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War
Military history
Eras

Prehistoric · Ancient · Medieval
Early Modern · Industrial · Modern For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... Military history is composed of the events in the history of humanity that fall within the category of conflict. ... Prehistoric warfare is war conducted in the era before writing, and before the establishments of large social entities like states. ... Ancient warfare is war as conducted from the beginnings of recorded history to the end of the ancient period. ... Medieval warfare is the warfare of the Middle Ages. ... Early modern warfare is associated with the start of the widespread use of gunpowder and the development of suitable weapons to use the explosive. ... Modern warfare involves the widespread use of highly advanced technology. ...

Battlespaces

Air · Information · Land · Sea · Space Battlespace is the military theatre of operations, including air, ground, information, sea and space. ... Aerial warfare is the use of military aircraft and other flying machines in warfare, including military airlift of cargo to further the national interests as was demonstrated in the Berlin Airlift. ... Information warfare is the use and management of information in pursuit of a competitive advantage over an opponent. ... War is a state of widespread conflict between states, organisations, or relatively large groups of people, which is characterised by the use of lethal violence between combatants or upon civilians. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Space warfare is combat that takes place in outer space. ...

Weapons

Armor · Artillery · Biological · Cavalry
Chemical · Electronic · Infantry
Nuclear · Psychological For other uses, see Weapon (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Mechanized warfare be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... For the use of biological agents by terrorists, see bioterrorism. ... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ... // Electronic warfare (EW) is the use of the electromagnetic spectrum to effectively deny the use of this phenomena by an adversary, while optimizing its use by friendly forces. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I Infantry or footmen are very highly disciplined and trained soldiers who fight primarily with small arms(rifles), but are trained to use everything from their bare hands to missle systems in order to neutralize... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... The U.S. Department of Defense defines psychological warfare (PSYWAR) as: The planned use of propaganda and other psychological actions having the primary purpose of influencing the opinions, emotions, attitudes, and behavior of hostile foreign groups in such a way as to support the achievement of national objectives. ...

Tactics

Attrition · Guerilla · Maneuver
Siege · Total war · Trench Military tactics (Greek: TaktikÄ“, the art of organizing an army) are the collective name for methods for engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ... This article is about the military strategy. ... Guerrilla redirects here. ... Maneuver warfare, is the term used by military theorist for a concept of warfare that advocates attempting to defeat an adversary by incapacitating their decision-making through shock and disruption brought about by movement. ... A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ... Total war is a military conflict in which nations mobilize all available resources in order to destroy another nations ability to engage in war. ...

Strategy

Economic · Grand · Operational This article is about real and historical warfare. ... Economic warfare is the term for economic policies followed as a part of military operations during wartime. ... Grand strategy is military strategy considered at the level of the movement and use of an entire nation state or empires resources. ... Operational warfare is, within warfare and military doctrine, the level of command which coordinates the minute details of tactics with the overarching goals of strategy. ...

Organization

Formations · Ranks · Units The armed forces of a state are its government-sponsored defense and fighting forces and organizations used to further the objectives of the state. ... A formation is a high-level military organization, such as a Brigade, Division, Corps, Army or Army group. ... This article is about the use of the term rank. ... A military unit is an organisation within an armed force. ...

Logistics

Equipment · Materiel · Supply line Military logistics is the art and science of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of military forces. ... This article lists military technology items, devices and methods. ... Material (from the French matérial for equipment or hardware, related to the word material) is a term used in English to refer to the equipment and supplies in military and commercial supply chain management. ... Military supply chain management is a cross-functional approach to procuring, producing and delivering products and services. ...

Lists

Battles · Commanders · Operations
Sieges · Theorists · Wars
War crimes · Weapons · Writers This is a partial list of battles that have entries in Wikipedia. ... . ... This is a list of missions, operations, and projects. ... The 1453 Siege of Constantinople (painted 1499) A siege is a prolonged military assault and blockade on a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition. ... See also list of military writers. ... This is a list of lists of wars, sorted by country, date, region, and type of conflict. ... This article lists and summarizes War Crimes committed since the Hague Convention of 1907. ... There are a bewildering array of weapons, far more than would be useful in list form. ... This is a list of military writers, alphabetical by last name. ...

Trench warfare is a form of warfare where both combatants have fortified positions and fighting lines are static. Trench warfare arose when there was a revolution in firepower without similar advances in mobility. The result was a slow and grueling form of defense-oriented warfare in which both sides constructed elaborate and heavily armed trench and dugout systems opposing each other along a front, with soldiers in both trench lines largely defiladed from the other's small arms fire and enclosed by barbed wire. The area between opposing trench lines (known as "no man's land") was fully exposed to small-arms and artillery fire from both sides. Attacks, even successful ones, often sustained severe casualties as a matter of course. Periods of trench warfare occurred during the American Civil War, the Russo-Japanese War, and reached peak bloodshed on the Western Front of World War I. Trench warfare is often a sign of attrition warfare. For other uses of the word, see Trench (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Revolution (disambiguation). ... Firepower is a measure of the ability of weapons, specifically weapons which involve fire or explosion, to inflict harm, damage, or kill. ... Battlefront redirects here. ... Enfilade and defilade are military tactical concepts used to describe a fighting units exposure to enemy fire. ... Typical modern agricultural barbed wire. ... 29th Infantry Battalion, 2nd Division, Canadian Corps. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Combatants Russian Empire Principality of Montenegro [1] Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov â€  Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War (Japanese: Nichi-Ro Sensō, Russian: Russko-Yaponskaya Voyna, Chinese: RìézhànzhÄ“ng, February 10, 1904–September 5, 1905) was a conflict... Combatants Belgium British Empire Australia[1] Canada[2] India[3] Newfoundland[4] New Zealand[5] South Africa[6] United Kingdom France and French Overseas Empire Portugal[7] United States Germany Commanders No unified command until 1918, then Ferdinand Foch Moltke → Falkenhayn → Hindenburg and Ludendorff → Hindenburg and Groener Casualties ~4,800... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... This article is about the military strategy. ...

Contents

Background

Trench warfare is nearly as old as warfare itself; however, because of the relatively small size of the armies and the lack of range of the weapons, it was traditionally not possible to defend more than a short defensive line or isolated strong point. Although both the art of fortification and the art of weaponry advanced a great deal in the second half of the second millennium, the traditional rule remained; a fortification required a large body of troops to defend it. Small numbers of troops simply could not maintain a volume of fire sufficient to repel a determined attack. For the fortification of food, see Food fortification. ...


Trenches did impede an attacking enemy's movement and provided a psychological benefit for the men manning them. With this in mind, it became common practice for Roman legions to entrench their encampments every night. A fortified camp was extremely hard to assault directly, and a Roman commander who did not wish to engage an enemy could often simply remain encamped. Legion redirects here. ... Camp may mean: Gatherings of people: Campsite Temporary settlement of a band of foragers. ... Roman or Romans may refer to: A thing or person of or from the city of Rome. ... Commander is a military rank which is also sometimes used as a military title depending on the individual customs of a given military service. ...


Once siege engines (such as the trebuchet) were developed, the techniques involved in assaulting a town or a fortress became well known and ritualised—the siège en forme. The attacking army would surround a town. Then the town would be asked to surrender. If it did not comply, the besieging army would invest (surround) the town with temporary fortifications to stop sallies from the stronghold or relief getting in. The attackers would then build a length of trenches parallel to the defences and just out of range of defending artillery. They would then dig a trench towards the town in a zigzag pattern so that it could not be enfiladed by defending fire, it also created a good vantage point from which to survey the enemy. Once within artillery range another parallel trench would be dug with gun emplacements. If necessary using the first artillery fire for cover, this process would be repeated until the guns were close enough to be laid accurately to make a breach in the fortifications. In order that the "forlorn hope" and their support troops could get close enough to exploit the breach, more zigzag trenches could be dug even closer to the walls with more parallel trenches to protect and conceal the attacking troops. A siege engine is a device that is designed to break or circumvent city walls and other fortifications in siege warfare. ... For the typeface, see Trebuchet MS. Trebuchet at Château des Baux, France A trebuchet is a siege engine employed in the Middle Ages either to smash masonry walls or to throw projectiles over them. ... A stronghold is a strongly fortified defensive structure. ... A zigzag is a pattern made up of many small corners at an acute angle, tracing a path between two parallel lines; it can be described as both jagged and fairly regular. ... French frigate Poursuivante firing raking fire in enfilade on a British ship of line French frigate Aréthuse and English frigate Amélia exchanging defilade fire on the shores of Guinea, the 7th of February 1813 Enfilade and defilade are military tactical concepts used to describe a fighting units... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... Forlorn hope is a military term that comes from the Dutch verloren hoop, which should be translated as lost troop although in Dutch it can also mean lost hope. The Dutch phrase fortutiously sounding like a accurate statement of the units future in English. ... A troop is a military unit. ...


Development

The Lines of Torres Vedras
The Lines of Torres Vedras

The first development that was essential for modern trench warfare however was the introduction of mass-conscripted armies during the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars. Prior to this, armies still consisted of small numbers of troops, which were unable to defend a large territory for very long—battles were either brief or degenerated into siege warfare. Large armies made it much more difficult for one army to outflank another, but it was still possible with cavalry and infantry charges for one army to break another by a direct assault. An example of early fortified military lines that stretched for many miles were the Lines of Torres Vedras (1810), which was built by the Portuguese under the direction of Royal Engineers of the British Army during the Peninsular war. Image File history File links Lines_of_Torres_Vedras. ... Image File history File links Lines_of_Torres_Vedras. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... A siege is a prolonged military blockade and assault of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition. ... The Lines of Torres Vedras The Lines of Torres Vedras were a line of forts in Portugal built in secrecy between November 1809 and September 1810 during the Peninsular War. ... The Corps of Royal Engineers, usually just called the Royal Engineers (RE), and commonly known as the Sappers, is one of the corps of the British Army. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... For the 1862 American Civil War campaign, see Peninsula Campaign. ...


Trench warfare was not limited to Europe, either. The Māori of New Zealand had built stockades called Pā on hills and small peninsulas for centuries before European contact, independent of outside knowledge. These resembled the small Iron Age forts which dot the British and Irish landscapes. When the Māori encountered the British they developed the Pā into a very effective defensive system of trenches, rifle pits and dugouts, which predated similar developments in America and Europe. In the New Zealand land wars for a long time the modern Pā effectively neutralised the overwhelming disparity in numbers and armaments. At Ohaeawai Pā in 1845, at Rangiriri in 1864, and again at Gate Pā in 1864 the British and Colonial Forces discovered that a frontal attack on a defended Pā was both ineffective and extremely costly. This article is about the Māori people of New Zealand. ... A pā or pa (pronounced pah) was a type of Māori village or community fortified and built for defence. ... A hill fort is a fortified refuge or defended settlement, located to exploit a rise in elevation for military advantage. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Battle of Ohaeawai occurred on 1 July 1845 North Island of New Zealand. ... Gate Pā is the name given to provocative fortress the Māori built in 1864 only 5km from the main British base at Tauranga during Tauranga Campaign of the New Zealand land wars. ...


Frontal assault became increasingly suicidal thanks to the development of improved firearm technology in the mid-19th century. When the American Civil War began in 1861, it was fought with Napoleonic tactics. By 1863, it had many of the characteristics of the First World War, including trenches, rifles, rapid-fire weapons (in WW1, machine guns), field fortifications, and massive casualties. The Battle of Petersburg, near the end of the war, with its trenches and static formations, contrasts sharply with the early battles, such as the First Battle of Bull Run, where manoeuvre was still possible; famous charges, such as George Pickett's at the Battle of Gettysburg, revealed the futility of direct assault on an entrenched opposing line. Firearms redirects here. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... The Napoleonic Wars lasted from 1804 until 1815. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ... Troops in the Siege of Petersburg faced the usual siege armaments — projectiles of all shapes and sizes and attacks on fortifications — but the Union added underground explosives to the mix. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Irvin McDowell Joseph E. Johnston P.G.T. Beauregard Strength 35,000 32,500 Casualties 2,896 (460 killed, 1,124 wounded, 1,312 captured/missing)[1] 1,982 (387 killed, 1,582 wounded, 13 missing)[1] For other uses... Map of Picketts Charge, July 3, 1863. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America Commanders George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 93,921[1] 71,699[2] Casualties 23,055 (3,155 killed, 14,531 wounded, 5,369 captured/missing)[1] 23,231 (4,708 killed, 12,693 wounded, 5,830 captured/missing...

United States Civil War: Union Army Soldiers of 6th Corps, Army of the Potomac, in trenches before storming Marye's Heights at the 2nd Battle of Fredericksburg during the Chancellorsville campaign, Virginia, May 1863.
United States Civil War: Union Army Soldiers of 6th Corps, Army of the Potomac, in trenches before storming Marye's Heights at the 2nd Battle of Fredericksburg during the Chancellorsville campaign, Virginia, May 1863.

Several factors were responsible for the change. First, there was the proliferation of rifles (such as the .58 (14.7mm) Springfield), manufactured in the thousands. Effective at double the range of the typical smoothbore of the Napoleonic era (and able to kill a man at over 1000 m), they enabled men sheltering in a trench or behind an improvised obstacle to hold a body of attackers at a much greater distance than before; attackers were unable to cross the swept zone rapidly enough to avoid prohibitive casualties. Rifles had been used with considerable success in the American Revolution and War of 1812, but were slow to reload and often personal hunting weapons of frontiersmen. By the 1850s, the Minié ball[1] allowed rifles, already widely adopted, to become very much more lethal. Second was the persistence of essentially Napoleonic columnar tactics, which magnified losses; only late in the war did open order (or skirmish line) become standard. Thus, the first response to increased firepower (taking cover) and the second (dispersal of troops) were eventually adopted. The third (armour) was not then an option, as it had been in the face of Welsh or Mongol bows; the fourth, speed (crossing the swept zone faster), was not either, for the fastest battlefield transport was the horse, and cavalry proved as vulnerable as infantry to the new weapons. This would persist into World War One. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1404x1095, 306 KB)Soldiers in the trenches before battle, Petersburg, Virginia, 1865. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1404x1095, 306 KB)Soldiers in the trenches before battle, Petersburg, Virginia, 1865. ... The American Civil War was fought in the United States from 1861 until 1865 between the northern states, popularly referred to as the U.S., the Union, the North, or the Yankees; and the seceding southern states, commonly referred to as the Confederate States of America, the CSA, the Confederacy... The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ... Generals Burnside, Hancock, Couch, Ferro, Patrick, Wilcox, Cochrane, Buford and others. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ambrose E. Burnside Robert E. Lee Strength Army of the Potomac ~114,000 engaged Army of Northern Virginia ~72,500 engaged Casualties 12,653 (1,284 killed, 9,600 wounded, 1,769 captured/missing) 5,377 (608 killed, 4,116... The term Springfield Rifle may refer to any one of several types of small arms produced by the Springfield Armory in Springfield, Massachusetts, for the United States armed forces. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... This article is about the U.S.–U.K. war. ... 1855 minie ball design from Harpers Ferry, West Virginia The Minié ball (or minie ball) is a type of muzzle-loading rifle bullet named after co-developer, Claude-Étienne Minié. It came to prominence in the Crimean War and American Civil War. ... // No one is exactly sure when the first war was fought. ... Skirmishers are infantry soldiers who are stationed ahead or to the sides of a larger body of friendly troops. ... Lemonwood, purpleheart and hickory longbow, 45 lbf / 200 N draw force. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ...


Other factors appearing after the end of the American Civil War played a part. The first was the development of barbed wire (invented in 1874), which in itself did only minor harm, but, crucially, could slow the progress of an attacking force and thus enable emplaced gunners to inflict crippling losses. A second was the improvement of artillery. Artillery in one form or another had been a part of warfare since classical times, and from the rise of gunpowder until the development of trench warfare in the 1860s had been the major killing force; it was supplanted only temporarily by the rifle. With the development of steel breechloading guns by Krupp, however, much of its former power was restored (as graphically demonstrated in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71). Third was the introduction of high explosive shells, which amplified killing power up to sixteenfold. Fourth, hydraulic recoil mechanisms, pioneered by the French 75 mm M1897 (the famed "French 75") significantly increased the rate of fire and accuracy. These magnified the effectiveness of artillery to a degree unimaginable in the 1870s. The swept zone between attacker and defender became a "no man's land", too lethal to cross. The introduction of telephone communication permitted artillery spotting far from the physical artillery batteries -- widening artillery usefulness in indirect fire and speeding shifting of targets. Typical modern agricultural barbed wire. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... Breech from Russian 122 mm M1910 howitzer, modified and combined with 105mm H37 howitzer barrel An interrupted screw style breech plug in the M109 howitzer An animation showing the loading cycle for a large naval breech-loader. ... The three rings were the symbol for Krupp, based on the radreifen - the seamless railway wheels patented by Alfred Krupp. ... Combatants Second French Empire North German Confederation allied with South German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III François Achille Bazaine Patrice de Mac-Mahon, duc de Magenta Otto von Bismarck Helmuth von Moltke the Elder Strength 400,000 at wars beginning 1,200,000 Casualties 150,000... Shells of WWI. From left to right: 90 mm fragmentation shell - 120 mm pig iron incendiary shell 77/14 model - 75 mm high explosive shell model 16 - 75 mm fragmentation shell A shell is a payload-carrying projectile, which, as opposed to a bullet, contains an explosive or other filling... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Canon de 75 modèle 1897 Rifling of a 75 modèle 1897 The French 75mm field gun is a quick-firing field artillery piece developed before World War I and serving into World War II. It was commonly known as the French 75... 29th Infantry Battalion, 2nd Division, Canadian Corps. ... For other uses, see Telephone (disambiguation). ... The reporting format used by an observer is left/right/long/short,(MOS 96D, MOS 13 series) The information is dated and needs to be updated, preferrably with more details ideally from actual participants. ... Indirect fire is a characteristic unique to artillery in which the fire is adjusted out of sight of the guns. ...


Implementation

A Cheshire Regiment sentry in a trench near La Boisselle during the Battle of the Somme, July 1916
A Cheshire Regiment sentry in a trench near La Boisselle during the Battle of the Somme, July 1916

Although firearms technology and the conscript army dramatically changed the nature of warfare, most armies were completely unaware of the implications of these changes and were not prepared for their consequences. As early as 1864, the opposing armies in the American Civil War were entrenched near Petersburg, Virginia for months, and tactics which were later to be tried in Europe, such as subterranean mines, were employed to break the stalemate -- to little effect. Image File history File linksMetadata Cheshire_Regiment_trench_Somme_1916. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Cheshire_Regiment_trench_Somme_1916. ... The 22nd (Cheshire) Regiment is an infantry regiment of the British Army, part of the Prince of Wales Division. ... Ovillers-la-Boisselle is a commune of the Somme département in northern France. ... Combatants British Empire Australia Canada New Zealand Newfoundland South Africa United Kingdom France German Empire Commanders Douglas Haig Joseph Joffre Max von Gallwitz Fritz von Below Strength 13 British & 11 French divisions (initial) 51 British and 48 French divisions (final) 10. ... The term Conscript may refer to people enlisted in the armed forces through conscription. ... Nickname: Location in the State of Virginia Coordinates: , Country United States State Virginia County Independent city Founded December 17, 1748 Government  - Mayor Annie M. Mickens Area  - City  23. ...


At the start of World War I, most armies prepared for a brief war whose strategy and tactics would have been familiar to Napoleon. Indeed, a number of horse cavalry units were brought to the front by train, commanded by officers who did not imagine the factors that would render them useless. Most of these units were never deployed. Infantry, armed with bolt action rifles and augmented by machine guns, needed only to dig in a bit to become nigh invulnerable. To attack frontally was to court crippling losses, so an outflanking operation was essential. After the Battle of the Aisne in September 1914, an extended series of attempted flanking moves, and matching extensions to the fortified defensive lines, soon saw the celebrated "race to the sea"; German and Allied armies produced essentially a matched pair of trench lines from the Swiss border in the south to the North Sea coast of Belgium. Trench warfare prevailed on the Western Front from September 16, 1914, until the Germans launched their "Spring Offensive", Operation Michael, on March 21, 1918. For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... For other uses, see Train (disambiguation). ... A bolt-action firearm is one that is manually operated (i. ... A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ... Swiss may be: Related to Switzerland: the Swiss Confederation Swiss people Swiss cheese Swiss corporations Switzerland-related topics Named Swiss: Swiss, Missouri Swiss, North Carolina Swiss, West Virginia Swiss, Wisconsin Swiss International Air Lines Swiss Re SWiSS is also used as a disparaging nickname for the Socialist Workers Student Society. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... Combatants Belgium British Empire Australia[1] Canada[2] India[3] Newfoundland[4] New Zealand[5] South Africa[6] United Kingdom France and French Overseas Empire Portugal[7] United States Germany Commanders No unified command until 1918, then Ferdinand Foch Moltke → Falkenhayn → Hindenburg and Ludendorff → Hindenburg and Groener Casualties ~4,800... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Spring Offensive (Operation Michael) was a German offensive along the Western Front during the First World War which marked the deepest advance by any side since 1914. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...


On the Western Front, the small improvised trenches of the first few months rapidly grew deeper and more complex, gradually becoming vast areas of interlocking defensive works. Such defensive works resisted both artillery barrages and mass infantry assaults. The space between the opposing trenches was referred to as "no man's land" (for its lethal uncrossability) and varied in width depending on the battlefield. On the Western Front it was typically between 100 and 300 yards (90-275 m), though only 30 yards (27 m) on Vimy Ridge. After the German withdrawal to the Hindenburg line in March 1917, it stretched to over a kilometre in places. At the infamous "Quinn's Post" in the cramped confines of the Anzac battlefield at Gallipoli, the opposing trenches were only 15 m (16yd) apart and an incessant bombing war was waged there. On the Eastern Front and in the Middle East, the areas to be covered were so vast, and the distances from the factories supplying shells, bullets, concrete and barbed wire so great, trench warfare in the European style often did not eventuate. German barrage on Allied trenches at Ypres. ... Combatants Canada United Kingdom  German Empire Commanders Julian Byng Arthur Currie Ludwig von Falkenhausen Strength 200,000 Unknown Casualties 3,598 dead, 7,004 wounded[1][2] 20,000 dead or wounded, 4,000 captured The Battle of Vimy Ridge was one of the opening battles in a larger British... The Hindenburg Line was a vast system of defences in Northern France constructed by the Germans during the winter of 1916– 17 during World War I; the Germans called it the Siegfried Line. ... Combatants British Empire Australia British India Newfoundland New Zealand United Kingdom Egyptian labourers[1] France Senegal  Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir Ian Hamilton Lord Kitchener John de Robeck Otto von Sanders Mustafa Kemal Strength 5 divisions (initial) 16 divisions (final) 6 divisions (initial) 15 divisions (final) Casualties 252,000[2] 195... Grenade may refer to: The well-known hand grenade commonly used by soldiers. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ...


In the Alps, trench warfare even stretched onto vertical slopes and deep into the mountains, to heights of 3900 m (12795 ft) above sea level (the Ortler had an artillery position on its summit near the front line). The trench-line management and trench profiles had to be adapted to the rough terrain, the hard rock, and the harsh weather conditions. Many trench systems were constructed within glaciers like the Adamello-Presanella group or the famous city below the ice on the Marmolada in the Dolomites. Alp redirects here. ... Ortler (3905m), highest mountain in the Eastern Alps, main peak of the Ortler Group, a mountain range in South Tyrol and Trentino, Italy. ... Adamello seen from the Tonale Pass road Mount Adamellos North face with Venerocolo dam in the foreground The Adamello-Presanella Group is a mountain range in the Italian Alps. ... Marmolada (the Italian name; also Latin: Marmoleda, German: Marmolata) is a mountain in northeastern Italy (just east of Trento) and the highest mountain of the Dolomites (a section of the Alps). ... // The Dolomites (Italian: Dolomiti; German: Dolomiten; Friulian: Dolomitis) are a section of the Alps. ...


Defensive system

1st Lancashire Fusiliers, in communication trench near Beaumont Hamel, Somme, 1916
1st Lancashire Fusiliers, in communication trench near Beaumont Hamel, Somme, 1916

Very early in the war, British defensive doctrine suggested a main trench system of three parallel lines, interconnected by communications trenches. The point at which a communications trench intersected the front trench was of critical importance, and it was usually heavily fortified. The front trench was lightly garrisoned and typically only occupied in force during "stand to" at dawn and dusk. Between 70 and 100 yards (64-91 m) behind the front trench was located the support (or "travel") trench, to which the garrison would retreat when the front trench was bombarded. Between 300 and 500 yards (275-460 m) further to the rear was located the third reserve trench, where the reserve troops could amass for a counter-attack if the front trenches were captured. This defensive layout was soon rendered obsolete as the power of the artillery grew; however, in certain sectors of the front, the support trench was maintained as a decoy to attract the enemy bombardment away from the front and reserve lines. Fires were lit in the support line to make it appear inhabited and any damage done immediately repaired. Image File history File linksMetadata Lancashire_Fusiliers_trench_Beaumont_Hamel_1916. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Lancashire_Fusiliers_trench_Beaumont_Hamel_1916. ... The Lancashire Fusiliers was a British infantry regiment that was amalgamated with other Fusilier regiments in 1968 to form the Royal Regiment of Fusiliers. ... The Newfoundland Memorial at Beaumont Hamel Beaumont-Hamel is a commune of the Somme département, in northern France. ...

Aerial view of opposing trench lines between Loos and Hulluch, July 1917. German trenches at the right and bottom, British at the top-left.
Aerial view of opposing trench lines between Loos and Hulluch, July 1917. German trenches at the right and bottom, British at the top-left.

Temporary trenches were also built. When a major attack was planned, assembly trenches would be dug near the front trench. These were used to provide a sheltered place for the waves of attacking troops who would follow the first waves leaving from the front trench. "Saps" were temporary, unmanned, often dead-end utility trenches dug out into no-man's land. They fulfilled a variety of purposes, such as connecting the front trench to a listening post close to the enemy wire or providing an advance "jumping-off" line for a surprise attack. When one side's front line bulged towards the opposition, a "salient" was formed. The concave trench line facing the salient was called a "re-entrant." Large salients were perilous for their occupants because they could be assailed from three sides. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (767x864, 242 KB) An aerial reconnaissance photograph of the opposing trenches and no-mans land between Loos and Hulluch in Artois, France, taken at 7. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (767x864, 242 KB) An aerial reconnaissance photograph of the opposing trenches and no-mans land between Loos and Hulluch in Artois, France, taken at 7. ... In military terms, a salient is a battlefield feature that projects into enemy territory. ...


Behind the front system of trenches there were usually at least two more partially prepared trench systems, kilometres to the rear, ready to be occupied in the event of a retreat. The Germans often prepared multiple redundant trench systems; in 1916 their Somme front featured two complete trench systems, one kilometer apart, with a third partially completed system a further kilometer behind. This duplication made a decisive breakthrough virtually impossible. In the event that a section of the first trench system was captured, a "switch" trench would be dug to connect the second trench system to the still-held section of the first. The Germans made something of a science out of designing and constructing defensive works. They used reinforced concrete to construct deep, shell-proof, ventilated dugouts, as well as strategic strongpoints. They were more willing than their opponents to make a strategic withdrawal to a superior prepared defensive position. They were also the first to apply the concept of "defense in depth," where the front-line zone was hundreds of yards deep and contained a series of redoubts rather than a continuous trench. Each redoubt could provide supporting fire to its neighbours, and while the attackers had freedom of movement between the redoubts, they would be subjected to withering enfilade fire. The British eventually adopted a similar approach, but it was incompletely implemented when the Germans launched the 1918 "Spring Offensive" and proved disastrously ineffective. France, by contrast, relied on artillery and reserves, not entrenchment. The characteristic barbed wire placed before trenches, in belts 15 m (50 ft) deep or more, differed, too; the German wire was heavier gauge, and British wire cutters (designed for the thinner native product) were unable to cut it.[2] This article is about the French department. ...


Trench construction

Trench construction diagram from a 1914 British infantry manual
Trench construction diagram from a 1914 British infantry manual

Trenches were never straight but were dug in a zigzagging pattern that broke the line into bays connected by traverses. This meant that a soldier could never see more than 10 meters (30 ft) or so along the trench. The trenches were dug like this so an enemy would not be able to attack from the sides thus causing major damage. Consequently, the entire trench could not be enfiladed if the enemy gained access at one point; or if a bomb or shell landed in the trench, the fragmentation (often called shrapnel) could not travel far. Another bonus for building trenches in a zig zag pattern was that if enemy aircraft were sent to gather intelligence for artillery strikes, it would be harder for them to accurately give co-ordinates for zig zagging trenches than straight trenches. The side of the trench facing the enemy was called the parapet and had a fire step. The rear of the trench was called the parados. The parados protected the soldier's back from fragmentation from shells falling behind the trench. If the enemy captured the trench, then the parados would become their "parapet". The sides of the trench were revetted with sandbags, wooden frames and wire mesh. The floor of the trench was usually covered by wooden duckboards. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (790x650, 69 KB) Instruction diagram for constructing a reveted fire-trench with bays and traverses. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (790x650, 69 KB) Instruction diagram for constructing a reveted fire-trench with bays and traverses. ... Fragmentation is the process by which the casing of an artillery shell, bomb, grenade, etc is shattered by the detonating high explosive filling. ... It has been suggested that Fragmentation (weaponry) be merged into this article or section. ...


Dugouts of varying degrees of luxury would be built in the rear of the support trench. British dugouts were usually 8 to 16 feet (2.5-5 m) deep, whereas German dugouts were typically much deeper, usually a minimum of 12 feet (3.6 m) deep and sometimes dug three stories down, with concrete staircases to reach the upper levels. "Luxury" was a relative term when prolonged rain reduced the floor and walls to mud.

To allow a soldier to see out of the trench without exposing his head, a loophole would be built into the parapet. A loophole might simply be a gap in the sandbags, or it might be fitted with a steel plate. German snipers used armour-piercing bullets that allowed them to penetrate loopholes. The other means to see over the parapet was the trench periscope—in its simplest form, just a stick with two angled pieces of mirror at the top and bottom. In the Anzac trenches at Gallipoli, where the Turks held the high ground, the periscope rifle was developed to enable the Australians and New Zealanders to snipe at the enemy without exposing themselves over the parapet. Download high resolution version (800x779, 106 KB)Australian sniper using a periscope rifle at Gallipoli, 1915. ... Download high resolution version (800x779, 106 KB)Australian sniper using a periscope rifle at Gallipoli, 1915. ... Alternate meaning: Lighthorse (American Indian police) The Australian Light Horse soldiers were mounted infantry who served during the Boer War and World War I. The Light Horse differed from cavalry in that they usually fought dismounted, using their horses as transport to the battlefield and as a means of swift... Sgt. ... Principle of the periscope. ... Sgt. ...


There were three standard ways to dig a trench: entrenching, sapping, and tunneling. Entrenching, where a man would stand on the surface and dig downwards, was most efficient, as it allowed a large digging party to dig the full length of the trench simultaneously. However, entrenching left the diggers exposed above ground and hence could only be carried out when free of observation, such as in a rear area or at night. Sapping involved extending the trench by digging away at the end face. The diggers were not exposed, but only one or two men could work on the trench at a time. Tunneling was like sapping except that a "roof" of soil was left in place while the trench line was established and then removed when the trench was ready to be occupied. The guidelines for British trench construction stated that it would take 450 men 6 hours (at night) to complete 250 m (275yd) of front-line trench system. Thereafter, the trench would require constant maintenance to prevent deterioration caused by weather or shelling. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Undermining. ...

Breastwork "trench", Armentières, 1916
Breastwork "trench", Armentières, 1916

The battlefield of Flanders, which saw some of the worst fighting, presented numerous problems for the practice of trench warfare, especially for the British, who were often compelled to occupy the low ground. Heavy shelling quickly destroyed the network of ditches and water channels which had previously drained this low-lying area of Belgium. In most places, the water table was only a meter or so below the surface, meaning that any trench dug in the ground would quickly flood. Consequently, many "trenches" in Flanders were actually above ground and constructed from massive breastworks of sandbags (actually filled with clay). Initially, both the parapet and parados of the trench were built in this way, but a later technique was to dispense with the parados for much of the trench line, thus exposing the rear of the trench to fire from the reserve line in case the front was breached. A breastwork trench, constructed from sandbags, south-west of Armentières, early 1916. ... A breastwork trench, constructed from sandbags, south-west of Armentières, early 1916. ... For other uses, see Flanders (disambiguation). ... Cross section showing the water table varying with surface topography as well as a perched water table The water table or phreatic surface is the surface where the water pressure is equal to atmospheric pressure. ...


Trench geography

A modern map with the frontline close to Roclincourt highlighted in green
A modern map with the frontline close to Roclincourt highlighted in green

The confined, static, and subterranean nature of trench warfare resulted in it developing its own peculiar form of geography. In the forward zone, the conventional transport infrastructure of roads and rail were replaced by the network of trenches and light tramways. The critical advantage that could be gained by holding the high ground meant that minor hills and ridges gained enormous significance. Many slight hills and valleys were so subtle as to have been nameless until the front line encroached upon them. Some hills were named for their height in meters, such as Hill 60. A farmhouse, windmill, quarry, or copse of trees would become the focus of a determined struggle simply because it was the largest identifiable feature. However, it would not take the artillery long to obliterate it, so that thereafter it became just a name on a map. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 439 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,538 × 3,462 pixels, file size: 957 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) AN ORIGINAL DIGITAL IMAGE OF ROCLINCOURT SHOWING THE BRITISH FRONT LINE I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 439 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,538 × 3,462 pixels, file size: 957 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) AN ORIGINAL DIGITAL IMAGE OF ROCLINCOURT SHOWING THE BRITISH FRONT LINE I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public... The Battle of Hill 60 was a British assault that was subsidiary to the Battle of Neuve Chapelle. ...

German stormtroopers training with a flamethrower near Sedan, France, May 1917
German stormtroopers training with a flamethrower near Sedan, France, May 1917

Battlefield features could be given a descriptive name ("Polygon Wood" near Ypres or "Lone Pine"), a whimsical name ("Sausage Valley" and "Mash Valley" on the Somme), a unit name ("Inniskilling Inch" at Helles named for the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers) or the name of a soldier ("Monash Valley" at Anzac named after General John Monash). Prefixing a feature with "Dead Man's" was also popular for obvious reasons, such as "Dead Man's Road" leading in to Pozières, or "Dead Man's Ridge" at Anzac. There were numerous trench networks named "The Chessboard" or "The Gridiron" because of the pattern they described. For the Australians at Mouquet Farm, the advances were so short and the terrain so featureless that they were reduced to naming their objectives as "points" on the map, such as "Point 81" and "Point 55." Enemy trenches, which would become objectives in an attack, needed to be named as well. Many were named for some observed event such as "German Officers' Trench" at Anzac (where a couple of German officers were sighted) or "Ration Trench" on the Somme (where German ration-carrying parties were sighted). The British gave an alcoholic flavour to the German trenches in front of Ginchy: "Beer Trench," "Bitter Trench," "Hop Trench," "Ale Alley," and "Pilsen Trench." Other objectives were named according to their role in the trench system, such as the "Switch Trench" and "Intermediate Trench" on the Somme. Some sections of the British trench system read like a Monopoly board, with names such as "Park Lane" and "Bond Street," British regular divisions habitually named their trenches after units, which resulted in names such as "Munster Alley" (Royal Munster Fusiliers), "Black Watch Alley" (Black Watch Regiment) and "Border Barricade" (Border Regiment). The Anzacs tended to name features after soldiers ("Plugge's Plateau," "Walker's Ridge," "Quinn's Post," "Johnston's Jolly," "Russell's Top," "Brind's Road" and so forth). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1500x1025, 412 KB) German stormtroops training with a flamethrower in a dummy trench system near Sedan, France, May 1917. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1500x1025, 412 KB) German stormtroops training with a flamethrower in a dummy trench system near Sedan, France, May 1917. ... The Stormtroopers were special military troops which were formed in the last year of World War I as the German army developed new methods of attacking enemy trenches, called infiltration tactics. Men trained in these methods were known as in German as Sturmmann (literally storm man or assault man but... Riverboat of the U.S. Brownwater Navy shooting ignited napalm from its mounted flamethrower during the Vietnam war. ... Sedan is a town and commune in France, a sous-préfecture of the Ardennes département. ... Battlefield may refer to: the location of a battle, the Battlefield televised documentary series, shown on the Discovery Channel, which explores battles of World War 2, the Battlefield Vietnam televised documentary series, shown on the Military Channel, which gives detail explanations of Vietnam War, (1945-1975), battles. ... Polygon Wood is a forest located between Ypres and Zonnebeke, Belgium. ... Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province West Flanders Arrondissement Ypres Coordinates , , Area 130. ... Combatants Australia Ottoman Empire Commanders Harold Walker Unknown Strength 1 division Unknown Casualties 2,300 6,000 The Battle of Lone Pine, which took place during the Gallipoli campaign, was the only successful Australian attack against the Turkish trenches within the original perimeter of the ANZAC battlefield, and yet it... Sausage Valley was the name given by British soldiers during the First World War to a shallow valley south of the village of La Boisselle in the Somme département, France. ... Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers Motto: Nec Aspera Terrent (By Difficulties Undaunted) In 1688 the inhabitants of Inniskillen, Ireland, organized a town millitia to defend the area aginst James II. The millitia fought the enemy with such succes that it was later incorporated into the army of William III as the Inniskilling... Anzac Cove looking towards Ari Burnu, 1915. ... Sir John Monash General Sir John Monash, GCMG, KCB, VD (27 June 1865 – 8 October 1931), Australian military commander of the First World War, was born in Melbourne, Victoria, to parents of Prussian-Jewish origin (the family name was originally spelled Monasch). ... Anzac Cove looking towards Ari Burnu, 1915. ... Mouquet farm, Pozières by Fred Leist, 1917. ... Anzac Cove looking towards Ari Burnu, 1915. ... An officer is a member of a military, naval, or if applicable, other uniformed services who holds a position of responsibility. ... This article is about the board game. ... The Royal Munster Fusiliers consisted of two regular service and two reserve battalions prior to World War I. Subsequently it had a total of 11 raised battalions. ... For other uses, see Black Watch (disambiguation). ... The Border Regiment was an infantry regiment of the line in the British Army, formed in 1881 by the amalgamation of the 34th (Cumberland) Regiment of Foot and the 55th (Westmoreland) Regiment of Foot. ... The Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (popularly abbreviated as ANZAC) was originally an army corps of Australian and New Zealand troops who fought in World War I at Gallipoli against the Turks. ...


Life in the trenches

French trench at Côte 304, Verdun, 1916
French trench at Côte 304, Verdun, 1916

An individual soldier's time in the front-line trench was usually brief; from as little as one day to as much as two weeks at a time before being relieved. The Australian 31st Battalion once spent 53 days in the line at Villers Bretonneux, but such a duration was a rare exception. A typical British soldier's year could be divided as follows: French soldiers of the 87th Regiment, 6th Division, at Côte 304, (Hill 304), northwest of Verdun, 1916. ... French soldiers of the 87th Regiment, 6th Division, at Côte 304, (Hill 304), northwest of Verdun, 1916. ...

  • 15% front line
  • 10% support line
  • 30% reserve line
  • 20% rest
  • 25% other (hospital, travelling, leave, training courses, etc.)

Even when in the front line, the typical soldier would only be called upon to engage in fighting a handful of times a year—making an attack, defending against an attack or participating in a raid. The frequency of combat would increase for the men of the "elite" fighting divisions—on the Allied side; the British regular divisions, the Canadian Corps, the French XX Corps and the Anzacs. The Canadian Corps was a World War I Canadas soldiers in September of 1915 after the arrival of the 2nd Canadian Division in France. ... The Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (popularly abbreviated as ANZAC) was originally an army corps of Australian and New Zealand troops who fought in World War I at Gallipoli against the Turks. ...

"Studying French in the Trenches," The Literary Digest, October 20, 1917.
"Studying French in the Trenches," The Literary Digest, October 20, 1917.

Some sectors of the front saw little activity throughout the war, making life in the trenches comparatively easy. When the I Anzac Corps first arrived in France in April 1916 after the evacuation of Gallipoli, they were sent to a relatively peaceful sector south of Armentières to "acclimatise". Other sectors were in a perpetual state of violent activity. On the Western Front, Ypres was invariably hellish, especially for the British in the exposed, overlooked salient. However, quiet sectors still amassed daily casualties through sniper fire, artillery, disease, and poison gas. In the first six months of 1916, before the launch of the Somme Offensive, the British did not engage in any significant battles on their sector of the Western Front and yet suffered 107,776 casualties. About 1 in 8 men would return alive and wound free from the trenches. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1538x1607, 1219 KB) Summary Studying French in the Trenches. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1538x1607, 1219 KB) Summary Studying French in the Trenches. ... The I Anzac Corps was an Australian and New Zealand World War I army corps formed in Egypt in February 1916 as part of the reorganization of the Australian Imperial Force following the evacuation of Gallipoli in November 1915. ... Armentières is a commune and a canton of the département of Nord, in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais région, in France. ... Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province West Flanders Arrondissement Ypres Coordinates , , Area 130. ...


A sector of the front would be allocated to an army corps, usually comprising three divisions. Of these two divisions would occupy adjacent sections of the front and the third would be in rest to the rear. This breakdown of duty would continue down through the army structure, so that within each front-line division, typically comprising three infantry brigades (regiments for the Germans), two brigades would occupy the front and the third would be in reserve. Within each front-line brigade, typically comprising four battalions, two battalions would occupy the front with two in reserve. And so on for companies and platoons. The lower down the structure this division of duty proceeded, the more frequently the units would rotate from front-line duty to support or reserve. This article is about a military unit. ... Symbol of the Polish 1st Legions Infantry Division in NATO code A division is a large military unit or formation usually consisting of around ten to twenty thousand soldiers. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I Infantry or footmen are very highly disciplined and trained soldiers who fight primarily with small arms(rifles), but are trained to use everything from their bare hands to missle systems in order to neutralize... In military science a brigade is a military unit that is part of a division and includes regiments (where that level exists), or (in modern armies) is composed of several battalions (typically two to four) and directly attached supporting units. ... Symbol of the Austrian 14th Armoured Battalion in NATO military graphic symbols This article is about the military unit. ...

Chateau Wood, Ypres, 1917
Chateau Wood, Ypres, 1917

During the day, snipers and artillery observers in balloons made movement perilous, so the trenches were mostly quiet. Consequently, the trenches were busiest at night, when cover of darkness allowed the movement of troops and supplies, the maintenance and expansion of the barbed wire and trench system, and reconnaissance of the enemy's defenses. Sentries in listening posts out in no man's land would try to detect enemy patrols and working parties or indications that an attack was being prepared. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x769, 100 KB)Soldiers of an Australian 4th Division field artillery brigade on a duckboard track passing through Chateau Wood, near Hooge in the Ypres salient, October 29, 1917. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x769, 100 KB)Soldiers of an Australian 4th Division field artillery brigade on a duckboard track passing through Chateau Wood, near Hooge in the Ypres salient, October 29, 1917. ...


Pioneered by the PPCLI in February 1915,[3] trench raids were carried out in order to capture prisoners and "booty"—letters and other documents to provide intelligence about the unit occupying the opposing trenches. As the war progressed, raiding became part of the general British policy, the intention being to maintain the fighting spirit of the troops and to deny no man's land to the Germans. As well, they were intended to force the enemy to reinforce, which exposed his troops to artillery fire.[4] Such dominance was achieved at a high cost, when the enemy replied with his own artillery,[5] and a post-war British analysis concluded the benefits were probably not worth the cost. Early in the war, surprise raids would be mounted, particularly by the Canadians, but increased vigilance made achieving surprise difficult as the war progressed. By 1916, raids were carefully planned exercises in combined arms and involved close co-operation of infantry and artillery. A raid would begin with an intense artillery bombardment designed to drive off or kill the front-trench garrison and cut the barbed wire. Then the bombardment would shift to form a "box", or cordon, around a section of the front line to prevent a counter-attack intercepting the raid. However, the bombardment also had the effect of notifying the enemy of the location of the planned attack, thus allowing reinforcements to be called in from wider sectors. Princess Patricias Canadian Light Infantry (PPCLI) is an infantry regiment in the Canadian Forces (CF), belonging to 1 Canadian Mechanized Brigade Group (1 CMBG). ... 29th Infantry Battalion, 2nd Division, Canadian Corps. ...


Death in the trenches

A group of British Indian Army soldiers capture a German trench with guns and grenades. Circa 1945.

The intensity of World War I trench warfare meant about 10% of the fighting soldiers were killed. This compared to 5% killed during the Second Boer War and 4.5% killed during World War II. For British and Dominion troops serving on the Western Front, the proportion of troops killed was 12.5%, while the total proportion of troops who became casualties (killed or wounded) was 56%. Considering that for every front-line infantryman there were about three soldiers in support (artillery, supply, medical, and so on), it was highly unlikely for a fighting soldier to survive the war without sustaining some form of injury. Indeed many soldiers were injured more than once during the course of their service. Image File history File links Indian_Army_WWII.jpg‎ source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Indian_Army_WWII.jpg‎ source: http://www. ... A group of native Indian Muslim soldiers posing for volley firing orders. ... For other uses of the word, see Trench (disambiguation). ... Grenade may refer to: The well-known hand grenade commonly used by soldiers. ... Combatants British Empire Orange Free State South African Republic Commanders Sir Redvers Buller Lord Kitchener Lord Roberts Paul Kruger Louis Botha Koos de la Rey Martinus Steyn Christiaan de Wet Casualties 6,000 - 7,000 (A further ~14,000 from disease) 6,000 - 8,000 (Unknown number from disease) Civilians... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Medical services were primitive and antibiotics had not yet been discovered. Relatively minor injuries could prove fatal through onset of infection and gangrene. The Germans recorded that 15% of leg wounds and 25% of arm wounds resulted in death, mainly through infection. The Americans recorded 44% of casualties who developed gangrene died. 50% of those wounded in the head died and 1% of those wounded in the abdomen survived. 75% of wounds came from shell fire. The wound resulting from a shell fragment was usually more traumatic than a gunshot wound. A shell fragment would often introduce debris, making it more likely that the wound would become infected. These factors meant a soldier was three times more likely to die from a shell wound to the chest than from a gunshot wound. The blast from shell explosions could also kill by concussion. In addition to the physical effects of shell fire, there was the psychological damage. Men who had to endure prolonged bombardment would often suffer debilitating shell shock, a condition not well understood at the time (it is now usually called post traumatic stress disorder). Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... Gangrene is the necrosis and subsequent decay of body tissues caused by infection or thrombosis. ... For the human abdomen, see human abdomen. ... Cerebral Concussion redirects here. ... The military term combat stress reaction (CSR) comprises the range of adverse behaviours in reaction to the stress of combat and combat related activities. ... Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), is a term for the psychological consequences of exposure to or confrontation with stressful experiences, which involve actual or threatened death, serious physical injury or a threat to physical integrity and which the person found highly traumatic. ...


As in many other wars, World War I's greatest killer was disease. Sanitary conditions in the trenches were quite poor, and common infections included dysentery, typhus, and cholera. Many soldiers suffered from parasites and related infections. Poor hygiene also led to fungal conditions, such as trench mouth and trench foot. Another common killer was exposure, since the temperature within a trench in the winter could easily fall below zero degrees Celsius (32 °F). Burial of the dead was usually a luxury that neither side could easily afford. The bodies would lie in no man's land until the front line moved, by which time the bodies were often unidentifiable. On some battlefields, such as at the Nek in Gallipoli, the bodies were not buried until after the war. On the Western Front, bodies continue to be found as fields are ploughed and building foundations dug. E. Coli bacteria under magnification Sanitation is the hygienic disposal or recycling of waste, as well as the policy and practice of protecting health through hygienic measures. ... Dysentery (formerly known as flux or the bloody flux) is frequent, small-volume, severe diarrhea that shows blood in the feces along with intestinal cramping and tenesmus (painful straining to pass stool). ... For the unrelated disease caused by Salmonella typhi, see Typhoid fever. ... Cholera (or Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera) is an extreme diarrheal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... A parasite is an organism that spends a significant portion of its life in or on the living tissue of a host organism and which causes harm to the host without immediately killing it. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... Trench mouth is a polymicrobial infection of the gums leading to inflammation, bleeding, deep ulceration and necrotic gum tissue, there may also be fever. ... Trench foot (also known as immersion foot) is a medical condition caused by prolonged exposure of the feet to damp and cold. ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... // Combatants Australia Ottoman Empire Commanders Col. ...

Stretcher bearers, Passchendale, August 1917
Stretcher bearers, Passchendale, August 1917

At various times during the war—particularly early on—official truces were organised so that the wounded could be recovered from no man's land and the dead could be buried. Generally, senior commands disapproved of any slackening of the offensive for humanitarian reasons and so ordered their troops not to permit enemy stretcher-bearers to operate in no man's land. However, this order was almost invariably ignored by the soldiers in the trenches, who knew that it was to the mutual benefit of the fighting men of both sides to allow the wounded to be retrieved. So, as soon as hostilities ceased, parties of stretcher bearers, marked with Red Cross flags, would go out to recover the wounded, sometimes swapping enemy wounded for their own. There were occasions when this unofficial cease fire was exploited to conduct a reconnaissance or to reinforce or relieve a garrison. One famous truce was the Christmas truce between British and German soldiers in the winter of 1914 on the front near Armentieres. German soldiers began singing Christmas carols and soon soldiers left their trenches. The soldiers exchanged gifts and stories, and played several games of football. As mentioned previously, the commanders of the warring nations disapproved of this cease fire, and the British court-martialed several of their soldiers. The spirit of this truce is portrayed in the 2005 movie Merry Christmas (Joyeux Noël). Stretcher bearers struggling through the mud of Passchendaele, August 1, 1917. ... Stretcher bearers struggling through the mud of Passchendaele, August 1, 1917. ... The symbols of the Movement - The Red Cross and the Red Crescent emblems at the museum in Geneva. ... A cross, left near Ypres in Belgium in 1999, to commemorate the site of the Christmas Truce in 1914. ... Merry Christmas (French title: Joyeux Noël) is a 2005 film about the Christmas truce of December 1914 by French, British and German soldiers of World War I, written and directed by Christian Carion. ...


Weapons of trench warfare

Infantry weapons

The common infantry soldier had four weapons to use in the trenches: the rifle, bayonet, shotgun, and hand grenade. The standard issue British rifle was the .303 Short Magazine Lee-Enfield (SMLE), originally developed as a cavalry carbine, with a maximum range of 1400yd (1280 m). The Ross rifle was widely used by the Canadian Corps early in the war and was reputedly more accurate than the British SMLE. However, it proved notoriously unreliable under battlefield conditions, often jamming when dirty or fired rapidly, and was gradually discarded for routine use in favour of the SMLE, except for sniping. Early in the war, the British were able to defeat German attacks at Mons and the First Battle of Ypres with massed rifle fire, but as trench warfare developed, opportunities to assemble a line of riflemen disappeared. Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I Infantry or footmen are very highly disciplined and trained soldiers who fight primarily with small arms(rifles), but are trained to use everything from their bare hands to missle systems in order to neutralize... For other uses, see Rifle (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see bayonet (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Shotgun (disambiguation). ... Grenade redirects here. ... .303 cartridge The . ... Lee-Enfield No4 Mk1 with bayonet, scabbard attached The Lee-Enfield was the British armys standard bolt action, magazine-fed, repeating rifle from 1895 until 1956. ... Ross rifle in Royal Canadian Regiment Military Museum in London, Ontario Ross rifle in Royal Canadian Regiment Military Museum in London, Ontario Mechanism comparison between Ross Mk III (1910) and Mk II** (1907) The Ross rifle was a straight-pull bolt-action . ... The Canadian Corps was a World War I Canadas soldiers in September of 1915 after the arrival of the 2nd Canadian Division in France. ... Combatants United Kingdom German Empire Commanders Sir John French Alexander von Kluck Strength 4 divisions 8 divisions Casualties 1,600 5,000 (estimate) The Battle of Mons [1] was the first major action of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) in World War I. // Following the surrender of the Liège... Combatants United Kingdom France German Empire Commanders John French Ferdinand Foch Erich von Falkenhayn Strength UK: 7 infantry divisions, 3 cavalry divisions France: ? Fourth and Sixth Armies Casualties UK: 58,000 France: 50,000 130,000 The First Battle of Ypres, also called the Battle of Flanders, was the last...


The German counterpart to the Lee-Enfield was the 7.92x57mm (.323") Mauser Gewehr 98. It was less suited to rapid fire than the SMLE, due to its smaller magazine and slower rate of fire. The British soldier was equipped with a 21-inch (53 cm) sword bayonet, which was too long and unwieldy to be particularly effective in close-quarters combat. However, bayonet use was safer than firing the rifle which, in a mêlée, might strike an ally instead of an enemy. British figures recorded only 0.3% of wounds were caused by bayonets; however, a strike from a bayonet was likely to result in death. The bayonet was also used to finish off wounded enemy soldiers during an advance, both saving ammunition and reducing the probability of being attacked from the rear. Imperial German soldiers generally carried the S98/05 "Butcher-blade" bayonet, which was an effective weapon in the open, but like the British bayonet, difficult to use in the narrow trenches when attached to a rifle. 7. ... Mauser is the common name of a German arms manufacturer, maker of a line of bolt-action rifles from the 1870s to present. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... (for paintball markers also)Rate of fire is the frequency at which a specific weapon can fire or launch its projectiles. ... Codex Manesse: a picture of mêlée at a tournament (from the French, IPA: .) generally refers to disorganized close combat involving a group of fighters. ...


Many soldiers preferred a short-handled spade or entrenching tool over a bayonet. They would sharpen the blade so it was just as effective as a bayonet, and the shorter length made them handier to use in the confined quarters of the trenches. These tools could then be used to dig in after they had taken a trench. Since the troops were often not adequately equipped for trench warfare, improvised weapons were common in the first encounters, such as short wooden clubs and metal maces, as well as trench knives and brass knuckles (see trench raiding). As the war progressed, better equipment was issued, and improvised arms were discarded. A development of the club, a mace consists of a strong, heavy wooden, metal-reinforced, or metal shaft, with a head made of stone, copper, bronze, iron or steel. ... Classic pattern brass knuckles Brass knuckles, also sometimes called knucks or knuckle dusters (more common in British English) , are weapons used in hand-to-hand combat. ... Categories: Weapon stubs | M e weapons ... Trench raiding was an often brutal feature of trench warfare that came into being in World War I, and was the practice of making small scale surprise attacks on enemy positions. ...


Used by American soldiers in the Western front, the pump action shotgun was a formidable weapon in short range combat, enough so that Germany lodged a formal protest against their use on 14 September 1918, stating "every prisoner found to have in his possession such guns or ammunition belonging thereto forfeits his life" (though this threat was apparently never carried out). The U.S. military began to issue models specially modified for combat, called "trench guns", with shorter barrels, higher capacity magazines, no choke, and often heat shields around the barrel, as well as lugs for the M1917 bayonets. ANZAC and some British soldiers were also known to use sawn-off shotguns in trench raids, because of their portability, effectiveness at close range, and ease of use in the confines of a trench. This practice was not officially sanctioned, and the shotguns used were invariably modified sporting guns. Pump action shotguns are a subclass of shotguns that are distinguished in the way in which spent shells are extracted and fresh ones are chambered. ... For other uses, see Shotgun (disambiguation). ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (popularly abbreviated as ANZAC) was originally an army corps of Australian and New Zealand troops who fought in World War I at Gallipoli against the Turks. ... A sawn-off shotgun or a sawed-off shotgun is a type of shotgun with a shorter gun barrel and often a shortened or removed stock, compared to regular shotguns. ...


The hand grenade came to be the primary infantry weapon of trench warfare. Both sides were quick to raise specialist bombing squads. The grenade enabled a soldier to engage the enemy without exposing himself to fire, and it did not require precise accuracy to kill or maim. The Germans and Turks were well equipped with grenades from the start of the war, but the British, who had ceased using grenadiers in the 1870s and did not anticipate a siege war, entered the conflict with virtually none, so soldiers had to improvise bombs with whatever was available. By late 1915, the British Mills bomb had entered wide circulation, and by the end of the war 75 million had been used. Mills bomb is the popular name for a series of prominent British hand grenades. ...


Machine guns

The machine gun is perhaps the signature weapon of trench warfare, with the image of ranks of advancing infantry being scythed down by the withering hail of bullets. The Germans embraced the machine gun from the outset—in 1904, sixteen units were equipped with Maschinengewehr—and the machine gun crews were the elite infantry units; these units were attached to Jaeger (light infantry) battalions. By 1914, British infantry units were armed with two Vickers machine guns per battalion, the Germans had six per battalion, the Russians eight.[6] As for the Americans, they had to wait until 1917 to see every infantry unit carry at least one machine gun.[7] After 1915, the MG 08/15 was the standard issue German machine gun; its number entered the German language as idiomatic for "dead plain". At Gallipoli and in Palestine the Turks provided the infantry, but it was usually Germans who manned the machine guns. A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ... The Vickers machine gun or Vickers gun is a name primarily used to refer to the water-cooled . ... MG08 with optical sight. ... For other uses, see Gallipoli (disambiguation). ... A 2003 satellite image of the region. ...


The British High Command were less enthusiastic about machine guns, supposedly considering the weapon too "unsporting" and encouraging defensive fighting; and they lagged behind the Germans in adopting it. Field Marshall Sir Douglas Haig is quoted as saying in 1915, "The machine gun is a much overrated weapon; two per battalion is more than sufficient"[1], which resulted in record numbers of British casualties.[2] In 1915 the Machine Gun Corps was formed to train and provide sufficient heavy machine gun teams. It was the Canadians that made the best practice, pioneering area denial and indirect fire (soon adopted by all Allied armies) under the guidance of former French Army Reserve officer Major General Raymond Brutinel. Minutes before the attack on Vimy Ridge the Canadians also thickened the artillery barrage by aiming machine guns at the precise angle to rain down on the Germans, they also significantly increased the amount of machine guns per battalion. To match demand, production of the Vickers machine gun was contracted to firms in the United States. By 1917, every company in the British forces were also equipped with four Lewis light machine guns, which significantly enhanced their firepower. Area Denial Weapons - Aka Active Denial Technology Weapons (ADT) RF Weapons include Radio Frequency Weapons which can manipulate electro magnetic fields, from Atmospheric RF environment enhancement to residential electroshock and electromagnetic pulse deterent / sleep deprivation intimidation and disorientation systems. ... Indirect fire is a characteristic unique to artillery in which the fire is adjusted out of sight of the guns. ... German barrage on Allied trenches at Ypres. ... The Vickers machine gun or Vickers gun is a name primarily used to refer to the water-cooled . ... The Lewis Gun is a pre-World War I era squad automatic weapon/machine gun of American design that was most widely used by the forces of the British Empire. ...

Vickers machine gun
Vickers machine gun

The heavy machine gun was a specialist weapon, and in a static trench system was employed in a scientific manner, with carefully calculated fields of fire, so that at a moment's notice an accurate burst could be fired at the enemy's parapet or a break in the wire. Equally it could be used as light artillery in bombarding distant trenches. Heavy machine guns required teams of up to eight men to move them, maintain them, and keep them supplied with ammunition. This made them impractical for offensive maneuvers, contributing to the stalemate on the Western Front. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Western Front was a term used during the First and Second World Wars to describe the contested armed frontier between lands controlled by Germany to the East and the Allies to the West. ...


Mortars

Mortars, which lobbed a shell in a high arc over a relatively short distance, were widely used in trench fighting for harassing the forward trenches, for cutting wire in preparation for a raid or attack, and for destroying dugouts, saps and other entrenchments. In 1914, the British fired a total of 545 mortar shells; in 1916, they fired over 6,500,000. US soldier loading a M224 60-mm mortar. ...


The main British mortar was the Stokes, precursor of the modern mortar. It was a light mortar, but was easy to use, and capable of a rapid rate of fire by virtue of the propellant cartridge being attached to the shell. To fire the Stokes mortar, the round was simply dropped into the tube, where the cartridge was ignited automatically when it struck the firing pin at the bottom. The Germans used a range of mortars. The smallest were grenade-throwers (Granatenwerfer) which fired "pineapple" bombs. Their medium trench-mortars were called mine-throwers (Minenwerfer), dubbed "moaning minnies" by British Commonwealth troops. The heavy mortar was called the Ladungswerfer, which threw "aerial torpedoes", containing a 200lb (90 kg) charge to a range of 1000yd (914 m). The flight of the missile was so slow and leisurely men on the receiving end could make some attempt to seek shelter. Minenwerfer (mine launcher) is the German name for a class of short range mortars used extensively during the First World War by the German Army. ...


Artillery

Artillery dominated the battlefield of trench warfare in the same way air power dominates the modern battlefield. An infantry attack was rarely successful if it advanced beyond the range of its supporting artillery. In addition to bombarding the enemy infantry in the trenches, the artillery could be used to precede infantry advances with a creeping barrage, or engage in counter-battery duels to try to destroy the enemy's guns. Artillery mainly fired fragmentation, high explosive, or, later in the war, gas shells. The British experimented with firing thermite incendiary shells to set trees and ruins alight. For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... German barrage on Allied trenches at Ypres. ... The term counter-battery fire refers to the concept of detecting the source of artillery (shells or rockets) landing on friendly forces and firing back at them with artillery, suppressing or destroying them in order to protect the friendly forces and reduce enemy artillery strength. ... Fragmentation is the process by which the casing of an artillery shell, bomb, grenade, etc is shattered by the detonating high explosive filling. ... For the 2008 film of the same name, see Incendiary (film). ...

Loading a 15-inch howitzer
Loading a 15-inch howitzer

Artillery pieces were of two types: guns and howitzers. Guns fired high-velocity shells over a flat trajectory and were often used to deliver fragmentation and to cut barbed wire. Howitzers lofted the shell over a high trajectory so it plunged into the ground. The largest calibers were usually howitzers. The German 420 mm howitzer weighed 20 tons and could fire a one-ton shell over 10 km. A critical feature of period artillery pieces was the hydraulic recoil mechanism, which meant the gun did not need to be re-laid (re-aimed) after each shot. Initially each gun would need to register its aim on a known target, in view of an observer, in order to fire with precision during a battle. The process of gun registration would often alert the enemy an attack was being planned. Towards the end of 1917, artillery techniques were developed enabling fire to be delivered accurately without registration on the battlefield - the gun registration was done behind the lines then the pre-registered guns were brought up to the front for a surprise attack. Image File history File linksMetadata 15in_howitzer_Menin_Rd_5_October_1917. ... Image File history File linksMetadata 15in_howitzer_Menin_Rd_5_October_1917. ... 19th century 12 pounder (5 kg) mountain howitzer displayed by the National Park Service at Fort Laramie in Wyoming, USA A howitzer is a type of artillery piece that is characterized by a relatively short barrel and the use of comparatively small explosive charges to propel projectiles at trajectories with...


Gas

Tear gas was first employed in August 1914 by the French, but this could only disable the enemy. In April 1915, chlorine was first used by Germany at the Second Battle of Ypres. A large enough dose could kill, but the gas was easy to detect by scent and sight. Those that were not killed on exposure could suffer permanent lung damage. Phosgene, first used in December 1915, was the ultimate killing gas of World War I—it was 18 times more powerful than chlorine and much more difficult to detect. However, the most effective gas was mustard gas, introduced by Germany in July 1917. Mustard gas was not as fatal as phosgene, but it was hard to detect and lingered on the surface of the battlefield and so could inflict casualties over a long period. The burns it produced were so horrific that a casualty resulting from mustard gas exposure was unlikely to be fit to fight again. Only 2% of mustard gas casualties died, mainly from secondary infections. A poison gas attack using gas cylinders in World War I. The use of poison gas in World War I was a major military innovation. ... A riot control agent is a type of lachrymatory agent (or lacrimatory agent). ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... Combatants Belgium  Canada France Colonial forces United Kingdom British India  German Empire Commanders Horace Smith-Dorrien[1] Henri Gabriel Putz[2] A.-L.-T. de Ceuninck[3] Albrecht of Württemberg[4] Strength 8 infantry divisions[5] 7 infantry divisions Casualties 70,000 dead, wounded, or missing 35,000 dead... Phosgene is a highly toxic chemical compound with the formula COCl2. ... Airborne exposure limit 0. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ...


The first method of employing gas was by releasing it from a cylinder when the wind was favourable. Such an approach was obviously prone to miscarry if the direction of the wind was misjudged. Also, the cylinders needed to be positioned in the front trenches where they were likely to be ruptured during a bombardment. Later in the war, gas was delivered by artillery or mortar shell.

French observer with Adrian helmet in trench, Hirtzbach Woods, Haut-Rhin, France, 1917
French observer with Adrian helmet in trench, Hirtzbach Woods, Haut-Rhin, France, 1917

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The M26 Adrian helmet (French term: Casque Adrian) was a military helmet issued to the French Army during World War I. It was designed when millions of French troops were engaged in trench warfare and head wounds became a significant proportion of battlefield casualties. ...

Helmets

During the first year of the First World War, none of the combatant nations equipped their troops with steel helmets. Soldiers went into battle wearing simple cloth or leather caps that offered virtually no protection from the damage caused by modern weapons. German troops were wearing the traditional leather Pickelhaube (spiked helmet), with a covering of cloth to protect the leather from the splattering of mud. Once the war entered the static phase of trench warfare, the number of lethal head wounds that troops were receiving from fragmentation increased dramatically. The French were the first to see a need for greater protection and began to introduce steel helmets in the summer of 1915. The Adrian helmet (designed by August-Louis Adrian) replaced the traditional French kepi and was later adopted by the Belgian, Italian and many other armies. Otto von Bismarck wearing a cuirassier officers metal Pickelhaube Prussian police leather Pickelhaube The Pickelhaube (plural Pickelhauben; from the German Pickel = point or pickaxe, and Haube = bonnet, a general word for headgear) was a Prussian spiked helmet worn in the 19th century by the German military, firefighters, and police. ... Fragmentation is the process by which the casing of an artillery shell, bomb, grenade, etc is shattered by the detonating high explosive filling. ... The M26 Adrian helmet (French term: Casque Adrian) was a military helmet issued to the French Army during World War I. It was designed when millions of French troops were engaged in trench warfare and head wounds became a significant proportion of battlefield casualties. ... French Kepis. ...


At about the same time the British were developing their own helmets. The French design was rejected as not strong enough and too difficult to mass-produce. The design that was eventually approved by the British was the Brodie helmet (designed by John L. Brodie). This had a wide brim to protect the wearer from falling objects, but offered less protection to the wearer's neck. When the Americans entered the war, this was the helmet they chose, though some units used the French Adrian helmet. The traditional German pickelhaube was replaced by the Stahlhelm or "steel helmet" in 1916. Some elite Italian units used a helmet derived from ancient Roman designs. None of these standard helmets could protect the face or eyes, however. Special face-covers were designed to be used by machine-gunners, and the Belgians tried out goggles made of louvres to protect the eyes. US Marine Corps M1917 Brodie pattern helmet The Brodie helmet (also called the shrapnel helmet or Tommy helmet and colloquially as a tin hat, and in the United States known as a doughboy helmet) was a steel helmet designed and patented in 1915 by John L. Brodie. ... German Stahlhelme from the Second World War Stahlhelm (plural, Stahlhelme) is German for steel helmet. The Imperial German Army began to replace the traditional leather Pickelhaube (spiked helmet) with the Stahlhelm during the First World War in 1916. ...


Wire

The use of barbed wire was decisive in slowing infantry traveling across the battlefield. Without it, fast moving infantry (or cavalry) might cross the lines and reach the enemy machine gun posts and artillery. Slowed down by the barbed wire, they were much more likely to be shot down by machine guns or rifles. Liddell Hart identified barbed wire and the machine gun as the elements that had to be broken to regain a mobile battlefield. Wiring was usually done at night, to avoid casualties in no man's land. The screw picket, invented by the Germans (and later adopted by the Allies) during the war, was quieter than driving stakes, and thus helped decrease the amount of noise working parties would create. Methods to defeat it were rudimentary. British and Commonwealth forces relied on wire cutters, which proved unable to cope with the heavier gauge German wire.[8] The Bangalore torpedo was adopted by many armies, and continued in use past the end of World War II.[9] Typical modern agricultural barbed wire. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I Infantry or footmen are very highly disciplined and trained soldiers who fight primarily with small arms(rifles), but are trained to use everything from their bare hands to missle systems in order to neutralize... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... Typical modern agricultural barbed wire. ... A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ... A rifle is any long gun which has a rifled barrel. ... Basil Henry Liddell Hart (October 31, 1895 - January 29, 1970) was a military historian and is considered among the great military strategists of the 20th century. ... A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ... 29th Infantry Battalion, 2nd Division, Canadian Corps. ... Bold text Screw pickets, used as supports for the barbed wire defences, were introduced around 1915 as a replacement for timber posts. ... Look up ally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A Bangalore torpedo is an explosive charge placed on the end of a long, extendible tube. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Aircraft

The fundamental purpose of the aircraft in trench warfare was reconnaissance and artillery observation. Aerial reconnaissance was so significant in exposing movements, it has been said the trench stalemate was a product of it.[10] The role of the fighter was to protect friendly reconnaissance aircraft and destroy those of the enemy, or at least deny them the freedom of friendly airspace. This involved achieving air superiority over the battlefield by destroying the enemy's fighters as well. Spotter aircraft would monitor the fall of shells during registration of the artillery. Reconnaissance aircraft would map trench lines (first with hand-drawn diagrams, later photographs), monitor enemy troop movements, and locate enemy artillery batteries so that they could be destroyed with counter-battery fire. Some ingenious pilots would carry bricks with them when going on flights in order to drop on the enemy, before dropping bombs became more commonplace[citation needed]. Flying machine redirects here. ... Mixed reconnaissance patrol of the Polish Home Army and the Soviet Red Army during Operation Tempest, 1944 Reconnaissance is the military term for the active gathering of information about an enemy, or other conditions, by physical observation. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... Reconnaissance is the military term for the active gathering information about an enemy, or other conditions, by physical observation. ... An A-10 Thunderbolt II, F-86 Sabre, P-38 Lightning and P-51 Mustang fly in formation during an air show at Langley Air Force Base, Virginia. ... A military aircraft used for monitoring enemy activity, usually carrying no armament. ... Air superiority is the dominance in the air power of one side air forces of another side during a military campaign. ... Flying machine redirects here. ... A military aircraft used for monitoring enemy activity, usually carrying no armament. ... In military science, a battery is a group of artillery or cannon, so grouped in order to facilitate battlefield communication and the organization of barrages. ... The term counter-battery fire refers to the concept of detecting the source of artillery (shells or rockets) landing on friendly forces and firing back at them with artillery, suppressing or destroying them in order to protect the friendly forces and reduce enemy artillery strength. ...


New weapons

In 1917 and 1918, new types of weapons were fielded. They changed the face of warfare tactics and were later massively employed during WW2.


The French introduced the CSRG 1915 Chauchat during Spring 1916 around the concept of "Walking Fire" later massively employed in 1918 when 250,000 weapons were fielded. More than 80,000 of the best shooters received the semi automatic RSC 1917 rifle allowing them rapid shooting at waves of attacking soldiers. Firing port weapons were installed in the newly arrived FT 1917 tanks.


The Allies sometimes used tanks to get the advantage in battle. Tanks were helpful in destroying the enemy's trenches. They could penetrate barbed wire, some could bridge trenches, and machine guns did not damage them; thus, they overcame the major obstacles of trench warfare. Unfortunately, tanks of the period were very slow, very heavy, and often mechanically unreliable. Also, they were still vulnerable to artillery fire. Look up ally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The US M1A1 Abrams tank is a typical modern main battle tank. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ...


The French Army fielded a ground version of the Hotchkiss Canon de 37mm used by the French Navy. it was primarily used to destroy German machine gun nests and concrete reinforced pill boxes with High Explosive rounds but an Armour Piercing round was designed to defeat the German tanks making it the first anti tank cannon.


The Germans employed flame throwers (Flammenwerfer) during the war for the first time against the French on June, 25th, 1915 then against the British on July 30th in Hooge but as the technology was in its infancy, its use was not very common until the end of 1917 when its portability and its reliability were improved. It was used in more than 300 documented battles, though. In 1918, it became a weapon of choice for Stosstruppen with a team of 6 "Pionieren" per squad. German troops use a flamethrower on the Eastern Front during the Second World War A flamethrower is a mechanical device designed to throw flames or, more correctly, project an ignited stream of liquid. ...


A new type of machine guns was introduced in 1916 but initially as an aircraft weapon, it was the Bergmann LMG 15, aluminium was used for the first time in a weapon.It was used as infantry weapon in 1918 and it later technically inspired the MG 30 and the MG 34 as well as the concept of the General Purpose Machine Gun (GPMG) of WW2 perfected with the MG 42.

Northern_France_1918.jpg

What became known as the "submachine gun" had its genesis 90 years ago developed around the concepts of infiltration, fire and movement, specifically for the desire to clear trenches of enemy soldiers when engagements were unlikely to occur beyond a range of a few feet within this environment.


The MP18 was the first practical submachine gun used in combat. It was fielded in 1918 by the German Army as the primary weapon of the Stosstruppen, assault groups specialized in trench combat. its design was the base of most of the submachine guns between 1920 and 1960. The firepower of this new class of weapons made such an impression on the Allied that the Treaty of Versailles banned further study and manufacture of such light automatic firearms. The MP18 was one of the first submachine guns. ... The MP5 is a third-generation submachine gun that is widely used by law enforcement tactical teams and military forces. ... The German Army (German: [1], [IPA: heɐ]  ) is the land component of the Bundeswehr (Federal Defence Forces) of the Federal Republic of Germany. ...


Mining

One of the first instances of trench mining occurred in the American Civil War during the Battle of the Crater on July 30, 1864. Union engineers tunneled beneath Confederate trenches in a failed attempt to break through to the city of Petersburg, Virginia. The dry chalk of the Somme was especially suited to mining, but with the aid of pumps, it was also possible to mine in the sodden clay of Flanders. Specialist tunneling companies, usually made up of men who had been miners in civilian life, would dig tunnels under no man's land and beneath the enemy's trenches. These mines would then be packed with explosives and detonated, producing a large crater. The crater served two purposes: it could destroy or breach the enemy's trench and, by virtue of the raised lip that they produced, could provide a ready-made "trench" closer to the enemy's line. When a mine was detonated, both sides would race to occupy and fortify the crater. Mining, or to undermine or undermining, was a siege method used since antiquity against a walled city, fortress or castle. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Belligerents United States (Union) CSA (Confederacy) Commanders Ambrose E. Burnside Robert E. Lee Strength IX Corps Elements of the Army of Northern Virginia Casualties and losses 5,300 total 1,032 total The Battle of the Crater was a battle of the American Civil War, part of the Siege of... Nickname: Location in the State of Virginia Coordinates: , Country United States State Virginia County Independent city Founded December 17, 1748 Government  - Mayor Annie M. Mickens Area  - City  23. ... This article is about the French department. ... For other uses, see Flanders (disambiguation). ... The El Chino Mine located near Silver City, New Mexico is an open-pit copper mine This article is about mineral extraction. ...


If the miners detected an enemy tunnel in progress, they would often drive a counter-tunnel, called a counter-mine or camouflet, which would be detonated in an attempt to destroy the other tunnel prematurely. Night raids were also conducted with the sole purpose of destroying the enemy's mine workings. On occasion, mines would cross and fighting would occur underground. The mining skills could also be used to move troops unseen. On one occasion a whole British division was moved through interconnected workings and sewers without German observation.[citation needed] The British detonated a number of mines on July 1, 1916, the first day of the Battle of the Somme. The largest mines—the Y Sap Mine and the Lochnagar Mine—each containing 24 tons of explosives, were blown near La Boiselle, throwing earth 4,000 feet into the air. is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants British Empire Australia Canada New Zealand Newfoundland South Africa United Kingdom France German Empire Commanders Douglas Haig Joseph Joffre Max von Gallwitz Fritz von Below Strength 13 British & 11 French divisions (initial) 51 British and 48 French divisions (final) 10. ... The Lochnagar mine was an explosive-packed mine located south of the village of La Boisselle in the Somme département of France, which was detonated at 7. ... Ovillers-la-Boisselle is a commune of the Somme département in northern France. ...


At 3.10 AM on June 7, 1917, 19 mines were detonated by the British to launch the Battle of Messines. The average mine contained 21 tons of explosive and the largest, 125 feet beneath Saint-Eloi, was twice the average at 42 tons. The combined force of the explosions was supposedly felt in England. As the Chief of Staff of the British Second Army, General Sir Charles Harrington, commented on the eve of the battle: is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... For the village, see Passendale. ... Signature of St. ... The British Second Army was extant in both World Wars. ...

I do not know whether we shall change history tomorrow, but we shall certainly alter the geography.[citation needed]

The craters from these and many other mines on the Western Front are still visible today. Three further mines were laid for Messines but were not detonated as the tactical situation had since changed. One blew during a thunderstorm in 1955; the other two remain to this day.[citation needed]


Trench battles

Strategy

The fundamental strategy of trench warfare was to defend one's own position strongly while trying to achieve a breakthrough into the enemy's rear. The effect was to end up in attrition; the process of progressively grinding down the opposition's resources until, ultimately, they are no longer able to wage war. This did not prevent the ambitious commander from pursuing the strategy of annihilation—the ideal of an offensive battle which produces victory in one decisive engagement. The Commander in Chief of the British forces, General Douglas Haig, was constantly seeking a "breakthrough" which could then be exploited with cavalry divisions. His major trench offensives—the Somme in 1916 and Flanders in 1917—were conceived as breakthrough battles but both degenerated into costly attrition. The Germans actively pursued a strategy of attrition in the Battle of Verdun, the sole purpose of which was to "bleed the French Army white". At the same time the Allies needed to mount offensives in order to draw attention away from other hard-pressed areas of the line. A battle of attrition is a military engagement in which neither side has any tactical advantage, so that the only result of the fighting is the loss of men and materiel on both sides. ... For other persons named Douglas Haig, see Douglas Haig (disambiguation). ... Belligerents France German Empire Commanders Philippe Pétain Robert Nivelle Erich von Falkenhayn Crown Prince Wilhelm Strength About 30,000 on 21 February 1916 About 150,000 on 21 February 1916 Casualties and losses 378,000; of whom 163,000 died. ...


Tactics

The popular image of a trench assault is of a wave of soldiers, bayonets fixed, going "over the top" and marching in a line across no man's land into a hail of enemy fire. This attaque à outrance[citation needed] was indeed the standard method early in the war and successful examples are few. The more common tactic was to attack at night from an advanced post in no man's land, having cut the barbed wire entanglements beforehand. In 1917, the Germans innovated with infiltration tactics where small groups of highly trained and well-equipped troops would attack vulnerable points and bypass strong points, driving deep into the rear areas. The distance they could advance was still limited by their ability to supply and communicate. In warfare, infiltration tactics involve small, lightly-equipped infantry forces attacking enemy rear areas while bypassing enemy front-line strongpoints, isolating them for attack by follow-on friendly troops with heavier weapons. ...


The role of artillery in an infantry attack was twofold. The first aim of a barrage was to prepare the ground for an infantry assault killing or demoralising the enemy garrison and destroying his defences. The amount of time these initial barrages lasted for was varied, ranging from hours to days. The problem with artillery bombardments prior to infantry assaults was that they were often ineffective at destroying enemy defences and only served to provide the enemy with advanced notice that an attack was imminent. The British barrage that began the Battle of the Somme lasted eight days but did little damage to either the German's barbed wire or their heavily-fortified concrete bunkers where the defenders were able to see out the bombardment safely. Once the guns stopped the defenders knew that the infantry were about to emerge and were usually ready for them. The second aim was to protect the attacking infantry by providing an impenetrable "barrage" or curtain of shells to prevent an enemy counter-attack. The first attempt at sophistication was the "lifting barrage" where the first objective of an attack was intensely bombarded for a period before the entire barrage "lifted" to fall on a second objective farther back. However, this usually expected too much of the infantry, and the usual outcome was that the barrage would outpace the attackers, leaving them without protection. This resulted in the use of the "creeping barrage" which would lift more frequently but in smaller steps, sweeping the ground ahead and moving so slowly that the attackers could usually follow closely behind it. Capturing the objective was half of the battle, but the battle was only won if the objective was held. The attacking force would have to advance with not only the weapons required to capture a trench but also the tools—sandbags, picks and shovels, barbed wire—to fortify and defend from counter-attack. The Germans placed great emphasis on immediately counter-attacking to regain lost ground. This strategy cost them dearly in 1917 when the British started to limit their advances so as to be able to meet the anticipated counter-attack from a position of strength. Part of the British artillery was positioned close behind the original start line and took no part in the initial bombardment, being saved to support the advancing troops as they moved beyond the range of guns further back. For other battles known as Battle of the Somme, see Battle of the Somme (disambiguation). ... German barrage on Allied trenches at Ypres. ...


Communications

A major difficulty faced by an attacking force in a trench battle was unreliable communications. Wireless communications were still in their infancy, so the available methods were telephone, telegraph, semaphore, signal lamps, homing pigeons and runners. Messages frequently could not get through, or if they did, were out of date. A delay would pass when transferring news to the division, corps and army headquarters. Consequently, the outcome of many trench battles was decided by the company and platoon commanders in the thick of the fighting. Senior commanders could not influence the battle for lack of information and inability to get orders to the troops. Opportunities were frequently lost because reinforcements could not be committed at the right time or place, and supporting artillery could not react to a changing situation. For other uses, see Telephone (disambiguation). ... Telegraphy (from the Greek words tele = far away and grapho = write) is the long distance transmission of written messages without physical transport of letters, originally over wire. ... A Chappe semaphore tower near Saverne, France // The semaphore or optical telegraph is an apparatus for conveying information by means of visual signals, with towers with pivoting blades or paddles, shutters, in a matrix, or hand-held flags etc. ... The homing pigeon is a variety of domesticated Rock Dove (Columba livia) that has been selectively bred to be able to find their way home over extremely long distances. ...


Breaking the deadlock

Throughout World War I, the major combatants slowly groped their way towards the tactics necessary for breaking the deadlock of trench warfare, beginning with the French and Germans, with the British Empire forces also contributing to the collective learning experience. The Germans were able to reinforce their western front with additional troops from the east once Russia dropped out of the war in 1917. This allowed them to take units out of the line and train them in new methods and tactics as stormtroopers (Stosstruppen). The new methods involved men rushing forward in small groups using whatever cover was available and laying down covering fire for other groups in the same unit as they moved forward. The new tactics (intended to achieve surprise by disrupting entrenched enemy positions) were to bypass strongpoints and attack the weakest parts of an enemy's line. Additionally, they acknowledged the futility of managing a grand detailed plan of operations from afar, opting instead for junior officers on the spot to exercise initiative. These infiltration tactics proved very successful during the German 1918 Spring Offensive against Allied forces. The Stormtroopers were special military troops which were formed in the last year of World War I as the German army developed new methods of attacking enemy trenches, called infiltration tactics. Men trained in these methods were known as in German as Sturmmann (literally storm man or assault man but... The Spring Offensive (Operation Michael) was a German offensive along the Western Front during the First World War which marked the deepest advance by any side since 1914. ...


Conceived to provide protection from fire, tanks added mobility, as well. As the Allied forces perfected them, they broke the deadlock. While not effectively employed at first, tanks had tremendous morale effects on German troops in the closing stages of the war on the Western front. The average infantryman had no anti-tank capability, and there were no specialized anti-tank guns. Once tanks began to be used in concentrations, they easily broke through German lines and could not be dislodged through infantry counterattack.


During the last 100 days of World War I, the British forces broke through the German trench system and harried the Germans back toward Germany using infantry supported by tanks and close air support. Between the two world wars these techniques were used by J.F.C. Fuller and B.H. Liddell Hart to develop theories about a new type of warfare. The ideas were picked up by the Germans, who developed them further and put them into practice as blitzkrieg. Major-General John Frederick Charles Fuller, CB, CBE, DSO, commonly J.F.C. Fuller, (September 1, 1878–February 10, 1966), was a British major-general, military historian and strategist, notable as an early theorist of modern armoured warfare, including categorising principles of warfare. ... Basil Henry Liddell Hart (October 31, 1895 _ January 29, 1970) was a military historian and is considered among the great military strategists of the 20th century. ... This article is about the military term. ...


The stunning victories by the Germans early in World War II using blitzkrieg showed fixed fortifications like the Maginot Line were worthless if there was room to circumvent them. At Sevastopol, Red Army forces successfully held trench systems on the narrow peninsula for several months against intense German bombardment. The Western Allies in 1944 broke through the (incomplete) Atlantic Wall with relative ease through a combination of amphibious landings, naval gunfire, air attack, and airborne landings. Combined arms tactics (where infantry, artillery, armour and aircraft operate in close cooperation) made trench warfare a thing of the past. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Maginot Line (IPA: [maʒinoː], named after French minister of defense André Maginot) was a line of concrete fortifications, tank obstacles, artillery casemates, machine gun posts, and other defenses, which France constructed along its borders with Germany and Italy, in the light of experience from World War I... Combatants Germany Romania Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Ivan Petrov Filipp Oktyabrskiy Strength 350,000+ 106,000 Casualties at least 100,000 killed, wounded or captured (Including Romanians) 95,000 captured, 11,000 killed The Battle of Sevastopol was fought from October 30, 1941 to July 4, 1942 between... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... German coastal artillery in the Pas-de-Calais area, with laborers at work on casemate. ... Paratroopers from the 82nd Airborne Division jump from a C17 Globemaster at Ft. ...


This is not to say entrenchment is redundant. It is still a valuable method for reinforcing natural obstacles to create a line of defence. For example, before the start of the Battle of Kursk, the Soviets constructed a system of defence more elaborate than any other they built during World War II. These defences succeeded in stopping the German armoured pincers meeting and enveloping the salient.[11] Also, at the start of the Battle of Berlin, the last major assault of World War II, the Russians attacked over the river Oder against German troops dug in on the Seelow Heights, about 50 km (30 mi) east of Berlin. Entrenchment allowed the Germans, who were massively outnumbered, to survive a barrage from the largest concentration of artillery in history; as the Red Army attempted to cross the marshy riverside terrain, they lost tens of thousands of casualties to the entrenched Germans before breaking through. Belligerents Nazi Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Günther von Kluge Hermann Hoth Walther Model Hans Seidemann Robert Ritter von Greim Georgiy Zhukov Konstantin Rokossovskiy Nikolay Vatutin Ivan Konyev Strength 2,700 tanks 800,000 infantry 2,109 aircraft[1] 3,600 tanks 20,000 guns[2] 1... Combatants Soviet Union Poland Nazi Germany Commanders 1st Belorussian Front – Georgiy Zhukov 2nd Belorussian Front – Konstantin Rokossovskiy 1st Ukrainian Front – Ivan Konev Army Group Vistula – Gotthard Heinrici then Kurt von Tippelskirch[2] Army Group Centre – Ferdinand Schörner Berlin Defense Area – Helmuth Reymann then Helmuth Weidling #[3] Strength 2,500... The Oder (or Odra) River (German: Oder, Polish/Czech: Odra, Ancient Latin: Viadua, Viadrus, Medieval Latin: Odera, Oddera) is a river in Central Europe (mostly in Poland). ... The Seelow Heights were the scene of the bloodiest battle on German soil during the Second World War. ...


Post-1945 trench warfare

BTM-3 — soviet machine for fast dig-out trench warfare.
BTM-3 — soviet machine for fast dig-out trench warfare.

Trench warfare has been very infrequent since the end of World War I. When two large armoured armies meet, the result has generally been mobile warfare of the type which developed in World War II. However, trench warfare reemerged in the latter stages of the Chinese Civil War (Huaihai Campaign), Korean War and in some locations and engagements in the Vietnam War. During the Cold War, NATO forces routinely trained to fight through extensive works called "Soviet-style trench systems", named after the Warsaw Pact's complex systems of field fortifications, an extension of Soviet field entrenching practices for which they were famous in their Great Patriotic War. The most cited example of trench warfare after World War I was the Iran-Iraq War, in which both armies had a large number of infantry with modern small arms, but very little armour, aircraft, or training in combined operations. The result was very similar to World War I, with trenches and chemical warfare being used. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Belligerents Nationalist Party of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... This article is about the military alliance. ... Not to be confused with the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... The Eastern Front1 was the theatre of combat between Nazi Germany and its allies against the Soviet Union during World War II. It was somewhat separate from the other theatres of the war, not only geographically, but also for its scale and ferocity. ... Combatants  Iran Patriotic Union of Kurdistan Iraq Peoples Mujahedin of Iran Commanders Ruhollah Khomeini Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani Ali Shamkhani Mostafa Chamran â€  Saddam Hussein Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength 305,000 soldiers 500,000 Pasdaran and Basij militia 900 tanks 1,000 armored vehicles 3,000 artillery pieces 470 aircraft... Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ...


Although mainly a siege, it wasn't unusual to find an extensive trench system inside and outside the city of Sarajevo during the siege of 19921996. It was used mainly for transportation to the frontline or to avoid some of the snipers inside of the city. Any pre-existing structures were used as trenches, the best known example is the bobsleigh course on Trebević, which was used by both Serb and Bosniak during the siege. Another example of trench stalemate was the Eritrean-Ethiopian War of 19982002. The front line in Korea and the front lines between Pakistan and India in Kashmir are two examples of demarcation lines which could become hot at any time. They consist of kilometers of trenches linking fortified strongpoints and in Korea surrounded by millions of land mines. A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ... Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: , Country Entity Canton Sarajevo Canton Government  - Mayor Semiha Borovac (SDA) Area [1]  - City 141. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Historic bobteam from Davos around 1910 Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from an article revision dated 2006-02-04, and may not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... Trebević is a mountain in central Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Combatants Eritrea Ethiopia Commanders Sebhat Ephrem Tsadkan Gebre-Tensae[3] Casualties Estimates vary: 19,000;[4][5] 20-50,000[6] 67,000[7] Estimates vary: 34,000[8] up to 60,000;[9] 60,000[10] 123,000[11][12] The Eritrean-Ethiopian War took place from May 1998... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... “Minefield” redirects here. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Actually a conoidal bullet
  2. ^ Canada's Army, p.79.
  3. ^ Canada's Army, p.82.
  4. ^ ibid.
  5. ^ ibid.
  6. ^ Jordan, Jonathan W. (November 1, 2002). "Weaponry: Hiram Maxim's machine gun probably claimed more lives than any other weapon ever made" (in English). Military History 19 (4): 16. ISSN 08897328. 
  7. ^ John K. Mahon and Romana Danysh (1972). INFANTRY Part I: Regular Army. ARMY LINEAGE SERIES. LOC number : 74-610219. 
  8. ^ Canada's Army, p.79.
  9. ^ "Bangalore torpedo", in Fitzsimons, Bernard, editor, Encyclopedia of 20h Century Weapons and Warfare (London: Phoebus Publishing Company 1977), Volume 3, p.269.
  10. ^ "Aces: A Story of the First World War", written by George Pearson, historical advisors Brereton Greenhous & Philip Markham, NFB, 1993.
  11. ^ Remson, Andrew and Anderson, Debbie. World War II Battle of Kursk: Mine/Countermine operations 25 April 2000, (Prepared for U.S. Army Communications-Electronics Command, Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate) Section "The Soviet defense system and minefields"

This article is about firearms projectiles. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Film Board of Canada (usually National Film Board or NFB) is a Canadian public filmmaking organization established to produce and distribute films that inform Canadians and promote Canada around the world. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

Further reading

  • Ashworth, Tony Trench Warfare 1914-1918: The Live and Let Live System (1980). ISBN 0330480685
  • Ashworth, Tony The Sociology of Trench Warfare, British Journal of Sociology, 21 (1968), 407-20.
  • Axelrod, Robert. (2006). The Evolution of Cooperation Revised edition Perseus Books Group, ISBN 0465005640 See excerpts from the Chapter The Live-and-Let-Live System in Trench Warfare in World War I
  • Canfield, Bruce N. Give Us More Shotguns! American Rifleman, May 2004.
  • Dupuy, Trevor N., Colonel, AUS (rtd). Evolution of Weapons and Warfare. Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill, 1980.
  • _____. Numbers, Predictions, and War. Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill, 1979.
  • Fitzsimmons, Bernard, general editor. (with Gunston, Bill, Hogg, Ian V., & Preston, Anthony). Encyclopedia of 20h Century Weapons and Warfare. London: Phoebus Publishing Co, 1977. 24 volumes.
  • Gudmundsson, B.I. Stormtroop Tactics: Innovation in the German Army, 1914–1918. (1989).[3]
  • Haber, L. F. The Poisonous Cloud: Chemical Warfare in the First World War (1986);
  • Herwig, Holger H. Operation Michael: The "Last Card". German Spring Offensive in 1918. (2001).[4]
  • Palazzo, A. Seeking Victory on the Western Front: The British Army and Chemical Warfare in World War I (2000).[5]
  • Sheffield, G. D. Leadership in the Trenches: Officer-Man Relations, Morale and Discipline in the British Army in the Era of the First World War (2000)
  • Smith, L.V. Between Mutiny and Obedience. The Case of the French Fifth Infantry Division during World War I (1994)
  • — Trench Warfare" in Oral Histories of the First World War: Veterans 1914–1918. Library and Archives Canada.[6]
  • Winter, Denis. Death's Men: Soldiers of the Great War. 1978, ISBN 0-14-016822-2
  • James Belich, The New Zealand Wars (Penguin Books, 1986)
  • Michael King, The Penguin History of New Zealand Pp 184 et seq, (Penguin, 2003) ISBN 97801433018671

Remington pump-action shotgun held by a Florida Highway Patrol cadet shotgun, see: Shotgun (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sheffield (disambiguation). ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... James Belich is a New Zealand historian known for his work on the Maori Wars. ... Dr Michael King OBE (15 December 1945 - 30 March 2004) was a widely respected Pakeha New Zealand historian, author and biographer. ...

External links

BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
First World War.com - Feature Articles - Life in the Trenches (1781 words)
In busy sectors the constant shellfire directed by the enemy brought random death, whether their victims were lounging in a trench or lying in a dugout (many men were buried as a consequence of such large shell-bursts).
It was a fungal infection of the feet caused by cold, wet and unsanitary trench conditions.
Trench Foot was more of a problem at the start of trench warfare; as conditions improved in 1915 it rapidly faded, although a trickle of cases continued throughout the war.
Bombthrowers - LoveToKnow 1911 (1698 words)
Eventually this need was met by the development of trench mortars and trench guns, many types of which were loosely called bombthrowers, but all of which are differentiated from bombthrowers in the sense here meant by the fact that they used an explosive propellant.
But in the first phases of trench warfare such ordnance either did not exist at all or existed only in such small numbers and in so imperfect a form, that for the needs of day-byday trench warfare along the front temporary substitutes were evolved.
In naval usage, on the contrary, the term is applied to explosive-propellant derivatives of trench ordnance which were mounted on trawlers and other craft for the purpose of attacking submarines.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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