †Ascocerida †Bactritida Subclass †Ammonoidea †Goniatitida †Ceratitida †Ammonitida Subclass Coleoidea †Belemnoidea †Aulacocerida †Belemnitida †Hematitida †Phragmoteuthida Neocoleoidea (most living cephalopods) ?†Boletzkyida Sepiida Sepiolida Spirulida Teuthida Octopoda Vampyromorphida The cephalopods (Greek plural (kephalópoda); head-foot) are the mollusc class... For other uses, see Ammonite (disambiguation). ... Groups ?Placodontia Pachypleurosauridae Nothosauridae    Plesiosauria Sauropterygia (lizard flippers) is a group of very successful aquatic reptiles that flourished during the Age of the Dinosaurs before they became extinct. ... Genera Anarosaurus Dactylosaurus Hanosaurus Keichousaurus Neusticosaurus Serpianosaurus Pachypleurosaurs were primitive Triassic sauropterygian reptiles that vaguely resembled aquatic lizards, and are limited to the Triassic period. ... Families Simosauridae Germanosauridae Nothosauridae Nothosaurs were Triassic marine sauropterygian reptiles that may have lived like seals of today, catching food in water but coming ashore on rocks and beaches. ... Tethys Ocean (here labeled Tethys Sea) divides Pangea into two supercontinents, Laurasia and Gondwana The Tethys Ocean was a Mesozoic era ocean that existed between the continents of Gondwana and Laurasia before the opening of the Indian Ocean. ... Families Paraplacodontidae Placodontidae Henodontidae Cyamodontidae Placochelyidae Wikispecies has information related to: Placodont Placodonts (Tablet teeth) were a group of marine reptiles that lived during the Triassic period, becoming extinct at the end of the period. ... Families Cimoliasauridae Cryptoclididae Elasmosauridae Plesiosauridae Polycotylidae Plesiosaurs (pronounced ) (Greek: plesios meaning near or close to and sauros meaning lizard) were carnivorous aquatic (mostly marine) reptiles. ... Askeptosaurus is an extinct genus of aquatic reptile belonging to the diapsid group. ... Families Ichthyosauridae Leptonectidae Mixosauridae Ophthalmosauridae Shastasauridae Stenopterygiidae Teretocnemidae Ichthyosaurs (Greek for fish lizard - ιχθυς meaning fish and σαυρος meaning lizard) were giant marine reptiles that resembled fish and dolphins. ...


On land, the holdover plants included the lycophytes, the dominant cycads, ginkgophyta (represented in modern times by Ginkgo biloba) and glossopterids. The spermatophytes, or seed plants came to dominate the terrestrial flora: in the northern hemisphere, conifers flourished. Glossopteris (a seed fern) was the dominant southern hemisphere tree during the Early Triassic period. Classes Lycopodiopsida - clubmosses Selaginellopsida - spikemosses Isoetopsida - quillworts The division Lycopodiophyta is a tracheophyte subdivision of the Kingdom Plantae that includes some of the most primitive of extant (living) vascular plants. ... Families Cycadaceae cycas family Stangeriaceae stangeria family Zamiaceae zamia family Leaves and male cone of Cycas revoluta Cycads are an ancient group of seed plants characterized by a large crown of compound leaves and a stout trunk. ... Binomial name Ginkgo biloba L. The Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), sometimes also known as the Maidenhair tree, is a unique tree with no living relatives. ... Species G. biloba L. The Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba; 銀杏 in Chinese), frequently misspelled as Gingko, and also known as the Maidenhair Tree, is a unique tree with no close living relatives. ... Glossopteridales is an extinct order of plants belonging to Pteridospermatophyta, or Seed Ferns. ... The spermatophytes (also known as phanerogams) comprise those plants that produce seeds. ... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † The conifers, division Pinophyta, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa within the Kingdom Plantae. ... Species see text Glossopteris (Greek glossa, meaning tongue, because the leaves were tongue-shaped) is the largest and best-known genus of the extinct order of seed ferns known as Glossopteridales (or in some cases as Arberiales or Dictyopteridiales). ... Pteridospermatophyta, also called seed ferns, is an extinct gymnosperm division of the Plantae kingdom. ...


Temnospondyl amphibians were among those groups that survived the P-T extinction, some lineages (e.g. Trematosaurs) flourishing briefly in the Early Triassic, while others (e.g. capitosaurs) remained successful throughout the whole period, or only came to prominence in the Late Triassic (e.g. plagiosaurs, metoposaurs). As for other amphibians, the first Lissamphibia are known from the Early Triassic, but the group as a whole did not become common until the Jurassic, when the temnospondyls had become very rare. Groups Edopoidea Edopidae Cochleosauridae Euskelia Eryopoidea Eryopidae Zatrachydidae Dissorophoidea Limnarchia Dvinosauria Archegosauridae Stereospondyli Trematosauroidea Capitosauroidea Metoposauroidea Plagiosauroidea Rhytidosteidae Brachyopoidea Brachyopidae Chigutosauridae Temnospondyli are an important and extremely diverse taxon of small to giant labyrinthodont amphibians that flourished worldwide during the Carboniferous, Permian, and Triassic periods. ... ‹ The template below (Citations missing) is being considered for deletion. ... Orders Anura Caudata Gymnophiona The subclass Lissamphibia includes all recent amphibians. ... The Jurassic Period is a major unit of the geologic timescale that extends from about 199. ...

Middle and Upper Triassic shallow marine sequence, Makhtesh Ramon, Israel.
Middle and Upper Triassic shallow marine sequence, Makhtesh Ramon, Israel.

Archosauromorph reptiles — especially archosaurs — progressively replaced the synapsids that had dominated the Permian. Although Cynognathus was a characteristic top predator in earlier Triassic (Olenekian and Anisian) Gondwana, and both kannemeyeriid dicynodonts and gomphodont cynodonts remained important herbivores during much of the period. By the end of the Triassic, synapsids played only bit parts. During the Carnian (early part of the Late Triassic), some advanced cynodont gave rise to the first mammals. At the same time the Ornithodira, which until then had been small and insignificant, evolved into pterosaurs and a variety of dinosaurs. The Crurotarsi were the other important archosaur clade, and during the Late Triassic these also reached the height of their diversity, with various groups including the phytosaurs, aetosaurs, several distinct lineages of Rauisuchia, and the first crocodylians (the Sphenosuchia). Meanwhile the stocky herbivorous rhynchosaurs and the small to medium-sized insectivorous or piscivorous Prolacertiformes were important basal archosauromorph groups throughout most of the Triassic. Makhtesh Ramon is the biggest of its kind in the world, and it is placed in the Negev, Israel. ... Orders See text Archosauromorpha (Greek for ruling lizard forms) is an Infraclass of diapsid reptiles that first appeared during the late Permian and became more common during the Triassic. ... Clades Crurotarsi Aetosauria Crocodilia (crocodiles) Phytosauria Rauisuchia Ornithodira Aves (birds) Dinosauria Pterosauria Archosaurs (Greek for ruling lizards) are a group of diapsid reptiles that is represented today by birds and crocodiles and which also included the dinosaurs. ... Orders & Suborders Order Pelycosauria * Suborder Caseasauria Suborder Eupelycosauria * Order Therapsida * Suborder Biarmosuchia Suborder Dinocephalia Suborder Anomodontia Suborder Gorgonopsia Suborder Therocephalia Suborder Cynodontia * For complete phylogeny, see text. ... Species    Ref. ... The Olenekian (also known as the Yongningzhenian) is a stage of the Early Triassic epoch. ... In the geologic timescale, the Anisian is the age of the Middle Triassic epoch of the Triassic period of the Mesozoic era of the Fanerozoic eon that is comprehended between 245 million and 237 million years ago, approximatedly. ... For other uses of Gondwana and Gondwanaland, see Gondwana (disambiguation). ... Kannemeyeriidae: A family of large, stocky, beaked and sometimes tusked dicynodonts, they were the dominant large terrestrial herbivores through most of the Triassic period. ... Clades & Genera see Taxonomy The Dicynodontia are a taxon of Therapsids or mammal-like reptiles. ... Clades Procynosuchidae Epicynodontia Galesauridae Eucynodontia Cynognathia Cynognathidae Tritylodontidae Probainognathia Trithelodontidae Mammaliformes Cynodonta, or dog teeth, were one of the most diverse groups of therapsids. ... A deer and two fawns feeding on some foliage A herbivore is often defined as any organism that eats only plants[1]. By that definition, many fungi, some bacteria, many animals, about 1% of flowering plants and some protists can be considered herbivores. ... The Carnian is a stage on the geologic time scale occuring from 228 +/- 2 to 216. ... Superorders Dinosauromorpha    Lagosuchians    Dinosauria Pterosauromorpha    Pterosauria    Scleromochlus    Sharovipteryx Ornithodira is a division of the Archosauromorpha (and perhaps Archosauria) clade. ... Suborders Pterodactyloidea Rhamphorhynchoidea * Pterosaurs (, from the Greek πτερόσαυρος, pterosauros, meaning winged lizard, often referred to as pterodactyls, from the Greek πτεροδάκτυλος, pterodaktulos, meaning winged finger ) were flying reptiles of the clade Pterosauria. ... Orders & Suborders Saurischia Sauropodomorpha Theropoda Ornithischia Thyreophora Ornithopoda Marginocephalia Dinosaurs were vertebrate animals that dominated the terrestrial ecosystem for over 160 million years, first appearing approximately 230 million years ago. ... Subtaxa Phytosauridae Prestosuchidae Ornithosuchidae Stagonolepididae Rauisuchidae Poposauridae Crocodylomorpha     Sphenosuchia     Crocodilia Crurotarsi (cross-ankles) is a node-based taxon created by Paul Sereno in 1991 to supplant the old term Pseudosuchia. ... A clade is a term belonging to the discipline of cladistics. ... Phytosaurs - family Phytosauridae or Parasuchidae - were a group of large (2 to 12 meters long - average size 3 to 4 meters) semi-aquatic predatory thecodonts that flourished during the Late Triassic period. ... Genera Aetosaurus Coahomasuchus Desmatosuchus Longosuchus Neoaetosauroides Paratypothorax Redondasuchus Stagonolepis Typothorax The Aetosaurs (family Stagonolepididae or Aetosauridae) are an extinct clade of heavily armoured, medium to large sized, Late Triassic herbivorous archosaurs. ... Families Family Prestosuchidae Family Rauisuchidae Family Poposauridae Rauisuchia are a poorly known assemblage of predatory and mostly large (often 4 to 6 meters) Triassic archosaurs. ... Subfamilies Family Crocodylidae    Crocodylinae    Alligatorinae    Gavialinae Crocodylia (or crocodylians) is an order of large reptiles that scientists believe branched off from class Reptilia about 220 million years ago. ... Paleo Template Project Sphenosuchia is the name of the clade of crocodylians that first evolved. ... Genera Mesosuchus Howesia Stenaulorhynchys Rhynchosaurus Otischalia Isalorhynchus Hyperodepedon Rhynchosaurs were a group of unusual Triassic diapsid reptiles related to the archosaurs. ... Families See text Prolacertiformes (sometimes called Protorosaurs) were a bizarre order of diapsid reptiles that lived during the Permian and Triassic Periods. ... In phylogenetics, basal members of a group diverged earlier than a subgroup of others (or vice versa). ...


Among other reptiles, the earliest turtles, like Proganochelys and Proterochersis, appeared during the Norian (middle of the Late Triassic). The Lepidosauromorpha—specifically the Sphenodontia—are first known in the fossil record a little earlier (during the Carnian). The Procolophonidae were an important group of small lizard-like herbivores. Families See text Turtles are reptiles of the order Testudinata, most of whose body is shielded by a special bony shell developed from their ribs. ... Proganochelys is the oldest turtle species discovered to date, known only from fossils found in Germany and Thailand in strata from the late Triassic, dating to approximately 210 million years ago. ... The Norian Stage was a portion of the Triassic geological period. ... Orders Sphenodontia Squamata Eosuchia Conservation status: Fossil The Lepidosauria are a subclass of reptiles comprising the orders : Squamata Sphenodontia or Rhynchocephalia Eosuchia Conservation status: Fossil Lepidosaurians are the most successful of modern reptiles. ... Families Gephyrosauridae Pleurosauridae Sphenodontidae Sphenodontia is an order of lizard-like reptiles that includes only one living genus, the tuatara (Sphenodon). ... Genera Hypsognathus Procolophon The Procolophonids were early herbivorous, anapsid reptiles that appeared late in the Permian, to the end of the Triassic. ...


Archosaurs were initially rarer than the therapsids which had dominated Permian terrestrial ecosystems, but they began to displace therapsids in the mid-Triassic.[7] This "Triassic Takeover" may have contributed to the evolution of mammals by forcing the surviving therapsids and their mammaliform successors to live as small, mainly nocturnal insectivores; nocturnal life probably forced at least the mammaliforms to develop fur and higher metabolic rates.[8] Groups Biarmosuchia Dinocephalia Anomodontia Theriodontia    Cynodontia       (...mammals) Therapsids, previously known as the mammal-like reptiles, are a group of synapsids. ... The Permian is a geologic period that extends from about 299. ... Restoration of Thrinaxodon, a member of the cynodont group which includes the ancestors of mammals. ... Clades Adelobasileus Sinoconodon Morganucodonta Docodonta Hadrocodium Mammalia Mammaliaformes is a clade that contains the mammals and their closest extinct relatives. ... Any organism with a diet that consists chiefly of insects and similar small creatures is an insectivore. ... Santorio Santorio (1561-1636) in his steelyard balance, from Ars de statica medecina, first published 1614 Metabolism (from μεταβολισμος(metavallo), the Greek word for change), in the most general sense, is the ingestion and breakdown of complex compounds, coupled with the liberation of energy, and the consequent generation of waste...


Coal

When the Triassic commenced a coal hiatus (no coal) appeared simultaneously all over the world at the Permian-Triassic boundary [9] Probably a sudden large drop in sea level permitted whatever caused the hiatus, and thus accounts for the sudden appearance, for at the close of the Permian there was an even quicker drop in sea level than the slower drop that had occurred in its last half, the sharpest in history [10]. There had been many salt deposits in Permian basins in the last half [11]. There are large salt basins in the southwest United States and a very large basin is suspected in central Canada, now eroded away [12]. Possibly a tsunami opened up some of these basins, evaporation from which would have previously delayed the sea level decline, and thus account for that quicker drop at the end. This or something like this could account for a subsequent rapid rise when the inland sea created evaporated again after barriers were reestablished. Glaciers can be safely ruled out because there is no evidence of glaciers anywhere during the Triassic. Immediately above the boundary the glossopteris flora was suddenly [13] largely displaced by an Australia wide coniferous flora containing few species and containing a lycopod herbaceous under story. Conifers became common in Eurasia also. Each of these groups of conifers arose from endemic species because conifers are very poor at crossing ocean barriers and they remained separated for hundreds of millions of years, largely to the present. Podocarpis was south and Pines, Junipers, and Sequoias were north, for instance. The dividing line ran through the Amazon Valley, across the Sahara, and north of Arabia, India, Thailand, and Australia [14] [15]. It has been suggested that there was a climate barrier for the conifers [16], although water barriers are more plausible. If so, something that can cross at least short water barriers must have been involved in producing the coal hiatus. Hot climate could have been an important auxiliary factor across Antarctica or the Bering Straights , however. There was a spike of fern and lycopod spores immediately after the close of the Permian [17]. In addition there was also a spike of fungal spores immediately after the Permian-Triassic boundary [18]. This spike may have lasted 50,000 years in Italy and 200,000 years in China and must have contributed to the climate warmth. If so, something besides an instant catastrophe must have been involved to cause the coal hiatus because funguses would surely have removed all dead vegetation and coal forming detritus in a few decades in most tropical places. Besides, the fungal spores rose gradually and declined similarly. There was also much woody debris. Each phenomenon would hint at widespread vegetative death. Whatever caused the coal hiatus must have started in North America 25 million years sooner [19]. Weesner believes that Mastotermitidae termites may go back to the Permian [20] and fossil wings have been discovered in the Permian of Kansas which have a close resemblance to wings of Mastotermes of the Mastotermitidae, which is the most primitive living termite and which is thought to be the descendant of Cryptocercus genus, the wood roach. This fossil is called Pycnoblattina. It folded its wings in a convex pattern between segments 1a and 2a. Mastotermes is the only living insect that does the same [21], so it is possible that they are responsible for the coal hiatus. This is plausible because termites attack the trunk, which is the most vulnerable part. Modern termites also eat detritus. If parasitoids were what brought back the coal after about 10 million years past the opening, their initial evolution must have taken place in or near Australia because the coal reappeared there first by several million years [22]. Ancestors of the Evaniidae, which parasitize roach egg sacs [23], could have been the ones involved, and this may explain why termites evolved separated eggs except in Mastotermitidae. During the Triassic coal hiatus in the beginning of the Triassic it was possible to find stump impressions up to 45 cm (17.7 in) and root impressions up to 18 cm (7 in) in south Australia, but no roots or logs. The soil was extremely low in organic matter and there was no detritus at all [24]. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... The Permian is a geologic period that extends from about 299. ... Mastotermes darwiniensis is a specie of termite found only in northern Australia. ... Parasitoids differ from parasites in their relationship with the host. ... Genera see text The ensign wasps (family Evaniidae) are a small cosmopolitan group of very distinctive appearance, with 20 extant genera containing some 450 known species. ...


Lagerstätten

Triassic sandstone near Stadtroda, Germany.
Triassic sandstone near Stadtroda, Germany.

The Monte San Giorgio lagerstätte, now in the Lake Lugano region of northern Italy and Switzerland, was in Triassic times a lagoon behind reefs with an anoxic bottom layer, so there were no scavengers and little turbulence to disturb fossilization, a situation that can be compared to the better-known Jurassic Solnhofen limestone lagerstätte. The remains of fish and various marine reptiles (including the common pachypleurosaur Neusticosaurus, and the bizarre long-necked archosauromorph Tanystropheus), along with some terrestrial forms like Ticinosuchus and Macrocnemus, have been recovered from this locality. All these fossils date from the Anisian/Ladinian transition (about 237 million years ago). Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Stadtroda is a city of 6. ... Monte San Giorgio is a wooded mountain (1,096 m above sea level) located in the south of canton Ticino in Switzerland. ... Lagerstätten (German, singular: Lagerstätte, literally: place(s) of storage or resting place(s)) are sedimentary deposits that exhibit extraordinary fossil richness or completeness. ... Lago di Lugano Lake Lugano (Italian Lago di Lugano or Ceresio) is a lake in the south-east of Switzerland, at the border between Switzerland and Italy. ... This mid bay barrier in Narrabeen, a suburb of Sydney (Australia), has blocked what used to be a bay to form a lagoon. ... A brittle star fossil from Solnhofen limestone. ... Genera Anarosaurus Dactylosaurus Hanosaurus Keichousaurus Neusticosaurus Serpianosaurus Pachypleurosaurs were primitive Triassic sauropterygian reptiles that vaguely resembled aquatic lizards, and are limited to the Triassic period. ... Tanystropheus was a 6 metre (20 foot) long reptile that dated from the middle Triassic period. ... Ticinosuchus is an extinct genus of archosaur reptile that was about 3 m (10 ft) long. ... In the geologic timescale, the Anisian is the age of the Middle Triassic epoch of the Triassic period of the Mesozoic era of the Fanerozoic eon that is comprehended between 245 million and 237 million years ago, approximatedly. ... The Ladinian (also known as the Falangian) is a stage of the Middle Triassic epoch. ...


Late Triassic extinction event

Main article: Triassic-Jurassic extinction event

The Triassic period ended with a mass extinction, which was particularly severe in the oceans; the conodonts disappeared, and all the marine reptiles except ichthyosaurs and plesiosaurs. Invertebrates like brachiopods, gastropods, and molluscs were severely affected. In the oceans, 22% of marine families and possibly about half of marine genera went missing according to University of Chicago paleontologist Jack Sepkoski. Comparison of the intensity of the T-J extinction event, labeled here End Tr to other extinction events in the last 500 million years. ... Conodonts are extinct worm-like forms with distinctive conical or multi-denticulate teeth made of apatite (calcium phosphate). ... Diversity About 4000 genera Subphyla and classes See Classification Brachiopods (from Latin bracchium, arm + New Latin -poda, foot) are a nearly extinct, small phylum of benthic invertebrates. ... Subclass Subclass Eogastropoda     Patellogastropoda Subclass Orthogastropoda   Superorder Cocculiniformia   Superorder Hot Vent Taxa     Neomphaolida   Superorder Vetigastropoda   Superorder Neritaemorphi     Neritopsina   Superorder Caenogastropoda     Architaenioglossa     Sorbeoconcha   Superorder Heterobranchia     Heterostropha     Opisthobranchia     Pulmonata The gastropods, or univalves, are the largest and most successful class of mollusks, with 60,000-75,000 species, and second largest class... Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora - Chitons Monoplacophora Bivalvia - Bivalves Scaphopoda - Tusk shells Gastropoda - Snails and Slugs Cephalopoda - Squids, Octopuses, etc. ... For other uses, see University of Chicago (disambiguation). ... J. John Sepkoski Jr. ...


Though the end-Triassic extinction event was not equally devastating everywhere in terrestrial ecosystems, several important clades of Crurotarsi (large archosaurian reptiles previously grouped together as the thecodonts) disappeared, as did most of the large labyrinthodont amphibians, groups of small reptiles, and some synapsids (except for the proto-mammals). Some of the early, primitive dinosaurs also went extinct, but other more adaptive dinosaurs survived to evolve in the Jurassic. Surviving plants that went on to dominate the Mesozoic world included modern conifers and cycadeoids. Subtaxa Phytosauridae Prestosuchidae Ornithosuchidae Stagonolepididae Rauisuchidae Poposauridae Crocodylomorpha     Sphenosuchia     Crocodilia Crurotarsi (cross-ankles) is a node-based taxon created by Paul Sereno in 1991 to supplant the old term Pseudosuchia. ... Thecodont (socket-toothed reptile), is a catch-all (paraphyletic) group, now considered an obsolete term, that was formerly used to describe a group of the earliest archosaurs that lived during the Permian and Triassic periods. ...


It is not certain what caused this Late Triassic extinction, which was accompanied by huge volcanic eruptions about 202 to 191 million years ago [(40Ar/39Ar dates[25])] known as the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province [(CAMP)][26], one of the largest inland recorded volcanic event since the planet cooled and stabilized, as the supercontinent Pangaea began to break apart. Other possible but less likely causes for the extinction events include global cooling or even a bolide impact, for which an impact crater surrounding Manicouagan Reservoir in Quebec, Canada, has been singled out. At the Manicouagan impact crater, however, recent research has shown that the impact melt within the crater has an age of 214±1 Ma. The date of the Triassic-Jurassic boundary has also been more accurately fixed recently, at 201.58±0.28 Ma. Both dates are gaining accuracy by using more accurate forms of radiometric dating, in particular the decay of uranium to lead in zircons formed at the impact. So the evidence suggests the Manicouagan impact preceded the end of the Triassic by approximately 10±2 Ma. Therefore it could not be the immediate cause of the observed mass extinction. [27] Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... CAMP, or the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province, was formed during the largest known volcanic event in Earth history. ... The term bolide (from the Greek βολις, bolis, missile) can refer to either an extraterrestrial body that collides with the Earth, or to an exceptionally bright, fireball-like meteor regardless of whether it ultimately impacts the surface. ... Manic-cinq dam, primary dam on the Manicouagan Reservoir Manicouagan Reservoir (also Lake Manicouagan) is an annular lake in northern Quebec, Canada, the remnant of an impact crater or astrobleme made approximately 212 million years ago, towards the end of the Triassic period. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ...


The number of Late Triassic extinctions is disputed. Some studies suggest that there are at least two periods of extinction towards the end of the Triassic, between 12 and 17 million years apart. But arguing against this is a recent study of North American faunas. In the Petrified Forest of northeast Arizona there is a unique sequence of latest Carnian-early Norian terrestrial sediments. An analysis in 2002 found no significant change in the paleoenvironment.[28] Phytosaurs, the most common fossils there, experienced a change-over only at the genus level, and the number of species remained the same. Some Aetosaurs, the next most common tetrapods, and early dinosaurs, passed through unchanged. However, both Phytosaurs and Aetosaurs were among the groups of archosaur reptiles completely wiped out by the end-Triassic extinction event. Petrified Forest National Park is located in northeastern Arizona, along Interstate 40 between Holbrook and Navajo. ... Phytosaurs - family Phytosauridae or Parasuchidae - were a group of large (2 to 12 meters long - average size 3 to 4 meters) semi-aquatic predatory thecodonts that flourished during the Late Triassic period. ... Genera Aetosaurus Coahomasuchus Desmatosuchus Longosuchus Neoaetosauroides Paratypothorax Redondasuchus Stagonolepis Typothorax The Aetosaurs (family Stagonolepididae or Aetosauridae) are an extinct clade of heavily armoured, medium to large sized, Late Triassic herbivorous archosaurs. ...


It seems likely then that there was some sort of end-Carnian extinction, when several herbivorous archosauromorph groups died out, while the large herbivorous therapsids— the kannemeyeriid dicynodonts and the traversodont cynodonts— were much reduced in the northern half of Pangaea (Laurasia). Groups Biarmosuchia Dinocephalia Anomodontia Theriodontia    Cynodontia       (...mammals) Therapsids, previously known as the mammal-like reptiles, are a group of synapsids. ... Kannemeyeriidae: A family of large, stocky, beaked and sometimes tusked dicynodonts, they were the dominant large terrestrial herbivores through most of the Triassic period. ... Genera Traversodon Boreogomphodon Luangwa Massetognathus Dadadon Gomphodontosuchus Scalenodontoides Exaeretodon Traversodontidae is an advanced, large, plant-eating group of cynodonts that is part of the lineage Cynognathia, a line that includes the famous, fierce predator Cynognathus. ... Laurasia was a supercontinent that most recently existed as a part of the split of the Pangaean supercontinent in the late Mesozoic era. ...


These extinctions within the Triassic and at its end allowed the dinosaurs to expand into many niches that had become unoccupied. Dinosaurs became increasingly dominant, abundant and diverse, and remained that way for the next 150 million years. The true "Age of Dinosaurs" is the Jurassic and Cretaceous, rather than the Triassic.


See also

The geologic time scale is used by geologists and other scientists to describe the timing and relationships between events that have occurred during the history of the Earth. ... List of fossil sites: // ^ http://www. ... Region of Paleorrota. ...

Notes

  1. ^ http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bild:Sauerstoffgehalt-1000mj.svg
  2. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Phanerozoic_Carbon_Dioxide.png
  3. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:All_palaeotemps.png
  4. ^ Lecture 10 - Triassic: Newark, Chinle
  5. ^ Stanley, 452-3.
  6. ^ Stanley, 452-3.
  7. ^ Tanner LH, Lucas SG & Chapman MG (2004). "Assessing the record and causes of Late Triassic extinctions". Earth-Science Reviews 65 (1-2): 103-139. doi:10.1016/S0012-8252(03)00082-5. Retrieved on 2007-10-22. 
  8. ^ Ruben, J.A., and Jones, T.D. (2000). "Selective Factors Associated with the Origin of Fur and Feathers". American Zoologist 40 (4): 585-596. doi:10.1093/icb/40.4.585. 
  9. ^ Retallack, G.J.; Veevers, J.J.; Morante, R. (1996). "Global coal gap between Permian-Triassic extinction and Middle Triassic recovery of peat-forming plants". Bulletin of the Geological Society of America 108 (2): 195-207. Retrieved on 2008-02-21. 
  10. ^ Holser WT Schonlaub H_P,Moses AJr Boekelmann K Klein P Magaritz MOrth CJ Fenninger A Jenny C Kralik M Mauritsch EP Schramm J_M Sattagger K Schmoller R 1989 A unique geochemical record at the Permian/Triassic boundary. Nature 337; 39, on p42
  11. ^ Knauth LP 1998 Salinity history of the earth's early ocean, Nature 395; 554-555.
  12. ^ Dott, R.H. and Batten, R.L. (1971) Evolution of the Earth, 4th ed. McGraw Hill, NY.
  13. ^ Hosher WT Magaritz M Clark D 1987 Events near the Permian-Triassic boundary. Mod. Geol. 11; 155-180, on p173-174.
  14. ^ Florin R (1963) The distribution of Conifer and Taxad genera in time and space. Acta Horti Bergiani. 20, 121-312.
  15. ^ Melville R (1966) Continental drift, Mesozoic continents and the migrations of the angiosperms. Nature 211, 116.
  16. ^ Darlington PJ (1965) Biogeography of the southern end of the world. Harvard University Press, Cambridge Mass., on p168.
  17. ^ Retallack GJ (1995) Permian -Triassic life crises on land. Science 267, 77-79.
  18. ^ Eshet Y Rampino MR (1995) Fungal event and palynological record of ecological crises and recovery across Permian-Triassic boundary. Geology 23, 967-970, on p969.
  19. ^ Retallack GJ Veevers JJ Morante R (1996) Global coal gap between Permian-Triassic extinctions and middle Triassic recovery of peat forming plants (review). Geological Society Am. Bull. 108, 195-207.
  20. ^ Weesner FM (1960) Evolution biology of termites. Annual Review of Entomology. 5; 153-170.
  21. ^ Tilyard RJ (1937) Kansas Permian insects.. Part XX the cockroaches, or order BlattariaI, II Am. Journal of Science 34; 169-202, 249-276.
  22. ^ Retallack GJ Veevers JJ Morante R (1996) Global coal gap between Permian-Triassic extinctions and middle Triassic recovery of peat forming plants (review). Geological Society Am. Bull. 108, 195-207, on p196.
  23. ^ Godfrey HCJ (1994) Parasitoid's Behavioral and Evolutionary Ecology. Princeton University Press, Princeton.
  24. ^ Retallack G (1997) Paleosols in the upper Narrabeen group of New South Wales as evidence of early Triassic paleoenvironments without exact modern analogs (review) Australian Journal of Earth Sciences 44; 185-281.
  25. ^ Nomade et al.,2007 Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 244, 326-344.
  26. ^ Marzoli et al., 1999, Science 284. Extensive 200-million-year-old continental flood basalts of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province, pp. 618-620.
  27. ^ Hodych & Dunning, 1992.
  28. ^ No Significant Nonmarine Carnian-Norian (Late Triassic) Extinction Event: Evidence From Petrified Forest National Park

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Emiliani, Cesare, 1992, Planet Earth : Cosmology, Geology and the Evolution of Life and Environment
  • Ogg, Jim; June, 2004, Overview of Global Boundary Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSP's) [1] Accessed April 30, 2006
  • Stanley, Steven M. Earth System History. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company, 1999. ISBN 0-7167-2882-6
  • van Andel, Tjeerd, (1985) 1994, New Views on an Old Planet : A History of Global Change, Cambridge University Press

Cesare Emiliani in the early 1950s when he was doing his pioneering research at the University of Chicago (Photo from the Archives of the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami) Cesare Emiliani (8 December 1922, Bologna, Italy - 20 July 1995, Palm Beach Gardens, Florida, USA) is...

External links

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Look up Triassic in
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Triassic period
Lower/Early Triassic Middle Triassic Upper/Late Triassic
Induan | Olenekian Anisian | Ladinian Carnian | Norian
Rhaetian
Mesozoic era
Triassic Jurassic Cretaceous
Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... The Early Triassic (also known as Lower Triassic, Buntsandstein, or Scythian) is the first of three epochs of the Triassic period. ... The Middle Triassic (also known as Muschelkalk) is the second of three epochs of the Triassic period. ... The Late Triassic (also known as Upper Triassic, or Keuper) is the third and final of three epochs of the Triassic period. ... The Induan (also known as the Feixianguanian) is the first stage of the Early Triassic epoch. ... The Olenekian (also known as the Yongningzhenian) is a stage of the Early Triassic epoch. ... In the geologic timescale, the Anisian is the age of the Middle Triassic epoch of the Triassic period of the Mesozoic era of the Fanerozoic eon that is comprehended between 245 million and 237 million years ago, approximatedly. ... The Ladinian (also known as the Falangian) is a stage of the Middle Triassic epoch. ... The Carnian is a stage on the geologic time scale occuring from 228 +/- 2 to 216. ... The Norian Stage was a portion of the Triassic geological period. ... The Rhaetian Stage is the most recent stage of the Late Triassic. ... Mesozoic Era is one of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ... The Jurassic Period is a major unit of the geologic timescale that extends from about 199. ... // The Cretaceous Period (pronounced ) is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ...

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Triassic Dinosaurs - ZoomDinosaurs.com (686 words)
During the early Triassic, corals appeared and ammonites recovered from the Permian extinction.
Leptocycas was a cycad, a primitive seed plant from the late Triassic period.
at the beginning of the Triassic, 220 million years ago, decreased the amount of shoreline, formed mountains, and gave the interior of the supercontinent a dry, desert-like terrain.
Triassic (1368 words)
Mesozoic Era, the Triassic follows the Permian and is followed by the Jurassic.
The extinction event that closed the Triassic period has recently been more accurately dated, but as with most older geologic periods, the rock beds that define the start and end are well identified, but the exact dates of the start and end of the period are uncertain by a few million years.
Lissamphibia are known from the early Triassic, but the group as a whole does not become common until the Jurassic, when the temnospondyls had become very rare.
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